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  1. Noor Albannia Natasya Jabi, Hazmi Awang Damit
    Borneo Akademika, 2019;3(1):1-9.
    MyJurnal
    Heterotrigona itama is a Malaysian stingless bee species that actively reared for meliponiculture. This stingless bee is cultivated in a commercial scale for its honey production, propolis and among the greatest commercial potential as crop pollinators. However, this species has been potentially exposed to agronomic practices, among which the use of synthetic insecticides against pests.The indirect toxicity effect of the post-insecticide had affected the mortalities of H. itama especially, to the foragers. Due to that, a study has been conducted to determine the lethal concentration of 50% (LC50) and 95% (LC95) of the selected insecticides against stingless bee forager workers through residual exposure. The bioassay test was conducted to the local stingless bee H. itama at Agricultural Research Station, Tenom. Four commonly used insecticides in crop protection; Deltamethrin, Chlorpyrifos, Cypermethrin and Malathion were tested at five concentrations that diluted with 500 ml of distilled water in three replications for each insecticide. Lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC95) were obtained from probit analysis after 1-hour dry residues exposure and 24-hour mortality observation. The result shows that; all four tested insecticides were harmful to H. itama through dry residue. Deltamethrin shows the higher value of LC50 (1.256 ml) and LC95 (3.582ml) that make it less toxic to the H. itama than cypermethrin, malathion, and chlorpyrifos, however, as the concentration gets higher it becomes more toxic.
  2. Nowyannie Willie D. Tamsin, Norah Tuah, Mazalan Sarahintu, Herniza Roxanne Marcus
    Borneo Akademika, 2019;3(1):20-29.
    MyJurnal
    University students are known to have different sleeping schedules. Students’ sleep difficulties will affect their health and their performances in studies. Sleep hygiene is a collection of healthy sleep habits that can improve one’s ability to fall asleep and stay asleep. It is considered to be imperative to treat sleep disturbance especially among university students. The aim of this study is to examine the sleep beliefs among the students of UiTM Sabah based on gender and academic performance. This study was conducted on Diploma students between March and July 2018. The respondents were randomly selected from Diploma students of all faculties in UiTM Sabah: Accounting, Business Management, Public Administration, Science, Planting Industry Management, Hotel Management, and Tourism Management. This paper is based on the Sleep Belief Scale questionnaire to assess the sleep hygiene awareness. Questionnaires were distributed using online survey. Findings of this study were analyzed using SPSS statistical software. The result of findings showed that the Sleep Incompatible Behaviours (drinking coffee, taking sleep medication, smoking before sleep) is the highest contributor of the students’ sleep hygiene and therefore it affects the sleep quality. While the Sleep Wake Cycle Behaviours (going to bed & waking up always at the same hour, going to bed two hours earlier than the habitual hour) and Thoughts and Attitude to Sleep (over thinking before sleep, trying to fall asleep without having a sleep sensation)also contributed to the sleep hygiene of the students but not as high as the Sleep Incompatible Behaviours. Based on the results of the findings, the counseling department of UiTM Sabah may organise an education program to create awareness among students about the intervention and prevention strategies as well as the incorrect beliefs about sleep.
  3. Rafidah@Malissa Salleh, Lenny James Matah, Ku Mohd Amir Aizat Ku Yusof
    Borneo Akademika, 2019;3(1):10-19.
    MyJurnal
  4. Mohd Miqdam Jubidin, Mohammed Selamat Madom, Nur Aainaa Hasbullah
    Borneo Akademika, 2020;4(4):9-14.
    MyJurnal
    Generally, pineapple sucker is used as the main planting material for commercial cultivation
    of pineapple. Pineapple sucker is usually obtained either from the stalk or the stem of a
    pineapple plant. Research to study the effect of planting media using mineral soil as the main
    component for the mixture on the growth of sucker by stem cutting technique was conducted. The objective of this research is to study the effects of mineral soil-based mixed planting
    media on the growth of pineapple suckers produced cultivated via stem cutting of Madu
    pineapple. The research was conducted at the Pineapple Nursery of the Faculty of Sustainable
    Agriculture, UMS Sandakan, from March 2019 until September 2019. The treatments used in
    this research were, soil as T1 (100%); Soil:coco peat as T2 (1:1,v/v); Soil:peat soil as T3
    (1:1,v/v); Soil:sand as T4 (1:1,v/v). The data obtained showed there is a significant difference
    in the number of a successfully germinated sucker. However, no significant difference was
    detected for the sucker growth parameters. Planting media T3, soil: coco peat recorded the
    highest number of successfully germinated suckers (12.25). Meanwhile, for growing media, suggested T2 soil: peat soil were recorded the highest for root length (15.53 cm), leaf number
    (18.00), and stem diameter (2.18 cm) at 60 days after transplant (DAT).
