Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 62 in total

  1. Kanauchi O, Andoh A, AbuBakar S, Yamamoto N
    Curr Pharm Des, 2018;24(6):710-717.
    PMID: 29345577 DOI: 10.2174/1381612824666180116163411
    Recently, the risk of viral infection has dramatically increased owing to changes in human ecology such as global warming and an increased geographical movement of people and goods. However, the efficacy of vaccines and remedies for infectious diseases is limited by the high mutation rates of viruses, especially, RNA viruses. Here, we comprehensively review the effectiveness of several probiotics and paraprobiotics (sterilized probiotics) for the prevention or treatment of virally-induced infectious diseases. We discuss the unique roles of these agents in modulating the cross-talk between commensal bacteria and the mucosal immune system. In addition, we provide an overview of the unique mechanism by which viruses are eliminated through the stimulation of type 1 interferon production by probiotics and paraprobiotics via the activation of dendritic cells. Although further detailed research is necessary in the future, probiotics and/or paraprobiotics are expected to be among the rational adjunctive options for the treatment of various viral diseases.
  2. Khan NR, Harun MS, Nawaz A, Harjoh N, Wong TW
    Curr Pharm Des, 2015;21(20):2848-66.
    PMID: 25925113
    Transdermal drug delivery is impeded by the natural barrier of epidermis namely stratum corneum. This limits the route to transport of drugs with a log octanol-water partition coefficient of 1 to 3, molecular weight of less than 500 Da and melting point of less than 200°C. Nanotechnology has received widespread investigation as nanocarriers are deemed to be able to fluidize the stratum corneum as a function of size, shape, surface charges, and hydrophilicity-hydrophobicity balance, while delivering drugs across the skin barrier. This review provides an overview and update on the latest designs of liposomes, ethosomes, transfersomes, niosomes, magnetosomes, oilin- water nanoemulsions, water-in-oil nanoemulsions, bicontinuous nanoemulsions, covalently crosslinked polysaccharide nanoparticles, ionically crosslinked polysaccharide nanoparticles, polyelectrolyte coacervated nanoparticles and hydrophobically modified polysaccharide nanoparticles with respect to their ability to fuse or fluidize lipid/protein/tight junction regimes of skin, and effect changes in skin permeability and drug flux. Universal relationships of nanocarrier size, zeta potential and chemical composition on transdermal permeation characteristics of drugs will be developed and discussed.
  3. Chow YL, Teh LK, Chyi LH, Lim LF, Yee CC, Wei LK
    Curr Pharm Des, 2020;26(34):4261-4271.
    PMID: 32534558 DOI: 10.2174/1381612826666200614180958
    Stroke is the second leading cause of death and a major cause of disability worldwide. Both modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors can affect the occurrence of ischemic stroke at varying degrees. Among them, atherosclerosis has been well-recognized as one of the main culprits for the rising incidence of stroke-related mortality. Hence, the current review aimed to summarize the prominent role of lipid metabolism genes such as PCSK9, ApoB, ApoA5, ApoC3, ApoE, and ABCA1 in mediating ischemic stroke occurrence.
  4. Kumarasamy V, Anbazhagan D, Subramaniyan V, Vellasamy S
    Curr Pharm Des, 2018;24(27):3172-3175.
    PMID: 30084327 DOI: 10.2174/1381612824666180807101536
    Blastocystis sp. is a unicellular parasitic microorganism commonly found in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. It causes symptomatic or asymptomatic infection and its route of transmission is via fecal-oral. High prevalence of Blastocystis infection in developing countries is usually due to poor hygiene practices, exposure to animals infected with the parasite and intake of contaminated water or food. Blastocystis infected individuals often suffer from diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, and stomach bloating. Even though pathogenicity of Blastocystis is unclear, it is commonly associated with irritable bowel syndrome. In this review, we have analysed the evidence that shows the association between this microorganism and gastrointestinal disorders. There have been a number of studies which showed that the pathogenicity of Blastocystis is related to its different STs. The pathogenicity is speculated to be due to cysteine proteases formation which stimulates mucosal cells to release interleukin-8 which has been associated with extreme dehydration and gut inflammation. In vitro studies on human colonic epithelial cells revealed that incubation of Blastocystis modulated the host immune response by stimulating the formation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and granulocyte macrophage colonystimulating factor. Metronidazole is found to be the first-line drug of choice. Another treatment option is the combination therapy with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.
  5. Maheshwari R, Tekade M, Sharma PA, Tekade RK
    Curr Pharm Des, 2015;21(30):4427-40.
    PMID: 26471319
    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), primarily myocardial infarction (MI), atherosclerosis, hypertension and congestive heart failure symbolize the foremost cause of death in almost all parts of the world. Besides the traditional therapeutic approaches for the management of CVDs, newer innovative strategies are also emerging on the horizon. Recently, gene silencing via small interfering RNA (siRNA) is one of the hot topics amongst various strategies involved in the management of CVDs. The siRNA mechanism involves natural catalytic processes to silence pathological genes that are overexpressed in a particular disease. Also the versatility of gene expression by siRNA deciphers a prospective tactic to down-regulate diseases associated gene, protein or receptor existing on a specific disease target. This article reviews the application of siRNA against CVDs with special emphasis on gene targets in combination with delivery systems such as cationic hydrogels, polyplexes, peptides, liposomes and dendrimers.
  6. Sharma PA, Maheshwari R, Tekade M, Tekade RK
    Curr Pharm Des, 2015;21(30):4465-78.
    PMID: 26354926
    The increasing prevalence and complexity of cardiovascular diseases demand innovative strategies for diagnostic and therapeutic applications to improve patient care/prognoses. Additionally, various factors constrain present cardiovascular therapies, including low aqueous drug solubility, early metabolism, short half-life and drug delivery limitations. The efficient treatment of cardiovascular diseases requires improvement of traditional drug delivery systems. This can be accomplished by using novel nanomaterial that can incorporate diverse bio-actives along with diagnostic agents in a single carrier, referred to as theranostics. This review discusses the state of the art in the applications to diagnosis and therapy of innovative, nanomaterial- based strategies such as lipid based carriers, nanocapsules, magnetic nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles, protein conjugated nanoparticles, dendrimers and carbon-based nanoformulations with a special emphasis on how they can contribute to improving the management of cardiovascular disease.
  7. Soni N, Tekade M, Kesharwani P, Bhattacharya P, Maheshwari R, Dua K, et al.
    Curr Pharm Des, 2017 08 30;23(21):3084-3098.
    PMID: 28356042 DOI: 10.2174/1381612823666170329150201
    BACKGROUND: Disseminated metastatic cancer requires insistent management owing to its reduced responsiveness for chemotherapeutic agents, toxicity to normal cells consequently lower survival rate and hampered quality of life of patients.

