Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 62 in total

  1. Al-Obaidi MM, Al-Bayaty FH, Al Batran R, Ibrahim OE, Daher AM
    Curr Pharm Des, 2016;22(16):2403-10.
    PMID: 27139374
    OBJECTIVES: -To examine the effect of nicotine (Ni) on bone socket healing treated with Ellagic acid (EA) after tooth extraction in rat.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-Two Sprague Dawley (SD) male rats were divided into four groups. The group 1 was administrated with distilled water intragastrically and injected sterile saline subcutaneously. The group 2 was administrated with EA orally and injected with sterile saline subcutaneously. The groups 3 & 4 were subcutaneously exposed to Ni for 4 weeks twice daily before tooth extraction procedure, and maintained Ni injection until the animals were sacrificed. After one month Ni exposure, the group 4 was fed with EA while continuing Ni injection. All the groups were anesthetized, and the upper left incisor was extracted. Four rats from each group were sacrificed on 14(th) and 28(th) days. Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) were applied to assess in serum rat at 14th and 28(th) days. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBRAS) levels were assessed to evaluate the antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation accordingly after tooth extraction in homogenized gingival maxilla tissue of rat at 14(th) and 28(th) days. The socket hard tissue was stained by eosin and hematoxylin (H&E); immunohistochemical technique was used to assess the healing process by Osteocalcin (OCN) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) biomarkers.

    RESULTS: Ni-induced rats administered with EA compound (Group 4) dropped the elevated concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines significantly when compared to Ni-induced rats (Group 3) (p<0.05). Ni-induced rats administrated with EA compound (Group 4) showed significant production of SOD and recession in TBRAS level when compared to Ni-induced rats (Group 3) (p<0.05). The immunohistochemistry analysis has revealed that OCN and ALP have presented stronger expression in Ni-induced rats treated with EA (Group 4), as against Ni-induced rats (Group 3).

    CONCLUSION: We have concluded that, Ni-induced rats, treated with EA have exerted positive effect on the trabecular bone formation after tooth extraction in nicotinic rats could be due to the antioxidant activity of EA which lead to upregulate of OCN and ALP proteins which are responsible for osteogenesis.

