Background: Consistent with other countries, Malaysia suffers from a shortage of nursing faculty. In several studies it has been seen that job satisfaction has been shown to contribute to retention of nurse educators. The majority of these studies are from developed countries and were conducted over ten years ago. As a result these findings may not be relevant to contemporary Malaysia. So, the purpose of this study was to investigate the levels of job satisfaction among nurse lecturers in Malaysia.
Methods: A total of 20 nursing colleges throughout Malaysia were selected for random sampling, of which 30% agreed to participate. The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire with additional demographic and organizational characteristics questions was used to collect the data. Descriptive statistics was used to examine differences in job satisfaction between demographic and organizational variables. Spearman’s rho was used to test the relationship between each of the demographic / organizational characteristics and overall job satisfaction.
Results: A total of 73 nurse lecturers (73% response rate) returned the completed questionnaire. The findings indicated only a moderate level of job satisfaction. There were no significant correlations between demographic or organizational variables and overall job satisfaction levels with the exception of the number of students (p = 0.017).
Conclusions: An understanding of the factors affecting job satisfaction among nursing faculty could enhance retention and recruitment in this profession. Further research using a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches is recommended to provide an in-depth understanding of nursing lecturers’ perceptions of job satisfaction.
Keywords: Nurse Job Satisfaction, Nurse Lecturers, Nurse Job
Adequate consumption of Omega-3 fatty acids are essential during pregnancy because they play an important role in the development offetal brain and retina. The rate of growth remains high during the first year of life. Omega-3 is converted inside the body into longer chain polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexanoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). DHA and EPA are primarily derived from fish and algae. DHA is essential for the growth and functional development of the brain in infants. DHA is also required for the maintenance of normal brain function in adults. The inclusion of adequate amount of DHA in the diet improved learning ability, whereas deficiencies of DHA are associated with deficits in learning. DHA is readily taken up by the brain in preference to other fatty acids. The turnover of DHA in the brain is very fast, more so than is generally realized. The visual acuity of healthy, full-term, formula-fed infants is increased when their formula includes DHA. However, health professionals and the general public in Malaysia may not be aware about the importance, sources or the quantities required for these essential fat components in foods. This review discusses the benefits of omega-3 consumption with particular emphasis during pregnancy and the first year of life. This review will also attempt to discuss sources of omega-3 fatty acids in Malaysia with the aim to achieve the recommended nutrient intakes foromega-3 fatty acids.
Keywords: Omega 3 fatty acids, Lactation in Pregnancy, Sources of Omega-3 FA
Background: Standard Precaution (SP) is a very important health issue that has not been well-emphasized. The outcome of not following the SP is a serious problem that can lead to the blood-borne infection.
Methods: A set of self-administered anonymous questionnaire were given to all healthcare personnel in 4 selected Emergency Department (ED), hospital in Kelantan to assess the knowledge and practice of standard precaution.
Results: Almost half of the healthcare personnel were having a good knowledge 115 (57.8%) and good practice 156 (78.4%) towards SP. For those who did not comply with SP, complained oflackoftime as the main reason (38.5%) followed by interference with their work (29.2% ). There was no significant difference between presence of Emergency Physician or not in ED with the compliance towards SP.
Conclusion: Though majority of the healthcare personnel in ED possessed a good level of knowledge and practice towards SP, the staff compliance should be revised regularly wherever necessary to improve the precautions.
Keywords: Standard precaution, Emergency Department, Malaysian Nurse
Stroke is the most important cause of death and foremost cause for dysfunction around the globe. As a result increase in the numberof elderly population the incidence of stroke has emerged as an important public health problem. Major developments have taken place in the field of medication for the prevention and treatment of stroke during the past decade. In spite of major interventions proposed by several organizations and the government, the present scenario of the stroke management facilities is still not promising. This article intends to investigate the health care facilities present for the elderly individuals with high risk of strokereoccurrence through proper analysis of the health system in Malaysia. The objectives are to find out evidence-based, reasonably priced and endurable measures to control the recurrences of stroke and to evaluate the outcomes of these interventions. It was noticed that in Malaysia though there many amenities for stroke patients are available but reorganizing and strengthening of few aspects such as human resource by multidisciplinary input is necessary for proper management of senior stroke patients. Moreover monitoring is essential to support patients after discharge from the hospital. The ethical variations among patient with stroke recurrence and the risk factor associated with stroke is not fully understood by healthcare workers. So, this study attempts to guide the stroke patient, their families and the health care workers to prevent stroke recurrence.