    METHODS: Dendrimer mediated cancer therapy is advantageous over conventional chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgical resection due to reduced systemic toxicity, and molecular level cell injury to cancerous mass, for an appreciable survival of the subject. Recently used dendrimer mediated nanotechnology for oncology aims to conquer these challenges. Dendrimers based nano-constructs are having architectures comparable to that of biological vesicles present in the human body.

    RESULTS: Operating with dendrimer technology, proffers the exclusive and novel strategies with numerous applications in cancer management involving diagnostics, therapeutics, imaging, and prognostics by sub-molecular interactions. Dendrimers are designed to acquire the benefits of the malignant tumor morphology and characteristics, i.e. leaky vasculature of tumor, expression of specific cell surface antigen, and rapid proliferation.

    CONCLUSION: Dendrimers mediated targeted therapy recommends innovatory function equally in diagnostics (imaging, immune-detection) as well as chemotherapy. Currently, dendrimers as nanomedicine has offered a strong assurance and advancement in drastically varying approaches towards cancer imaging and treatment. The present review discusses different approaches for cancer diagnosis and treatment such as, targeted and control therapy, photodynamic therapy, photo-thermal therapy, gene therapy, antiangiogenics therapy, radiotherapy etc.

  8. Choudhury H, Gorain B, Chatterjee B, Mandal UK, Sengupta P, Tekade RK
    Curr Pharm Des, 2017;23(17):2504-2531.
    PMID: 27908273 DOI: 10.2174/1381612822666161201143600
    BACKGROUND: Most of the active pharmaceutical ingredients discovered recently in pharmaceutical field exhibits poor aqueous solubility that pose major problem in their oral administration. The oral administration of these drugs gets further complicated due to their short bioavailability, inconsistent absorption and inter/intra subject variability.

    METHODS: Pharmaceutical emulsion holds a significant place as a primary choice of oral drug delivery system for lipophilic drugs used in pediatric and geriatric patients. Pharmacokinetic studies on nanoemulsion mediated drugs delivery approach indicates practical feasibility in regards to their clinical translation and commercialization.

    RESULTS: This review article is to provide an updated understanding on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic features of nanoemulsion delivered via oral, intravenous, topical and nasal route.

    CONCLUSION: The article is of huge interest to formulation scientists working on range of lipophilic drug molecules intended to be administered through oral, intravenous, topical and nasal routes for vivid medical benefits.

