This is a retrospective study to evaluate our early experience of using selective microcoil embolization in patients who had gastrointestinal (GI) haemorrhage. From December 2002 to December 2003, six patients with GI haemorrhage (upper GI, n = 1; lower GI, n = 5) underwent superselective microcoil embolization. Microcatheters were used to carry out embolizations in branches of the superior mesenteric artery. Microcoils were used in five patients and a combination of microcoils and embolospheres was used in one patient. Technical success (bleeding target devascularization) was achieved in all patients who showed active bleeding at the time of angiography. Two patients had recurrent bleeding within 24 h of embolization, of which one (16.7%) died. The other patient did not require active intervention as bleeding was minimal and resolved with conservative management. Satisfactory clinical success (no rebleeding after 30 days) was achieved in five patients. No clinical signs and symptoms of bowel ischaemia occurred in these patients. Follow-up colonoscopy carried out in two patients did not show any signs of ischaemia in the affected bowel segments. Superselective microcoil embolization is an effective and safe method of controlling and arresting bleeding in GI haemorrhage.
The aim of this study was to compare the image quality and entrance skin dose (ESD) for film-screen and computed chest radiography. Analysis of the image quality and dose on chest radiography was carried out on a conventional X-ray unit using film-screen, storage phosphor plates and selenium drum direct chest radiography. For each receptor, ESD was measured in 60 patients using thermoluminescent dosemeters. Images were printed on 35 x 43 cm films. Image quality was assessed subjectively by evaluation of anatomic features and estimation of the image quality, following the guidelines established by the protocols of the Commission of the European Communities. There was no statistically significant difference noted between the computed and conventional images (Wilcoxon rank sum test, P > 0.05). Imaging of the mediastinum and peripheral lung structures were better visualized with the storage phosphor and selenium drum technique than with the film-screen combination. The patients' mean ESD for chest radiography using the storage phosphor, film-screen combination and selenium drum was 0.20, 0.20 and 0.25 mGy, respectively, with no statistically significant difference with P > 0.05 (chi(2) tests).
In an arthroscopic-MRI correlation study of acute injuries to the knee it was found that anterolateral meniscocapsular separations of the lateral aspect of the knee were missed on MRI reporting. Eighty sports-related injuries of the knee were seen by experienced orthopaedic surgeons at the University of Malaya Medical Centre and at the National Sports Centre, Malaysia from January 1996 to July 1997. Fifty of the patients were suspected to have meniscal tears that were either lateral or medial on clinical examination and they were sent for MRI. Many of these patients were tertiary referrals. Magnetic resonance imaging examinations in 27 of the 50 patients were reported as not showing any intrasubstance or obvious meniscocapsular tears, but arthroscopy performed on them revealed anterolateral meniscocapsular tears of the lateral meniscus of varying degrees in nine of these patients. In retrospect the tears could be seen on MRI, and a pattern to the tears was noted and classified as follows. Type 0, normal; type 1, torn inferior or superior meniscocapsular attachment; type 2, both meniscofemoral and meniscotibial ligaments torn but with minimal separation of meniscus and capsule by fluid or synovitis; and type 3, marked separation of meniscus and capsule by fluid (> 3 mm). Ten patients who did not undergo arthroscopy for various personal and financial reasons underwent MRI which showed type 1 and type 2 tears, and were treated conservatively. These patients were all asymptomatic after 4-6 weeks with regard to clinical signs, suggesting a lateral meniscal tear. Magnetic resonance imaging therefore does reveal minor degrees of meniscocapsular tears anterolaterally when one understands the normal anatomy in this region.
In a retrospective study of giant breast masses over a period of 20 years (1980-2000), we encountered 18 patients with fibroadenomas. Most of them were adolescents and young adults. The bimodal age incidence seen in Caucasians was not observed. The masses ranged from 6 to 15 cm in size and in the youngest patient, they were bilateral. All 18 patients were examined by mammography and 10 of them by ultrasonography (US) as well. The right breast was involved in 12 patients and the left in six. The diagnosis was confirmed pathologically in all patients, by excision biopsy in 17 patients and by fine needle aspiration cytology and excision biopsy in one patient. The radiological findings were the same as those previously described. All patients were treated by simple enuculation. There was only one recurrence over a follow-up period from 2 months to 3 years.
