Heterotrigona itama is a Malaysian stingless bee species that actively reared for meliponiculture. This stingless bee is cultivated in a commercial scale for its honey production, propolis and among the greatest commercial potential as crop pollinators. However, this species has been potentially exposed to agronomic practices, among which the use of synthetic insecticides against pests.The indirect toxicity effect of the post-insecticide had affected the mortalities of H. itama especially, to the foragers. Due to that, a study has been conducted to determine the lethal concentration of 50% (LC50) and 95% (LC95) of the selected insecticides against stingless bee forager workers through residual exposure. The bioassay test was conducted to the local stingless bee H. itama at Agricultural Research Station, Tenom. Four commonly used insecticides in crop protection; Deltamethrin, Chlorpyrifos, Cypermethrin and Malathion were tested at five concentrations that diluted with 500 ml of distilled water in three replications for each insecticide. Lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC95) were obtained from probit analysis after 1-hour dry residues exposure and 24-hour mortality observation. The result shows that; all four tested insecticides were harmful to H. itama through dry residue. Deltamethrin shows the higher value of LC50 (1.256 ml) and LC95 (3.582ml) that make it less toxic to the H. itama than cypermethrin, malathion, and chlorpyrifos, however, as the concentration gets higher it becomes more toxic.
University students are known to have different sleeping schedules. Students’ sleep difficulties will affect their health and their performances in studies. Sleep hygiene is a collection of healthy sleep habits that can improve one’s ability to fall asleep and stay asleep. It is considered to be imperative to treat sleep disturbance especially among university students. The aim of this study is to examine the sleep beliefs among the students of UiTM Sabah based on gender and academic performance. This study was conducted on Diploma students between March and July 2018. The respondents were randomly selected from Diploma students of all faculties in UiTM Sabah: Accounting, Business Management, Public Administration, Science, Planting Industry Management, Hotel Management, and Tourism Management. This paper is based on the Sleep Belief Scale questionnaire to assess the sleep hygiene awareness. Questionnaires were distributed using online survey. Findings of this study were analyzed using SPSS statistical software. The result of findings showed that the Sleep Incompatible Behaviours (drinking coffee, taking sleep medication, smoking before sleep) is the highest contributor of the students’ sleep hygiene and therefore it affects the sleep quality. While the Sleep Wake Cycle Behaviours (going to bed & waking up always at the same hour, going to bed two hours earlier than the habitual hour) and Thoughts and Attitude to Sleep (over thinking before sleep, trying to fall asleep without having a sleep sensation)also contributed to the sleep hygiene of the students but not as high as the Sleep Incompatible Behaviours. Based on the results of the findings, the counseling department of UiTM Sabah may organise an education program to create awareness among students about the intervention and prevention strategies as well as the incorrect beliefs about sleep.
Generally, pineapple sucker is used as the main planting material for commercial cultivation
of pineapple. Pineapple sucker is usually obtained either from the stalk or the stem of a
pineapple plant. Research to study the effect of planting media using mineral soil as the main
component for the mixture on the growth of sucker by stem cutting technique was conducted. The objective of this research is to study the effects of mineral soil-based mixed planting
media on the growth of pineapple suckers produced cultivated via stem cutting of Madu
pineapple. The research was conducted at the Pineapple Nursery of the Faculty of Sustainable
Agriculture, UMS Sandakan, from March 2019 until September 2019. The treatments used in
this research were, soil as T1 (100%); Soil:coco peat as T2 (1:1,v/v); Soil:peat soil as T3
(1:1,v/v); Soil:sand as T4 (1:1,v/v). The data obtained showed there is a significant difference
in the number of a successfully germinated sucker. However, no significant difference was
detected for the sucker growth parameters. Planting media T3, soil: coco peat recorded the
highest number of successfully germinated suckers (12.25). Meanwhile, for growing media, suggested T2 soil: peat soil were recorded the highest for root length (15.53 cm), leaf number
(18.00), and stem diameter (2.18 cm) at 60 days after transplant (DAT).
Words have a habit of appearing in recurrent patterns. These recurring patterns may take the
form of phrasal verbs, collocations, and other multi-word expressions (MWEs). Since these
patterns constantly re-occur in both speech and writing, it would seem prudent to teach
vocabulary to ESL learners in the manner in which words actually present themselves: in
typical chunks. A common example of such a chunk would be “to deal with the problem”, in
which “deal with” and “problem” are collocates. This paper contains three sections. The first
examines what phrasal verbs and collocates are in the first place, and why they are particularly
important for learners. The second part is a review of recent studies that support the teaching
of MWEs and chunking pedagogy. This paper concludes by discussing the potential of
incorporating chunking pedagogy in one’s own ESL vocabulary teaching.