Carbon can form different allotropes due to its tetravalency. Different forms of carbon such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanofibers, graphene, fullerenes, and carbon black can be used as nanofillers in order to enhance the properties of polymer nanocomposites. These carbon nanomaterials are of interest in nanocomposites research and other applications due to their excellent properties, such as high Young's Modulus, tensile strength, electrical conductivity, and specific surface area. However, there are some flaws that can be found in the carbon nanoparticles such as tendency to agglomerate, insoluble in aqueous or organic solvents or being unreactive with the polymer surface. In this study, the aim is to study functionalization in order to rectify some of these shortcomings by attaching different functional groups or particles to the surface of these carbon nanoparticles; this also enables the synthesis of high-performance polymer nanocomposites. The main findings include the effects of functionalization on carbon nanoparticles and the applications of polymer nanocomposites with carbon nanoparticles as nanofillers in the industry. Additionally, the different methods used to produce polymer composites such as in situ polymerization, solution mixing and melt blending are studied, as these methods involve the dispersion of carbon nanofillers within the polymer matrix.
* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.