The new and groundbreaking real-time remote healthcare monitoring system on sensor-based mobile health (mHealth) authentication in telemedicine has considerably bounded and dispersed communication components. mHealth, an attractive part in telemedicine architecture, plays an imperative role in patient security and privacy and adapts different sensing technologies through many built-in sensors. This study aims to improve sensor-based defence and attack mechanisms to ensure patient privacy in client side when using mHealth. Thus, a multilayer taxonomy was conducted to attain the goal of this study. Within the first layer, real-time remote monitoring studies based on sensor technology for telemedicine application were reviewed and analysed to examine these technologies and provide researchers with a clear vision of security- and privacy-based sensors in the telemedicine area. An extensive search was conducted to find articles about security and privacy issues, review related applications comprehensively and establish the coherent taxonomy of these articles. ScienceDirect, IEEE Xplore and Web of Science databases were investigated for articles on mHealth in telemedicine-based sensor. A total of 3064 papers were collected from 2007 to 2017. The retrieved articles were filtered according to the security and privacy of sensor-based telemedicine applications. A total of 19 articles were selected and classified into two categories. The first category, 57.89% (n = 11/19), included survey on telemedicine articles and their applications. The second category, 42.1% (n = 8/19), included articles contributed to the three-tiered architecture of telemedicine. The collected studies improved the essential need to add another taxonomy layer and review the sensor-based smartphone authentication studies. This map matching for both taxonomies was developed for this study to investigate sensor field comprehensively and gain access to novel risks and benefits of the mHealth security in telemedicine application. The literature on sensor-based smartphones in the second layer of our taxonomy was analysed and reviewed. A total of 599 papers were collected from 2007 to 2017. In this layer, we obtained a final set of 81 articles classified into three categories. The first category of the articles [86.41% (n = 70/81)], where sensor-based smartphones were examined by utilising orientation sensors for user authentication, was used. The second category [7.40% (n = 6/81)] included attack articles, which were not intensively included in our literature analysis. The third category [8.64% (n = 7/81)] included 'other' articles. Factors were considered to understand fully the various contextual aspects of the field in published studies. The characteristics included the motivation and challenges related to sensor-based authentication of smartphones encountered by researchers and the recommendations to strengthen this critical area of research. Finally, many studies on the sensor-based smartphone in the second layer have focused on enhancing accurate authentication because sensor-based smartphones require sensors that could authentically secure mHealth.
* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.