STX19 is an unusual Qa-SNARE as it lacks a C-terminal transmembrane domain. However, it is efficiently targeted to post-Golgi membranes. Here, we set out to determine the intracellular localisation of endogenous STX19 and elucidate the mechanism by which it is targeted to membranes. We have found that a pool of STX19 is localised to tubular recycling endosomes where it colocalises with MICAL-L1 and Rab8 (which has Rab8a and Rab8b forms). Using a combination of genetic, biochemical and cell-based approaches, we have identified that STX19 is S-acylated at its C-terminus and is a substrate for several Golgi-localised S-acyltransferases, suggesting that STX19 is initially S-acylated at the Golgi before trafficking to the plasma membrane and endosomes. Surprisingly, we have found that S-acylation is a key determinant in targeting STX19 to tubular recycling endosomes, suggesting that S-acylation may play a general role in directing proteins to this compartment. In addition, S-acylation also protects STX19 from proteosomal degradation, indicating that S-acylation regulates the function of STX19 at multiple levels.This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.
In order to control any pest it is essential to study the life cycle, biology and bionomics of the target pest under control. With this respect, we have studied the flight range of the house fly Musca domestica (L.). The flight range of the house fly from two sites i.e, the poultry farm and a stable farm has been studied. The flight range study was conducted using a mark release technique. The approach we used in this study was that the flies collected from the respective farms were marked and released at different distances from the farms. The flies were then re-captured from the poultry farm and the stable farm. Studies conducted elsewhere use the technique of releasing the insect species at one spot and recapturing the insect species with the help of baited traps placed at various locations from the release point. The advantage of the approach used in this study was that the flight range as well as the homing effect was determined. From this study, the flight range of house flies released at the poultry farm was 7 km whereas flight range for flies release from stable farm was 5 km. The recovery rate of house flies at the poultry and stable farm was 0.05% and 0.016%, In this study, marked specimens has been detected up to 8 days in field conditions indicating that under field condition the life expectancy could be in the range of 1-2 weeks.