  2. Alam F, Islam MA, Gan SH, Mohamed M, Sasongko TH
    Curr Pharm Des, 2016;22(28):4398-419.
    PMID: 27229720
    DNA methylation, a major regulator of epigenetic modifications has been shown to alter the expression of genes that are involved in aspects of glucose metabolism such as glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction and other conditions, and it ultimately leads to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Current evidences indicate an association of DNA methylation with T2DM. This review provides an overview of how various factors play crucial roles in T2DM pathogenesis and how DNA methylation interacts with these factors. Additionally, an update on current techniques of DNA methylation analysis with their pros and cons is provided as a basis for the adoption of suitable techniques in future DNA methylation research towards better management of T2DM. To elucidate the mechanistic relationship between vital environmental factors and the development of T2DM, a better understanding of the changes in gene expression associated with DNA methylation at the molecular level is still needed.
  3. Alam F, Islam MA, Sasongko TH, Gan SH
    Curr Pharm Des, 2016;22(28):4430-42.
    PMID: 27229721 DOI: 10.2174/1381612822666160527160236
    Although type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are two independent diseases, evidences from epidemiological, pathophysiological and animal studies have indicated a close pathophysiological relationship between these diseases. Due to the pathophysiological similarity of T2DM and AD, which includes insulin resistance and deficiency, protein aggregation, oxidative stress, inflammation, autophagocytosis and advanced glycation end products; AD is often referred to as "type 3 diabetes". In addition to the targeted regimens usually used for treating T2DM and AD individually, currently, anti-diabetic drugs are successfully used to reduce the cognitive decline in AD patients. Therefore, if a common pathophysiology of T2DM and AD could be clearly determined, both diseases could be managed more efficiently, possibly by shared pharmacotherapy in addition to understanding the broader spectrum of preventive strategies. The aim of this review is to discuss the pathophysiological bridge between T2DM and AD to lay the foundation for the future treatment strategies in the management of both diseases.
  4. Alam F, Islam MA, Khalil MI, Gan SH
    Curr Pharm Des, 2016;22(20):3034-49.
    PMID: 26951104 DOI: 10.2174/1381612822666160307145801
    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the most common form of diabetes, is characterized by insulin resistance in the hepatic and peripheral tissues. Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) plays a major role in the pathophysiology of T2DM. Its defective expression or translocation to the peripheral cell plasma membrane in T2DM patients hinders the entrance of glucose into the cell for energy production. In addition to suitable drugs, an appropriate diet and/or exercise can be implemented to target the increase in GLUT4 expression, GLUT4 concentrations and GLUT4 translocation to the cell surface when managing the glucose metabolism of T2DM patients. In this review, we discussed successful intervention strategies that were individually administered or coupled with diet and/or exercise and affected the expression and translocation of GLUT4 in T2DM while reducing the excess glucose load from the blood. Additionally, some potentially good synthetic and natural compounds, which can activate the insulin-independent GLUT4 signaling pathways for the efficient management of T2DM, are highlighted as possible targets or emerging alternative sources for future anti-diabetic drug development.
  5. Amudha K, Wong LP, Choy AM, Lang CC
    Curr Pharm Des, 2003;9(21):1691-701.
    PMID: 12871202
    Physiological and pharmacological responses may be influenced by ethnicity as a result of genetic factors, environmental factors and/or their interaction. This review is divided into 2 parts. Firstly, there will be overview of ethnicity as a determinant of drug metabolism and response with reference to antihypertensive agents. The concept of ethnicity has been applied extensively to the study of hypertension especially in American blacks in whom the hypertension is more common and more aggressive. Thus, the second part of this review will then focus on examining the black-white differences in physiological responses to pharmacological challenge that may provide a link between these models and known ethnic differences in drug responses. We will discuss the hypertension studies that have examined the relative effectiveness of different classes of antihypertensive agents including several recent cardiovascular outcome trials that either have a high proportion of blacks or were conducted entirely in black subjects.
  6. Ansari MT, Ramlan TA, Jamaluddin NN, Zamri N, Salfi R, Khan A, et al.
    Curr Pharm Des, 2020;26(34):4272-4276.
    PMID: 32693760 DOI: 10.2174/1381612826666200720235752
    Cancer and tumor have been major reasons for numerous deaths in this century across the world. Many strategies have been designed to treat, diagnose, or prevent cancer. The success of chemotherapy largely depends on drug targeting. The advent of nanotechnology has vastly improved drug delivery for targeting and diagnosis. Nevertheless, the accuracy of drug targeting with polymeric nanoparticles has always been questionable. The polymeric nanoparticles synthesized from varieties of lipid-based compounds or combined with vectors, such as liposomes, ethosomes, and transfersomes, may allow the drug to overcome the issue of resistance to drug absorption in biological membranes. The combined effects of lipid-based nanocarriers are known to improve the efficacy and accuracy of polymeric nanoparticles. The present review explores the application of lipid based nanocarriers in the treatment and diagnosis of cancer A special focus is given to the use of lipid-based nanocarriers in the treatment, diagnosis, and mitigation of cancer located in blood, brain, lung, and colon. The treatment of these cancers has always been questionable as the chances of relapse are very high. The review encompasses the use of lipid-based nanocarriers in targeting tissue-specific cancer cells.
