MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 53 paired tissue samples from breast cancer patients were frozen-sectioned to characterize the tumour and normal tissues. Only tissues with 80% tumour cells were used in this study. For confirmation, Q-PCR was used to determine the HER-2/neu DNA amplification.
RESULTS: We found 20/53 (37.7%) of the tumour tissues to be positive for HER-2/neu protein overexpression using IHC. Out of these twenty, only 9/53 (17%) cases were in agreement with the Q-PCR results. The concordance rate between IHC and Q-PCR was 79.3%. Approximately 20.7% of positive IHC cases showed no HER-2/neu gene amplification using Q-PCR.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, IHC can be used as an initial screening method for detection of the HER-2/neu protein overexpression. Techniques such as Q-PCR should be employed to verify the IHC results for uncertain cases as well as determination of HER-2/neu gene amplification.
METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a population based randomized control trial. Women aged 20-65 years in the population that matched the inclusion and exclusion criteria were re-called for a repeat smear. There are four different intervention groups; letter, registered letters, short messages services (SMS) and phone calls where 250 subjects were recruited into each group. Samples were generated randomly from the same population in Klang into four different groups. The first group received a recall letter for a repeat smear similar to the one that has been given during the first invitation. The intervention groups were either be given a registered letter, an SMS or a phone call to re-call them. The socio-demographic data of the patients who came for uptake were collected for further analysis. All the groups were followed up after 8 weeks to assess their compliance to the recall.
CONCLUSIONS: The study will provide recommendations about the most effective methods for recall in a population based pap smear screening program on two outcomes: i) patients response; ii) uptake for repeat pap smear.
DESIGN: Prospective randomized controlled study.
SETTING: All community clinics in Klang under the Ministry of Health Malaysia.
PARTICIPANTS: Women of Klang who attended cervical screening and had a normal Pap smear in the previous year, and were due for a repeat smear were recruited and randomly assigned to four different methods of recall for repeat smear.
INTERVENTION: The recall methods given to the women to remind them for a repeat smear were either by postal letter, registered letter, short message by phone (SMS) or phone call.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number and percentage of women who responded to the recall within 8 weeks after they had received the recall, irrespective whether they had Pap test conducted. Also the numbers of women in each recall method that came for repeat Pap smear.
RESULTS: The rates of recall messages reaching the women when using letter, registered letter, SMS and phone calls were 79%, 87%, 66% and 68%, respectively. However, the positive responses to recall by letter, registered letter, phone messages and telephone call were 23.9%, 23.0%, 32.9% and 50.9%, respectively (p<0.05). Furthermore, more women who received recall by phone call had been screened (p<0.05) compared to those who received recall by postal letter (OR=2.38, CI=1.56-3.62).
CONCLUSION: Both the usual way of sending letters and registered letters had higher chances of reaching patients compared to using phone either for sending messages or calling. The response to the recall method and uptake of repeat smear, however, were highest via phone call, indicating the importance of direct communication.
METHODS: This is an observational retrospective study carried out in a general hospital on 117 solid tumor patients who admitted between January 2003 to December 2006. The main statistical tests used were Chi- square test and Fisher' s Exact test. The significance of the result will be when the P<0.05, while the confidence interval for this study was 95%.
RESULTS: The highest chemotherapeutic regimen was (5-FU+epirubicin+cyclophosphamide) (47, 40.2%) followed by (gemcitabine+cisplatin) (6, 5.1%) and many others. Majority of the patients receive their chemotherapy schedule of administration was one day schedule (90, 76.9%) followed by more than one day schedule (27, 23.1%).
CONCLUSION: The doses of these drugs were not high enough to produce a sufficient pharmacological effect to cause bone marrow suppression and lead to neutropenia. Besides the schedule of administration for each drug was long enough to overcome neutropenia also the high uses of granulocyte colony stimulation factor (G-CSF) which will play a major role in reducing the time and severity of neutropenia. All these factors play an important role in giving non- significant association between neutropenia onset and severity with chemotherapeutics drugs and their schedule of administration.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the inhibitory effects of PEITC against benzo[a]pyrene-induced rise in rat liver CYP1A1 mRNA and apoprotein levels.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Precision cut rat liver slices were treated with benzo[a]pyrene at 1 and 5 μM in the presence of PEITC (1-25 μM) for 24 hours, followed by determination of CYP1A1 mRNA and apoprotein levels using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting.