Keywords: Stroke, Stroke Interventions, Stroke in Malaysia
Advanced nursing practice involves higher level of knowledge and skills of nurses to perform autonomous practice in clinical settings in order to meet the needs of individuals, families and communities. Advanced practice in nursing is also known as adjusting boundaries for future practice, pioneering and developing new roles of nurses in clinical practice, research and education. Advanced practice of nursing in the developed countries are recognized with different nomenclatures such as advanced nurse practitioner, clinical nurse specialist, specialized nurse practitioner, nurse practitioner, certified nurse practitioner and advanced practice registered nurse. Malaysia is one of the pioneering Asian countries to introduce clinical nurse specialist in hospital settings, which is a stepping stone for the development of advanced nursing practice.
Keywords: Nurses in Malaysia, Clinical Nurse Practitioner, Advanced Nurse Practice
Caring behaviours presented by the nurses while providing care is the essence of nursing. However, operation theatre nurses must also adhere to the nursing value in social sciences and humanities to address the patient's needs. The concern of the nurses should not only be for the basic life sustaining needs but also for physiological, psychological, socio cultural and spiritual dimension ofpatient's human responses. The purposes of this study were to determine the perception regarding caring behaviours and the level of caring among the Operation theatre nurses in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia. In addition, there were associations when the determination between demographic variables like genders and years of experience of the nurses in relation to their caring behaviours is necessary. It isa quantitative, descriptive survey design and 95 nurses participated in the study. The revised Wolfs Caring Behaviours Inventory was used to measure the dimensions of caring. "Professional knowledge and skill" was identified to be the highest among the five dimensions of caring that was being measured. Findings show that the nurses demonstrated a high level of caring behaviours during their course of work. However, none of the demographic factors studied were significantly associated to their caring behaviours.
Keywords: Caring attitudes, Caring behaviours, Dimensions of caring
The evolution of nursing profession and education has taken its pace over the past years. Therefore, with the changes in nursing education over the years, the level of professional socialization among the students has become an area of interest. The objectives of this pilot study were to explore and compare the level of professional socialization between the diploma and degree nursing students (ﬁrst year and ﬁnal year) using the measuring tool of NPVS-R as well as to identify the demographic variables related to the level of professional socialization among the nursing students. From this pilot study, it was found that there was no signiﬁcant difference in the level of professional socialization between the diploma and degree nursing students (p = 0.133). With regards to the demographic variables related to the level of professional socialization, signiﬁcant difference was found only for the variable of father's educational level (p = 0 .035).
Keywords: Professional Socialization, Diploma and Degree Nursing Students, Nursing Education
Clinical practice is an essential component of the nursing student's training. The practice allows nursing students the opportunity to relate theory into practice during nursing care to the patients. The aim of this project was to determine perceptions of clinical placement experience with respect to clinical practice, enhancement of learning and hindrance among nursing students. A total 254 participants undergoing training at Nursing College Kubang Kerian participated in this project. They were selected using the Raosoft sample size calculator. Survey questionnaires were distributed to 80 participants from ﬁrst year, 88 from second year and 86 participants from third year. The questionnaire consisting of 25 items with 5-point Likert Scale responses was used to measure nursing students' perceptions towards nurses during their clinical placement experience. In addition, demographic factors such as age groups, ethnicity, educational levels and years of training were examined. The items were pilot-tested and the Cronbach Alpha values obtained for clinical practice, enhancement of learning and hindrance consisting of 0.80, 0.80 and 0.83 respectively. The ﬁnal data was analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Non-parametric Kruskal Wallis was used to make comparisons where sub samples were imbalanced. The level of signiﬁcance was set at 0.05. The results indicate that nursing students perceived their clinical placement positively. Perceptions towards clinical practice were signiﬁcantly different between nurses based on their residential areas and years of training. The results of this study revealed that there were challenges for the nursing educators, clinical instructors and other health providers in achieving a supportive clinical environment for the nursing students.