  9. Alam F, Islam MA, Gan SH, Mohamed M, Sasongko TH
    Curr Pharm Des, 2016;22(28):4398-419.
    PMID: 27229720
    DNA methylation, a major regulator of epigenetic modifications has been shown to alter the expression of genes that are involved in aspects of glucose metabolism such as glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction and other conditions, and it ultimately leads to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Current evidences indicate an association of DNA methylation with T2DM. This review provides an overview of how various factors play crucial roles in T2DM pathogenesis and how DNA methylation interacts with these factors. Additionally, an update on current techniques of DNA methylation analysis with their pros and cons is provided as a basis for the adoption of suitable techniques in future DNA methylation research towards better management of T2DM. To elucidate the mechanistic relationship between vital environmental factors and the development of T2DM, a better understanding of the changes in gene expression associated with DNA methylation at the molecular level is still needed.
  10. Asiful Islam M, Alam F, Kamal MA, Gan SH, Wong KK, Sasongko TH
    Curr Pharm Des, 2017;23(11):1598-1609.
    PMID: 27875971 DOI: 10.2174/1381612823666161122142950
    Nonsense mutations contribute to approximately 10-30% of the total human inherited diseases via disruption of protein translation. If any of the three termination codons (UGA, UAG and UAA) emerges prematurely [known as premature termination codon (PTC)] before the natural canonical stop codon, truncated nonfunctional proteins or proteins with deleterious loss or gain-of-function activities are synthesized, followed by the development of nonsense mutation-mediated diseases. In the past decade, PTC-associated diseases captured much attention in biomedical research, especially as molecular therapeutic targets via nonsense suppression (i.e. translational readthrough) regimens. In this review, we highlighted different treatment strategies of PTC targeting readthrough therapeutics including the use of aminoglycosides, ataluren (formerly known as PTC124), suppressor tRNAs, nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, pseudouridylation and CRISPR/Cas9 system to treat PTC-mediated diseases. In addition, as thrombotic disorders are a group of disease with major burdens worldwide, 19 potential genes containing a total of 705 PTCs that cause 21 thrombotic disorders have been listed based on the data reanalysis from the 'GeneCards® - Human Gene Database' and 'Human Gene Mutation Database' (HGMD®). These PTC-containing genes can be potential targets amenable for different readthrough therapeutic strategies in the future.
  11. Moti LAA, Hussain Z, Thu HE, Khan S, Sohail M, Sarfraz RM
    Curr Pharm Des, 2021;27(43):4356-4375.
    PMID: 34459374 DOI: 10.2174/1381612827666210830092539
    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most aggressive and prevalent types of cancer, which is associated with a high rate of mortality and colossal potential of metastasis to other body organs. Conventionally, there are three commonly employed strategies for the treatment of BC including, surgery, radiations and chemotherapy; however, these modalities are associated with several deleterious effects and a high rate of relapse.

    OBJECTIVE: This review was aimed to critically discuss and conceptualize existing evidences related to the pharmaceutical significance and therapeutic feasibility of multi-functionalization of nanomedicines for early diagnosis and efficient treatment of BC.

    RESULTS: Though the implication of nanotechnology-based modalities has revolutionised the outcomes of diagnosis and treatment of BC; however, the clinical translation of these nanomedicines is facing grandeur challenges. These challenges include recognition by the reticuloendothelial system (RES), short plasma half-life, non-specific accumulation in the non-cancerous cells, and expulsion of the drug(s) by the efflux pump. To circumvent these challenges, various adaptations such as PEGylation, conjugation of targeting ligand(s), and siteresponsive behaviour (i.e., pH-responsiveness, biochemical, or thermal-responsiveness) have been adapted. Similarly, multi-functionalization of nanomedicines has emerged as an exceptional strategy to improve the pharmacokinetic profile, specific targetability to the tumor microenvironment (active targeting) and efficient internalization, and to alleviate the expulsion of internalized drug contents by silencing-off efflux pump.

    CONCLUSION: Critical analysis of the available evidences revealed that multi-functionalization of nanomedicines is a plausible and sustainable adaptation for early diagnosis and treatment of BC with better therapeutic outcomes.