  7. Asiful Islam M, Alam F, Kamal MA, Gan SH, Wong KK, Sasongko TH
    Curr Pharm Des, 2017;23(11):1598-1609.
    PMID: 27875971 DOI: 10.2174/1381612823666161122142950
    Nonsense mutations contribute to approximately 10-30% of the total human inherited diseases via disruption of protein translation. If any of the three termination codons (UGA, UAG and UAA) emerges prematurely [known as premature termination codon (PTC)] before the natural canonical stop codon, truncated nonfunctional proteins or proteins with deleterious loss or gain-of-function activities are synthesized, followed by the development of nonsense mutation-mediated diseases. In the past decade, PTC-associated diseases captured much attention in biomedical research, especially as molecular therapeutic targets via nonsense suppression (i.e. translational readthrough) regimens. In this review, we highlighted different treatment strategies of PTC targeting readthrough therapeutics including the use of aminoglycosides, ataluren (formerly known as PTC124), suppressor tRNAs, nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, pseudouridylation and CRISPR/Cas9 system to treat PTC-mediated diseases. In addition, as thrombotic disorders are a group of disease with major burdens worldwide, 19 potential genes containing a total of 705 PTCs that cause 21 thrombotic disorders have been listed based on the data reanalysis from the 'GeneCards® - Human Gene Database' and 'Human Gene Mutation Database' (HGMD®). These PTC-containing genes can be potential targets amenable for different readthrough therapeutic strategies in the future.
  8. Bagheri E, Saremi K, Hajiaghaalipour F, Faraj FL, Ali HM, Abdulla MA, et al.
    Curr Pharm Des, 2018;24(13):1395-1404.
    PMID: 29384057 DOI: 10.2174/1381612824666180130124308
    Quinazoline is an aromatic bicyclic compound exhibiting several pharmaceutical and biological activities. This study was conducted to investigate the potential wound healing properties of Synthetic Quinazoline Compound (SQC) on experimental rats. The toxicity of SQC was determined by MTT cell proliferation assay. The healing effect of SQC was assessed by in vitro wound healing scratch assay on the skin fibroblast cells (BJ-5ta) and in vivo wound healing experiment of low and high dose of SQC on adult Sprague-Dawley rats compared with negative (gum acacia) and positive control (Intrasite-gel). Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E), Masson's Trichrome (MT) staining and immunohistochemistry analysis were performed to evaluate the histopathological alterations and proteins expression of Bax and Hsp70 on the wound tissue after 10 days. In addition, levels of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in wound tissue homogenates. The SQC significantly enhanced BJ-5ta cell proliferation and accelerated the percentage of wound closure, with less scarring, increased fibroblast and collagen fibers and less inflammatory cells compared with the negative control. The compound also increases endogenous enzymes and decline lipid peroxidation in wound homogenate.
  9. Baharuddin A, Hassan AA, Sheng GC, Nasir SB, Othman S, Yusof R, et al.
    Curr Pharm Des, 2014;20(21):3428-44.
    PMID: 24001228
    Viruses belonging to the Flaviviridae family primarily spread through arthropod vectors, and are the major causes of illness and death around the globe. The Flaviviridae family consists of 3 genera which include the Flavivirus genus (type species, yellow fever virus) as the largest genus, the Hepacivirus (type species, hepatitis C virus) and the Pestivirus (type species, bovine virus diarrhea). The flaviviruses (Flavivirus genus) are small RNA viruses transmitted by mosquitoes and ticks that take over host cell machinery in order to propagate. However, hepaciviruses and pestiviruses are not antropod-borne. Despite the extensive research and public health concern associated with flavivirus diseases, to date, there is no specific treatment available for any flavivirus infections, though commercially available vaccines for yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis and tick-born encephalitis exist. Due to the global threat of viral pandemics, there is an urgent need for new drugs. In many countries, patients with severe cases of flavivirus infections are treated only by supportive care, which includes intravenous fluids, hospitalization, respiratory support, and prevention of secondary infections. This review discusses the strategies used towards the discovery of antiviral drugs, focusing on rational drug design against Dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), Yellow Fever virus (YFV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV). Only modified peptidic, nonpeptidic, natural compounds and fragment-based inhibitors (typically of mass less than 300 Da) against structural and non-structural proteins are discussed.
  10. Choudhury H, Gorain B, Chatterjee B, Mandal UK, Sengupta P, Tekade RK
    Curr Pharm Des, 2017;23(17):2504-2531.
    PMID: 27908273 DOI: 10.2174/1381612822666161201143600
    BACKGROUND: Most of the active pharmaceutical ingredients discovered recently in pharmaceutical field exhibits poor aqueous solubility that pose major problem in their oral administration. The oral administration of these drugs gets further complicated due to their short bioavailability, inconsistent absorption and inter/intra subject variability.