Keywords: Nursing, Clinical Placement, , Clinical Practice, Enhancement or Hindrance in learning
This study sought to investigate understanding of obesity among registered nurse e-PJJ student semester 9 UiTM in Puncak Alam, in Selangor, Malaysia. A survey research design was used for the study. 100 nurses were randomly selected from 130 nurses in e-PJJ student semester 9. Study of this population was done by systematic sampling. The target groups for this study are matrons, sisters and staff nurses. 100% nurses showed understanding of obesity. Eating habits of the nurses contributed to this obesity. It was recommended among others, that nurses should practice theoretical knowledge base and the need to more opportunities for physical activities at hospital sites was emphasized.
Keywords: Obesity, Registered Nurses, Knowledge and attitude
Neonate Resuscitation Program, NRP training is given to nurses in batches. Such programs are vital because neonate resuscitation procedure or aid given to new born during delivery, help them begin breathing on their own, which can save many lives. Although such training is given to the nurses, no assessment has been done on the effectiveness of such training with regard to knowledge retention and transfer of training among the trainees. This study is retrospective in nature; it evaluates the level of knowledge and the conﬁdence in carrying out the neonate resuscitation procedure among 91 nurses involved such training. Besides that, the study ascertains their preparedness before undergoing the training and the opportunities provided to them to practice the skills learnt from the training at their work place. Factors that inﬂuence both their knowledge and skills after the training are also indentiﬁed. Study sample consist of 51 nurses from hospitals and 40 nurses from health clinics. Results show that skills acquired from training as measured by their conﬁdence at carrying out the learnt skill deteriorate faster than knowledge. Level of knowledge retained, conﬁdence at carrying out the neonate resuscitation procedure and opportunities for practicing the skill are all signiﬁcantly higher for the nurses at the hospitals compared to their counterparts in the health clinics at the 95 percent level. The recent trainees (2009) scored higher compared to the old trainees (2007 and 2008) with regard to their preparedness or motivation before the training although memory factor could play a part here. Conﬁdence at carrying out the neonate resuscitation procedure at the work place is a measure of the effectiveness of the NRP training because it constitutes transfer of training. Level of knowledge retained and opportunities for practicing skill at work place after the training, together with trainees' preparedness and motivation before the NRP training, all three contribute 35.7% towards trainees' conﬁdence in carrying out the NRP procedure at their work place. Contribution of these three variables is signiﬁcant at the 95% level or p< 0.05. Findings are consistent with the Model of factors that affect Learning Outcomes and Transfer of Training by Goldstein and Ford (2002).
Keywords: NEONATE RESUSCITATION
The main objective of this study is to evaluate the nurses' level of burnout and identify the factors that influence it. Burnout, one such stress-related outcome, has been conceptualised as a multidimensional construct consisting of emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and reduced personal accomplishment. Items adapted and translated from Maslach Burnout Inventory were used to collect data from 60 respondents. Among the respondents, 5.0% showed a high level of Emotional Exhaustion while 95.0% were at the moderate and mild level. Respondents with a high level of Depersonalization constitute 3.3% while 96.7% were at a moderate and mild level. Analysis show that 48.2% are at the high and moderate level for Personal Accomplishment while 51.7% is still at the lower level. Mean score for Personal Accomplishment 33.53 as oppose to Emotional Exhaustion 15.90 and Depersonalization 3.60 indicate a low level of burnout characteristic among the staff nurses. Correlation analysis suggest a significant but moderate relationship between Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization r = 0.62, p<0.05. A conducive working environment was suggested as a way of improving quality of health care and to hinder burnout. Keywords: Retirement, Readiness, Financial Capacity, Social Support, Preoccupation
Background: Having multiple kinds of health problems among metabolic syndrome patients may cause
them stress. Life events also may worsen their stress. Negative stress affects not only their physical but also
emotional health. Various coping styles are used in order to deal with their stress. However, not all coping
styles can overcome their stress.
Objectives: This study aims to explore the coping styles that have been employed by the stressed metabolic
syndrome patients in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia.
Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the stressed metabolic syndrome patients in
Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia. A purposive sampling was selected among stressed respondents, as
fifteen of them participated in this study after saturation data was reached. The qualitative data was analysed
using content analysis and was categorized into dysfunctional, problem-focused and emotion-focused
Results: The themes that emerged were; self-distraction, venting, behavioural disengagement, denial and
self-blame. These were categorized as dysfunctional coping; acceptance, religion and emotional support as
emotion-focused coping and active coping and instrumental support which were categorized as problemfocused
coping. Other new coping styles identified were physical intervention, avoidance and emotion
Conclusion: Coping styles has direct influence on the feeling of stress. Stressed patients used many
dysfunctional coping styles rather than other categories of coping which lead them to remain in stress. These
data highlighted the need to educate patients about good coping styles to give them additional skills in
managing their stress thus improving their health.
Thyroid disorders could be broadly categorised into benign and malignant diseases. Approaches for the
management of benign and malignant thyroid disorders have been well documented including the treatment
using radioactive iodine (RAI). RAI has long been used to treat hyperthyroidism and well differentiated
thyroid cancer. Nevertheless, there are various factors that may influence the outcome of RAI treatment
including matters related to patient preparations. Thus, healthcare personnel play an important role in
assisting patients to make the necessary preparations. This article aims to give nurses and clinicians of
various specialities an insight into the overview of RAI treatment for thyroid disorders particularly in
Malaysia and further discusses the issues related to preparations of patients.
This article define and discuss the issue of plagiarism by nursing students either in academic or clinical settings. It describes and explore the scenario of plagiarism among nursing students and implications for the qualification of the students. Currently, prevention is required to avoid negative culture in nursing education due to plagiarism.
Family members' satisfaction has become an important measurement in determining the quality of care of patients in the critical care setting. The aims of the study were to determine the satisfaction level of family members, to determine the reliability of family satisfaction and its subscales, to identify mean of each question and their subscales. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 30 family members who accompanied patients during intensive care admission. The study was conducted in a critical care setting in
a high dependency unit (HDU) and cardiac intensive care unit (CCU), Hospital University Sains Malaysia (Hospital USM). The data was collected from October 2012 to January 2013. The Critical Care Family Satisfaction Survey (CCFSS) Malay version was used to measure family satisfaction in addition to the collection of demographic data. The statistical analysis used a descriptive approach. Ethical approval was obtained prior to data collection. Majority of the respondents were female: 23 (76.7%). Mean age was 35.67 years (SD=12.83) and the score of overall satisfaction level was 78.80 (SD=13.88). The Cronbach's alpha was 0.96. A majority of the respondents, 19 (63.3%) were satisfied with the care provided. This study showed that a majority of family members were slightly satisfied with the care that was provided in a critical
care setting at HUSM. It also showed that families play an important role in giving support and hope to patients.
Study site: HDU and CCU, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kelantan, Malaysia
This article is a brief personal reflection on the ongoing development of professional education and practice in nursing. The reflection and its narratives are anecdotal and are based on the author's recent experience of teaching and working with fellow nursing lecturers in Malaysia in a nursing faculty within a local University. The author has almost 40 years career in nursing, nurse education and curriculum planning in the United Kingdom before her retirement. The study reflects on the key aspects of nursing and nurse education from her wealth of experiences while in the UK, and also highlights some positive and valuable insights gained from her brief experience in Malaysia. She also provides some reflections of the challenges that lie ahead, specifically, the emphasis on feelings and emotions in nursing, that provide the inspiration to continue with passion, dedication, and determination in our ongoing quest in the pursuit of nursing excellence for all the nurses, in practice and in education. This will hopefully and ultimately lead to a higher standard of nursing care for all patients, and continue the long journey towards the unique professional identity that we have been seeking, and that we can all proudly claim to be our own.
