• 1 Future Food Beacon and Centre of Excellence for Postharvest Biotechnology (CEPB), School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham Malaysia, Jalan broga, Semenyih, Selangor, 43500, Malaysia
  • 2 School of Biosciences, Faculty of Science, University of Nottingham, Loughborough, LE 12 5RD, United Kingdom
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf, 2021 05;20(3):2455-2475.
PMID: 33819382 DOI: 10.1111/1541-4337.12739


The chief intent of this review is to explain the different extraction techniques and efficiencies for the recovery of protein from food waste (FW) sources. Although FW is not a new concept, increasing concerns about chronic hunger, nutritional deficiency, food security, and sustainability have intensified attention on alternative and sustainable sources of protein for food and feed. Initiatives to extract and utilize protein from FW on a commercial scale have been undertaken, mainly in the developed countries, but they remain largely underutilized and generally suited for low-quality products. The current analysis reveals the extraction of protein from FW is a many-sided (complex) issue, and that identifies for a stronger and extensive integration of diverse extraction perspectives, focusing on nutritional quality, yield, and functionality of the isolated protein as a valued recycled ingredient.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.