METHODS: Dendrimer mediated cancer therapy is advantageous over conventional chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgical resection due to reduced systemic toxicity, and molecular level cell injury to cancerous mass, for an appreciable survival of the subject. Recently used dendrimer mediated nanotechnology for oncology aims to conquer these challenges. Dendrimers based nano-constructs are having architectures comparable to that of biological vesicles present in the human body.
RESULTS: Operating with dendrimer technology, proffers the exclusive and novel strategies with numerous applications in cancer management involving diagnostics, therapeutics, imaging, and prognostics by sub-molecular interactions. Dendrimers are designed to acquire the benefits of the malignant tumor morphology and characteristics, i.e. leaky vasculature of tumor, expression of specific cell surface antigen, and rapid proliferation.
CONCLUSION: Dendrimers mediated targeted therapy recommends innovatory function equally in diagnostics (imaging, immune-detection) as well as chemotherapy. Currently, dendrimers as nanomedicine has offered a strong assurance and advancement in drastically varying approaches towards cancer imaging and treatment. The present review discusses different approaches for cancer diagnosis and treatment such as, targeted and control therapy, photodynamic therapy, photo-thermal therapy, gene therapy, antiangiogenics therapy, radiotherapy etc.
METHODS: Pharmaceutical emulsion holds a significant place as a primary choice of oral drug delivery system for lipophilic drugs used in pediatric and geriatric patients. Pharmacokinetic studies on nanoemulsion mediated drugs delivery approach indicates practical feasibility in regards to their clinical translation and commercialization.
RESULTS: This review article is to provide an updated understanding on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic features of nanoemulsion delivered via oral, intravenous, topical and nasal route.
CONCLUSION: The article is of huge interest to formulation scientists working on range of lipophilic drug molecules intended to be administered through oral, intravenous, topical and nasal routes for vivid medical benefits.
OBJECTIVE: This review was aimed to critically discuss and conceptualize existing evidences related to the pharmaceutical significance and therapeutic feasibility of multi-functionalization of nanomedicines for early diagnosis and efficient treatment of BC.
RESULTS: Though the implication of nanotechnology-based modalities has revolutionised the outcomes of diagnosis and treatment of BC; however, the clinical translation of these nanomedicines is facing grandeur challenges. These challenges include recognition by the reticuloendothelial system (RES), short plasma half-life, non-specific accumulation in the non-cancerous cells, and expulsion of the drug(s) by the efflux pump. To circumvent these challenges, various adaptations such as PEGylation, conjugation of targeting ligand(s), and siteresponsive behaviour (i.e., pH-responsiveness, biochemical, or thermal-responsiveness) have been adapted. Similarly, multi-functionalization of nanomedicines has emerged as an exceptional strategy to improve the pharmacokinetic profile, specific targetability to the tumor microenvironment (active targeting) and efficient internalization, and to alleviate the expulsion of internalized drug contents by silencing-off efflux pump.
CONCLUSION: Critical analysis of the available evidences revealed that multi-functionalization of nanomedicines is a plausible and sustainable adaptation for early diagnosis and treatment of BC with better therapeutic outcomes.
METHODS: In this study, fbpA and mazE genes were chosen as new antimicrobial targets and treated with antisense peptide nucleic acid (PNA). Firstly, they were evaluated by bioinformatics and then analyzed by experimental procedures. Secondly, the functionality was evaluated by stress conditions.
RESULTS: Our results interestingly demonstrated that when fbpA and mazE loci of N. meningitidis were targeted by antisense PNA, 8 µM concentration of fbpA-PNA as well as 30 µM concentration of mazE-PNA inhibited the growth of N. meningitides and were found to be bacteriostatic, whereas 10 μM concentration of fbpA-PNA showed bacteriocidal activity.
CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated the bactriocidal activity of fbpA-PNA and bacteriostatic activity of mazEPNA. Therefore, mazE and fbpA genes should be potent antimicrobial targets but further analysis including in vivo analysis should be performed.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of paclitaxel loaded PLGA nanoparticle (PTX-NPs) on the cytotoxicity and apoptosis of the different MDA-MB type of cell lines.
METHOD: PTX-NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation method and characterized earlier. The cytotoxicity of PTX-NPs was evaluated by MTT and LDH assay, later apoptosis was calculated by flow cytometry analysis.
RESULTS: The prepared NP size of 317.5 nm and zetapontial of -12.7 mV showed drug release of 89.1 % at 48 h. MDA-MB-231 type cell showed significant cytotoxicity by MTT method of 47.4 ± 1.2 % at 24 h, 34.6 ± 0.8 % at 48 h and 23.5 ± 0.5 % at 72 h and LDH method of 35.9 ± 1.5 % at 24 h, 25.4 ± 0.6 % at 48 h and 19.8 ± 2.2 % at 72 h with apoptosis of 47.3 ± 0.4 %.
CONCLUSION: We have found that PTX-NPs showed the cytotoxic effect on all the MDA-MB cancer cell lines and showed potent anticancer activities against MDA-MB-231 cell line via induction of apoptosis.