This quantitative-oriented research was conducted to identify factors that contributed to errors in dispensing medication among nurses and to understand why nurses did not report their errors in dispensing. In this study a total of 284 U29 nurses participated in focusing on factors contributing to medication errors and failure to report the errors. In this study, analysis of the data collected was made in two sections; dispensing errors and failure to report the errors in giving medication. According to Evans et al. (2006) although nurses may not admit directly to such errors, they expressed their perceptions towards situations described in the questionnaire items as contributing to medication errors among nurses. Almost all in the sample of 284 chose not to report medication errors because they could not identify the cause of dispensing errors; other nurses perceived that the individual involved is not competent in performing the task. Other reasons include fear that the action will be exposed by the management, to avoid publicity from the media, and there is no difference in reporting or not reporting the medication errors. This study was done not only for exploring factors of medication errors; it also aspires to identify problems that arise in hospital services and in order to maintain the quality of health care. The management should consider the impact of medication errors and failure to report medication errors on the nursing profession and quality image of the hospital.
Patients with chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases are known as
high-risk groups for developing chronic kidney disease (CKD). Adequate related knowledge among them
helps to increase their awareness towards CKD and adapt healthy attitude and practices for CKD
prevention, which will result in better health outcomes. This study aimed to identify the patients'
knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) towards the risks for CKD. This cross-sectional study used a selfadministered
survey questionnaire on 103 adult male and female patients at four general surgical and
medical wards in a teaching hospital using convenient sampling method. The data were computed using
STATA version 12. Data on KAP were obtained through the Chronic Kidney Disease Screening Index
questionnaire. The majority of respondents had poor knowledge (69.9%, n=72), but most of them had good
attitude (68.9%, n=71) and good practices (88.3%, n=91) towards the risk of CKD. Significant associations
were indicated between education level, occupation and monthly family income with knowledge (p-value <
0.05). Significant associations were also indicated between age, sex, marital status and occupation with
their attitude (p-value < 0.05). Meanwhile, marital status was found to be significantly associated with the
practices towards the risk for CKD (p-value=0.008).
Poor knowledge on the risk of getting CKD among hospitalized adults in this study implied the need for
improvement in the public understanding towards the risk for CKD.
The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing worldwide and even in Malaysia. Hence, the knowledge of adiponectin with regards to gestational diabetes mellitus is a key contributor to disparity in maternal and neonatal morbidities. This study aimed to assess nurses' knowledge of adiponectin and its association with gestational diabetes and obesity in pregnancy. A cross-sectional survey was employed. Respondents were selected by purposive sampling using a pre-tested, structured questionnaire. Ninety one nurses (100%) were aware that obesity increased adverse health outcome among pregnant women, but some confusion exits among nurses about adiponectin with regards to pregnancy. Most of the nurses lack condence in providing care to pregnant women with many (82.4%) addressed the need for education on this topic. In the one-way ANOVA analysis, nurses' knowledge score was significantly associated with education level (p<0.001) and working experience in maternity units (p<0.001). This study demonstrates gaps in the knowledge of adiponectin and its association with obesity and pregnancy. Continuous nursing education for nurses on adiponectin and obesity-related issues in early pregnancy should be strengthened to enhance knowledge and confidence in providing quality antenatal services.
Keywords : Nurses, adiponectin, obesity, pregnancy, gestational diabetes
Dengue incidence has grown dramatically in recent decades and become a global incidence especially in the
urban area. Ministry of Health (MOH) Malaysia reported that the number of dengue cases since January
2014 until June 2014 was 38. 411 cases which was higher compared to the number reported in year 2013 (10,
910 cases). The objective of the study was to determine the knowledge and preventive practices of dengue
among residents in Flat Pandan Indah, Ampang Selangor. A cross sectional study design with convenience
sampling method was adopted in this study. A total of 298 respondents living in Flat Pandan Indah were
recruited based on the inclusion criteria. A validated questionnaire that measures knowledge and preventive
practices of dengue was completed by respondents. More than half of the respondents had scored 61.7%
with good knowledge regarding dengue. However, 50.3% of the respondents had a limited extent of dengue
practice. Almost all of the respondents (95.6%) reported that television or radio as the main source for
information on dengue. The common preventive measures used by the respondents were cleaning the
house (n=148, 49.7%), eliminating standing water around the house (n=123, 41.3%) and covering water
containers in the home (n=120, 40.a3%). There was no correlation between dengue knowledge and
preventive practice score (p = 0.109). The study revealed that majority of the respondents had good
knowledge regarding dengue but the practices to prevent dengue are poor. Thus, health education program
focusing on dengue prevention practices should be done on the community members in the future.