  5. Weng, Brandon Chai An
    Borneo Akademika, 2020;4(4):1-8.
    MyJurnal
    Words have a habit of appearing in recurrent patterns. These recurring patterns may take the
    form of phrasal verbs, collocations, and other multi-word expressions (MWEs). Since these
    patterns constantly re-occur in both speech and writing, it would seem prudent to teach
    vocabulary to ESL learners in the manner in which words actually present themselves: in
    typical chunks. A common example of such a chunk would be “to deal with the problem”, in
    which “deal with” and “problem” are collocates. This paper contains three sections. The first
    examines what phrasal verbs and collocates are in the first place, and why they are particularly
    important for learners. The second part is a review of recent studies that support the teaching
    of MWEs and chunking pedagogy. This paper concludes by discussing the potential of
    incorporating chunking pedagogy in one’s own ESL vocabulary teaching.
  6. Nur Syafiqah Martang, Nadia Majitol, Farnidah Jasnie, Lo Chor-Wai
    Borneo Akademika, 2020;4(4):15-20.
    MyJurnal
    Most of the plants in the ginger family Zingeberaceae are well-known for their medicinal properties. However, the genus Hornstedtia found in Sabah is less reported. This research aims to investigate the phytochemical constituent and vitamin C content of a fruit, locally known as the Tolidus fruit in Sabah. The dried fruit sample was extracted using three solvents which were water, ethanol and methanol. The phytochemical constituents were determined using standard Colour Test for the presence of alkaloid, flavonoid, saponin and tannin. Then, the content of Vitamin C was determined using the standard Colorimetric Titration and ascorbic acid as standard. The phytochemical evaluation revealed that all three targeted constituents were present in all extracts except for the alkaloid. The vitamin C content was determined in both dried and fresh sample of fruits, where 52.84 mg was quantified in the fresh fruit aqueous extract and 23.93 mg in the dried fruit aqueous extract respectively. These results are comparable to the content of vitamin C in orange and lime fruits. The phytochemical evaluation and vitamin C content of Tolidus suggested the potential of this underutilised fruit to be the natural and affordable source of vitamin C. Additionally, may protect the body against harmful free radicals. However, further analysis is needed to determine other constructive natural contents and evaluate the efficacy of this fruit as a natural source of antioxidant
  7. Navin Kumar Nadarajah, Nur Hardy Abu Daud
    Borneo Akademika, 2020;4(4):21-32.
    MyJurnal
    A retrospective study was carried out at one selected dairy farm located in Keningau, Sabah in order to evaluate the effect of age at first calving (AFC) on the productive performance of the
    primiparous Sahiwal x Friesian crossbred dairy cows. The retrospective data was collected from 123 Sahiwal x Friesian crossbred dairy cows. AFC was classified into 7 groups such as:
    ≤22; 23-24; 25-26; 27-28 months old; 29-30; 31-32 and >32 months old, respectively. The productive performance parameters that were evaluated consisted of the first-lactation milk
    yield, lactation length, average daily milk yield and dry period. Cows with AFC of 23-24 and 25-26 months of age showed the highest first-lactation milk yield, 7210.14± 384.84 litres and
    7053.80± 342.98 litres, respectively. Cows with AFC of 23-24 months old have also showed the longest lactation length of 410.25± 19.51 days. However, cows with AFC of 23-24 months
    of age produced the least average daily milk yield, that was about 17.62± 0.60 litres/day and cows that were calved at 29-30 months of age and >32 months of age produced the highest
    average daily milk yield, that was about 24.10± 0.94 litres/day and 24.16± 0.79 litres/day, respectively. The study showed that AFC had a significant effect on the first-lactation milk
    yield, lactation length and average daily milk yield of the Sahiwal x Friesian crossbred dairy cows (p0.05). Overall, cows with the AFC of 23-24 months old have showed the best productive performance
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