    METHODS: Pharmaceutical emulsion holds a significant place as a primary choice of oral drug delivery system for lipophilic drugs used in pediatric and geriatric patients. Pharmacokinetic studies on nanoemulsion mediated drugs delivery approach indicates practical feasibility in regards to their clinical translation and commercialization.

    RESULTS: This review article is to provide an updated understanding on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic features of nanoemulsion delivered via oral, intravenous, topical and nasal route.

    CONCLUSION: The article is of huge interest to formulation scientists working on range of lipophilic drug molecules intended to be administered through oral, intravenous, topical and nasal routes for vivid medical benefits.

  11. Choudhury H, Chellappan DK, Sengupta P, Pandey M, Gorain B
    Curr Pharm Des, 2019;25(26):2808-2827.
    PMID: 31309883 DOI: 10.2174/1381612825666190712181955
    The ubiquitous signaling nucleoside molecule, adenosine is found in different cells of the human body to provide its numerous pharmacological role. The associated actions of endogenous adenosine are largely dependent on conformational change of the widely expressed heterodimeric G-protein-coupled A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 adenosine receptors (ARs). These receptors are well conserved on the surface of specific cells, where potent neuromodulatory properties of this bioactive molecule reflected by its easy passage through the rigid blood-brainbarrier, to simultaneously act on the central nervous system (CNS). The minimal concentration of adenosine in body fluids (30-300 nM) is adequate to exert its neuromodulatory action in the CNS, whereas the modulatory effect of adenosine on ARs is the consequence of several neurodegenerative diseases. Modulatory action concerning the activation of such receptors in the CNS could be facilitated towards neuroprotective action against such CNS disorders. Our aim herein is to discuss briefly pathophysiological roles of adenosine on ARs in the modulation of different CNS disorders, which could be focused towards the identification of potential drug targets in recovering accompanying CNS disorders. Researches with active components with AR modulatory action have been extended and already reached to the bedside of the patients through clinical research in the improvement of CNS disorders. Therefore, this review consist of recent findings in literatures concerning the impact of ARs on diverse CNS disease pathways with the possible relevance to neurodegeneration.
  12. Choudhury H, Pandey M, Wen LP, Cien LK, Xin H, Yee ANJ, et al.
    Curr Pharm Des, 2020;26(42):5365-5379.
    PMID: 32693762 DOI: 10.2174/1381612826666200721000958
    Breast cancer (BC) is the commonest cause of cancer deaths among Women. It is known to be caused due to mutations in certain receptors, viz. estrogens or progesterones. The most frequently used conventional treatment strategies against BC include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and partial or entire mastectomy, however, these strategies are often associated with multiple adverse effects, thus reducing patient compliance. Advancement of nanotechnology in the medical application has been made to enhance the therapeutic effectiveness with a significant reduction in the unintended side-effects associated with incorporated anticancer drugs against cancer. The surface engineering technology of the nanocarriers is more pronounced in delivering the therapeutics specifically to target cells. Consequently, folic acid, a small molecular ligand for the folate receptor overexpressed cells, has shown immense response in treating BC cells. Folic acid conjugated nanocarriers have shown remarkable efficiency in targeting overexpressed folate receptors on the surface of BC cells. Binding of these target-specific folate-conjugated nanocarriers substantially improves the internalization of chemotherapeutics in BC cells, without much exposing the other parts of the body. Simultaneously, these folate-- conjugated nanocarriers provide imaging for regular monitoring of targeted drug delivery systems and their responses to an anticancer therapy. Therefore, this review demonstrates the potential of folate-conjugated nanotherapeutics for the treatment and theranostic approaches against BC along with the significant challenges to anticancer therapy, and the prospective insights into the clinical importance and effectiveness of folate conjugate nanocarriers.
  13. Chow YL, Teh LK, Chyi LH, Lim LF, Yee CC, Wei LK
    Curr Pharm Des, 2020;26(34):4261-4271.
    PMID: 32534558 DOI: 10.2174/1381612826666200614180958
    Stroke is the second leading cause of death and a major cause of disability worldwide. Both modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors can affect the occurrence of ischemic stroke at varying degrees. Among them, atherosclerosis has been well-recognized as one of the main culprits for the rising incidence of stroke-related mortality. Hence, the current review aimed to summarize the prominent role of lipid metabolism genes such as PCSK9, ApoB, ApoA5, ApoC3, ApoE, and ABCA1 in mediating ischemic stroke occurrence.
  14. Fai TK, Kumar PV
    Curr Pharm Des, 2021;27(21):2482-2504.
    PMID: 33504298 DOI: 10.2174/1381612827666210127121347
    This review article mainly focuses on the revolution of the synthesis of gold nanoplatform from the previous era to the present era. Initially, the gold nanoplatform was widely used by the electrical and electronic industries for their products due to its remarkable properties, such as large surface volume, redox activity, fluorescence quenching, and optical-electronic properties. In this era, due to the invention of localised surface plasmonic resonance, optoacoustic, photothermal and theragnostic characteristics of the gold nanoplatforms and their application in biosensors and various diagnostic methods, the pharmaceutical and biotechnological companies have started showing their interest in manufacturing gold nanoplatforms for their new product development. This colloidal dispersion is synthesized in various forms, such as a gold nanoparticle, gold nanoplatform, plasmonic gold nanoparticle, amphiphilic gold nanoparticle, and gold nanocrystal. This review article describes various methods for preparation of gold nanoplatforms with different size, shape, and physiobiological properties and their applications in different fields.
  15. Giemza-Stokłosa J, Islam MA, Kotyla PJ
    Curr Pharm Des, 2019;25(27):2909-2918.
    PMID: 31686632 DOI: 10.2174/1381612825666190709202804
    BACKGROUND: Ferritin is a molecule that plays many roles being the storage for iron, signalling molecule, and modulator of the immune response.