The results of radiological investigations performed on 81 children with urinary tract infection (UTI) were reviewed. Investigations included 91 voiding cystourethrograms (VCU), 59 intravenous urograms (IVU) and 36 ultrasonograms (US). The aim was to study the local spectrum of renal tract abnormalities in childhood UTI and to compare the diagnostic yield of combining US and VCU against IVU and VCU. Renal tract abnormalities were detected in 37%. Vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR) was the commonest, detected in 26%, with renal scarring found in 9% of refluxing units. Ultrasound should replace IVU in the initial diagnostic work-up of these children.
A recognized cause of incomplete or cancelled MRI examinations is anxiety and claustrophobic symptoms in patients undergoing MR scanning. This appears to be a problem in many MRI centres in Western Europe and North America, where it is said to be costly in terms of loss of valuable scan time, and has led to researchers suggesting several anxiety-reducing approaches for MRI. To determine the incidence of failed MRI examination among our patients and if there are any associations with a patient's sex, age and education level, we studied claustrophobia that led to premature termination of the MRI examination in the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) in 3324 patients over 28 months. The incidence of failed MRI examinations due to claustrophobia in the UMMC was found to be only 0.54%. There are associations between claustrophobia in MRI with the patients' sex, age and level of education. The majority of those affected were male patients and young patients in the 25-45-years age group. The patients' education level appears to be the strongest association with failed MRI examinations due to claustrophobia, where the majority of the affected were highly educated individuals. Claustrophobia in MRI is more of a problem among the educated individuals or patients from a higher socio-economic group, which may explain the higher incidence in Western European and North American patients.
A case of recurrent hemiplegia due to saccular aneurysm of the left posterior cerebral artery in a female infant is described. The diagnosis was made at angiography, prompted by CT detection of a hyperdense, intra-aneurysmal thrombus, and was confirmed at subsequent surgery.
Adrenal tumours are either functioning or non-functioning. Non-functioning adrenal tumours are generally asymptomatic and usually of enormous proportions at the time of presentation. A case is presented here of a patient with a huge right adrenal haemangioma which was successfully treated surgically. This unusual tumour was 25 cm in diameter, was well encapsulated and weighed 4 kg. The literature pertaining to this interesting case is reviewed.
Cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome (CCM) is a very rare entity with oro-facial features closely resembling Pierre-Robin anomaly (1,2). We describe a patient with typical features: severe micrognathia, glossoptosis, central cleft soft palate and multiple posterior rib-gap defects seen on chest radiograph. Respiratory distress which was evident soon after birth was relieved by an oro-pharyngeal airway. He suffered from a cardiorespiratory arrest and succumbed, presumably secondary to aspiration of milk feeds, before a tracheostomy could be performed.
A case of primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the terminal ileum with enterovesical fistula is reported. A 50-year-old Malay man presented with haematuria, dysuria and per-rectal bleeding. Intravenous urogram, double contrast enema and an MDP bone scintigram showed a fistulous communication between the bladder and distal ileum. At laparotomy, a large tumour attaching the terminal ileum to the dome of the bladder was found. Histopathological examination of resected small bowel revealed a diffuse histiocytic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the small bowel. The bladder mucosa was shown to be normal.
A patient with nasopharyngeal carcinoma developed clubbing and hypertrophic osteoarthropathy 6 months before radiological detection of secondary deposits in the lung. Another patient with nasopharyngeal carcinoma developed digital clubbing and hypertrophic osteoarthropathy 6 months after the discovery of lung metastases. Development of a paraneoplastic syndrome in the form of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy and digital clubbing is very rare. This manifestation of nasopharyngeal cancers is presented, with a short review of its biology and pathogenesis.