RESULTS: Findings revealed that PEITC inhibited benzo[a]pyrene-induced rise in rat liver CYP1A1 mRNA in a dose-dependent manner as well as the apoprotein levels of CYP1A.
CONCLUSIONS: It was demonstrated that PEITC can directly inhibit the bioactivation of benzo[a]pyrene, indicating chemopreventive potential.
METHODS: 11 key informant interviews were conducted with policy makers and health care providers from the Ministry of Health in Malaysia from October 2009 to May 2010. Interviewees' perceptions were explored on current and organized cervical screening program based on their expertise and experience.
RESULTS: The results highlighted that the existing cervical screening program in Malaysia faced flaws at all levels that failed to reduce cervical cancer morbidity and mortality. The identified weaknesses were poor acceptance by women, lack of commitment by health care providers, nature of the program, an improper follow-up system, limited resources and other competing needs. Complementarily, all interviewees perceived an organized cervical screening program as an alternative approach both feasible and acceptable by women and government to practice in Malaysia.
CONCLUSION: Better screening coverage depends on an effective screening program that incorporates a behaviour-based strategy. A new program should be focused in the policy-making context to improve screening coverage and to effectively combat cervical cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: All women with breast cancer treated at SJMC between 2008 and 2012 were enrolled for this observational cohort study. Mortality outcome was ascertained through record linkage with national death register, linkage with hospital registration system and finally through direct contact by phone or home visits.
RESULTS: A total of 675 patients treated between 2008 and 2012 were included in the present survival analysis, 65% with early breast cancer, 20% with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) and 4% with metastatic breast cancer (MBC). The overall relative survival (RS) at 5 years was 88%. RS for stage I was 100% and for stage II, III and IV disease was 95%, 69% and 36% respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: SJMC is among the first hospitals in Malaysia to embark on routine measurement of the performance of its cancer care services and its results are comparable to any leading centers in developed countries.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: PM2.5 was measured as a marker of SHS levels in a total of 61 restaurants, entertainment centres, internet cafes and pubs in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
RESULTS: Under the current smoke-free laws smoking was prohibited in 42 of the 61 premises. Active smoking was observed in nearly one-third (n=12) of these. For premises where smoking was prohibited and no active smoking observed, the mean (standard deviation) indoor PM2.5 concentration was 33.4 (23.8) μg/m3 compared to 187.1 (135.1) μg/m3 in premises where smoking was observed The highest mean PM2.5 was observed in pubs [361.5 (199.3) μg/m3].
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence of high levels of SHS across a range of hospitality venues, including about one-third of those where smoking is prohibited, despite 8 years of smoke-free legislation. Compliance with the legislation appeared to be particularly poor in entertainment centres and internet cafes. Workers and non-smoking patrons continue to be exposed to high concentrations of SHS within the hospitality industry in Malaysia and there is an urgent need for increased enforcement of existing legislation and consideration of more comprehensive laws to protect health.
OBJECTIVE: Thus, this research was conducted to evaluate the colorectal cancer screening program in the districts to provide insights intop its efficacy.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted using data on the colorectal cancer screening program in 2013 involving Kota Setar and Kuala Muda districts in Malaysia. We determined the response rate of immunochemical fecal occult blood test (iFOBT), colonoscopy compliance, and detection rates of neoplasia and carcinoma. We also compared the response of FOBT by demographic background.
RESULTS: The response rate of FOBT for first iFOBT screening was 94.7% while the second iFOBT screening was 90.7%. Participants from Kuala Muda district were 27 times more likely to default while Indians had a 3 times higher risk of default compared to Malays. The colonoscopy compliance was suboptimal among those with positive iFOBT. The most common finding from colonoscopy was hemorrhoids, followed by tubular adenoma. Detection rate of carcinoma and neoplasia for our program was 1.2%.
CONCLUSIONS: In summary, the response rate of iFOBT was encouraging but the colonoscopy compliance was suboptimal which led to a considerably low detection rate.