    METHODS: Different electronic databases were searched in a non-systematic way to find out the literature of interest.

    RESULTS: The level of ferritin rises in many inflammatory conditions including autoimmune disorders. However, in four inflammatory diseases (i.e., adult-onset Still's diseases, macrophage activation syndrome, catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome, and sepsis), high levels of ferritin are observed suggesting it as a remarkable biomarker and pathological involvement in these diseases. Acting as an acute phase reactant, ferritin is also involved in the cytokine-associated modulator of the immune response as well as a regulator of cytokine synthesis and release which are responsible for the inflammatory storm.

    CONCLUSION: This review article presents updated information on the role of ferritin in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases with an emphasis on hyperferritinaemic syndrome.

  16. Gillani SW
    Curr Pharm Des, 2016;22(42):6469-6476.
    PMID: 27526787 DOI: 10.2174/1381612822666160813235704
    BACKGROUND: Prevalence of chronic diseases are on the rise with majority occurring in developing countries where the projected death caused by chronic diseases will reach 50 million by the year 2020.
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to evaluate and compare the outcomes of wireless mobile device (Telemonitoring) with Pharmacist intervention and usual care on glycemic control and clinical outcomes.
    METHOD: This study is a six-month parallel groups interventional longitudinal multi-center study with a control arm. The study participants consist of patient diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus and attending the outpatient department (OPD) for diabetic treatment. The study protocol is approved from ministry of health Malaysia and clinical research committee (CRC). Data analysis was made using IBM SPSS Statistics, version 22 (Armok, NY).
    RESULTS: A total of 150 participants were selected to enroll in this study. Initial baseline comparison showed 'No significant difference' between the two intervention arms and control group. Findings showed that baseline dataset have no significant change among all three-arms. However last week of study showed significant (p<0.001) improvement among pharmacist intervention arm as compared to telemonitoring and control arm. Glycemic control seems well tolerated and managed among pharmacist intervention arm as compared to telemonitoring and control arm (p<0.001). The study findings also showed reduction of mean 2.72 % (HbA1c) as compare to baseline in six months. The proportion of participants experiencing hypoglycemic/hyperglycemic events was significantly lower in the pharmacist intervention group compared to telemonitoring and control arm (odds ratio: 2.1381; 95% CI: 3.0267-1.6059, p<0.001).
    CONCLUSION: The Pharmacist educational focus-home care program improves the patient knowledge, self-care practices and also significantly reduce the adverse events over study duration.
  17. Gorain B, Choudhury H, Yee GS, Bhattamisra SK
    Curr Pharm Des, 2019;25(26):2828-2841.
    PMID: 31333092 DOI: 10.2174/1381612825666190716102037
    Adenosine is a ubiquitous signaling nucleoside molecule, released from different cells within the body to act on vasculature and immunoescape. The physiological action on the proliferation of tumour cell has been reported by the presence of high concentration of adenosine within the tumour microenvironment, which results in the progression of the tumour, even leading to metastases. The activity of adenosine exclusively depends upon the interaction with four subtypes of heterodimeric G-protein-coupled adenosine receptors (AR), A1, A2A, A2B, and A3-ARs on the cell surface. Research evidence supports that the activation of those receptors via specific agonist or antagonist can modulate the proliferation of tumour cells. The first category of AR, A1 is known to play an antitumour activity via tumour-associated microglial cells to prevent the development of glioblastomas. A2AAR are found in melanoma, lung, and breast cancer cells, where tumour proliferation is stimulated due to inhibition of the immune response via inhibition of natural killer cells cytotoxicity, T cell activity, and tumourspecific CD4+/CD8+ activity. Alternatively, A2BAR helps in the development of tumour upon activation via upregulation of angiogenin factor in the microvascular endothelial cells, inhibition of MAPK and ERK 1/2 phosphorylation activity. Lastly, A3AR is expressed in low levels in normal cells whereas the expression is upregulated in tumour cells, however, agonists to this receptor inhibit tumour proliferation through modulation of Wnt and NF-κB signaling pathways. Several researchers are in search for potential agents to modulate the overexpressed ARs to control cancer. Active components of A2AAR antagonists and A3AR agonists have already entered in Phase-I clinical research to prove their safety in human. This review focused on novel research targets towards the prevention of cancer progression through stimulation of the overexpressed ARs with the hope to protect lives and advance human health.
  18. Gorain B, Rajeswary DC, Pandey M, Kesharwani P, Kumbhar SA, Choudhury H
    Curr Pharm Des, 2020;26(19):2233-2246.
    PMID: 32167424 DOI: 10.2174/1381612826666200313125613
    Increasing incidence of demented patients around the globe with limited FDA approved conventional therapies requires pronounced research attention for the management of the demented conditions in the growing elderly population in the developing world. Dementia of Alzheimer's type is a neurodegenerative disorder, where conventional therapies are available for symptomatic treatment of the disease but possess several peripheral toxicities due to lack of brain targeting. Nanotechnology based formulations via intranasal (IN) routes of administration have shown to improve therapeutic efficacy of several therapeutics via circumventing blood-brain barrier and limited peripheral exposure. Instead of numerous research on polymeric and lipid-based nanocarriers in the improvement of therapeutic chemicals and peptides in preclinical research, a step towards clinical studies still requires wide-ranging data on safety and efficacy. This review has focused on current approaches of nanocarrierbased therapies on Alzheimer's disease (AD) via the IN route for polymeric and lipid-based nanocarriers for the improvement of therapeutic efficacy and safety. Moreover, the clinical application of IN nanocarrier-based delivery of therapeutics to the brain needs a long run; however, proper attention towards AD therapy via this platform could bring a new era for the AD patients.
  19. Gorain B, Al-Dhubiab BE, Nair A, Kesharwani P, Pandey M, Choudhury H
    Curr Pharm Des, 2021;27(43):4404-4415.
    PMID: 34459377 DOI: 10.2174/1381612827666210830095941
    The advancement of delivery tools for therapeutic agents has brought several novel formulations with increased drug loading, sustained release, targeted delivery, and prolonged efficacy. Amongst the several novel delivery approaches, multivesicular liposome has gained potential interest because this delivery system possesses the above advantages. In addition, this multivesicular liposomal delivery prevents degradation of the entrapped drug within the physiological environment while administered. The special structure of the vesicles allowed successful entrapment of hydrophobic and hydrophilic therapeutic agents, including proteins and peptides. Furthermore, this novel formulation could maintain the desired drug concentration in the plasma for a prolonged period, which helps to reduce the dosing frequencies, improve bioavailability, and safety. This tool could also provide stability of the formulation, and finally gaining patient compliance. Several multivesicular liposomes received approval for clinical research, while others are at different stages of laboratory research. In this review, we have focused on the preparation of multivesicular liposomes along with their application in different ailments for the improvement of the performance of the entrapped drug. Moreover, the challenges of delivering multivesicular vesicles have also been emphasized. Overall, it could be inferred that multivesicular liposomal delivery is a platform of advanced drug delivery with improved efficacy and safety.
  20. Hajiaghaalipour F, Faraj FL, Bagheri E, Ali HM, Abdulla MA, Majid NA
    Curr Pharm Des, 2017;23(41):6358-6365.
    PMID: 28325143 DOI: 10.2174/1381612823666170321093345
    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is the third most common form of cancer in both men and women around the world. The chemistry and biological study of heterocyclic compounds have been an interesting area for a long time in pharmaceutical and medicinal chemistry.

    METHODS: A new synthetic compound, 2-(1,1-dimethyl-1H-benzo[e]indol-2-yl)-3-((2-hydroxyphenyl)amino) acrylaldehyde, abbreviated as DBID, was prepared through the reaction of 2-(diformylmethylidene)-1,1- dimethylbenzo[e]indole with 2-aminophenol. The chemical structure of the synthesized compound was characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and APT-NMR spectroscopy and confirmed by elemental analysis (CHN). The compound was screened for the antiproliferation effect against colorectal cancer cell line, HCT 116 and its possible mechanism of action was elucidated. To determine the IC50 value, the MTT assay was used and its apoptosisinducing effect was investigated.

    RESULTS: DBID inhibited the proliferation of HCT 116 cells with an IC50 of 9.32 µg/ml and significantly increased the levels of caspase -8, -9 and -3/7 in the treated cells compared to untreated cells. Apoptosis features in HCT 116 cell was detected in treated cells by using the AO/PI staining that confirmed that the cells had undergone remarkable morphological changes in apoptotic bodies. Furthermore, this changes in expression of caspase -8, -9 and -3 were confirmed by gene and protein quantification using RT-PCR and western blot analysis, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: The current study showed that the DBID compound has demonstrated chemotherapeutic activity which was evidenced by significant increases in the expression and activation of caspase and exploit the apoptotic signaling pathways to trigger cancer cell death.

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