  12. Bagheri E, Saremi K, Hajiaghaalipour F, Faraj FL, Ali HM, Abdulla MA, et al.
    Curr Pharm Des, 2018;24(13):1395-1404.
    PMID: 29384057 DOI: 10.2174/1381612824666180130124308
    Quinazoline is an aromatic bicyclic compound exhibiting several pharmaceutical and biological activities. This study was conducted to investigate the potential wound healing properties of Synthetic Quinazoline Compound (SQC) on experimental rats. The toxicity of SQC was determined by MTT cell proliferation assay. The healing effect of SQC was assessed by in vitro wound healing scratch assay on the skin fibroblast cells (BJ-5ta) and in vivo wound healing experiment of low and high dose of SQC on adult Sprague-Dawley rats compared with negative (gum acacia) and positive control (Intrasite-gel). Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E), Masson's Trichrome (MT) staining and immunohistochemistry analysis were performed to evaluate the histopathological alterations and proteins expression of Bax and Hsp70 on the wound tissue after 10 days. In addition, levels of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in wound tissue homogenates. The SQC significantly enhanced BJ-5ta cell proliferation and accelerated the percentage of wound closure, with less scarring, increased fibroblast and collagen fibers and less inflammatory cells compared with the negative control. The compound also increases endogenous enzymes and decline lipid peroxidation in wound homogenate.
  13. Maleki A, Ghafourian S, Pakzad I, Badakhsh B, Sadeghifard N
    Curr Pharm Des, 2018;24(11):1204-1210.
    PMID: 29237374 DOI: 10.2174/1381612824666171213094730
    BACKGROUND: Neisseria meningitidis is considered as a dangerous pathogen threatening human health. Nowadays, the new drug target is focused. Toxin antitoxin (TA) system is recently identified as an antimicrobial drug target. Also, in N. meningitidis, iron-uptake system could be an interesting target for drug discovery.

    METHODS: In this study, fbpA and mazE genes were chosen as new antimicrobial targets and treated with antisense peptide nucleic acid (PNA). Firstly, they were evaluated by bioinformatics and then analyzed by experimental procedures. Secondly, the functionality was evaluated by stress conditions.

    RESULTS: Our results interestingly demonstrated that when fbpA and mazE loci of N. meningitidis were targeted by antisense PNA, 8 µM concentration of fbpA-PNA as well as 30 µM concentration of mazE-PNA inhibited the growth of N. meningitides and were found to be bacteriostatic, whereas 10 μM concentration of fbpA-PNA showed bacteriocidal activity.

    CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated the bactriocidal activity of fbpA-PNA and bacteriostatic activity of mazEPNA. Therefore, mazE and fbpA genes should be potent antimicrobial targets but further analysis including in vivo analysis should be performed.

  14. Baharuddin A, Hassan AA, Sheng GC, Nasir SB, Othman S, Yusof R, et al.
    Curr Pharm Des, 2014;20(21):3428-44.
    PMID: 24001228
    Viruses belonging to the Flaviviridae family primarily spread through arthropod vectors, and are the major causes of illness and death around the globe. The Flaviviridae family consists of 3 genera which include the Flavivirus genus (type species, yellow fever virus) as the largest genus, the Hepacivirus (type species, hepatitis C virus) and the Pestivirus (type species, bovine virus diarrhea). The flaviviruses (Flavivirus genus) are small RNA viruses transmitted by mosquitoes and ticks that take over host cell machinery in order to propagate. However, hepaciviruses and pestiviruses are not antropod-borne. Despite the extensive research and public health concern associated with flavivirus diseases, to date, there is no specific treatment available for any flavivirus infections, though commercially available vaccines for yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis and tick-born encephalitis exist. Due to the global threat of viral pandemics, there is an urgent need for new drugs. In many countries, patients with severe cases of flavivirus infections are treated only by supportive care, which includes intravenous fluids, hospitalization, respiratory support, and prevention of secondary infections. This review discusses the strategies used towards the discovery of antiviral drugs, focusing on rational drug design against Dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), Yellow Fever virus (YFV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV). Only modified peptidic, nonpeptidic, natural compounds and fragment-based inhibitors (typically of mass less than 300 Da) against structural and non-structural proteins are discussed.
  15. Reginald K, Chan Y, Plebanski M, Poh CL
    Curr Pharm Des, 2018;24(11):1157-1173.
    PMID: 28914200 DOI: 10.2174/1381612823666170913163904
    Dengue is one of the most important arboviral infections worldwide, infecting up to 390 million people and causing 25,000 deaths annually. Although a licensed dengue vaccine is available, it is not efficacious against dengue serotypes that infect people living in South East Asia, where dengue is an endemic disease. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop an efficient dengue vaccine for this region. Data from different clinical trials indicate that a successful dengue vaccine must elicit both neutralizing antibodies and cell mediated immunity. This can be achieved by designing a multi-epitope peptide vaccine comprising B, CD8+ and CD4+ T cell epitopes. As recognition of T cell epitopes are restricted by human leukocyte antigens (HLA), T cell epitopes which are able to recognize several major HLAs will be preferentially included in the vaccine design. While peptide vaccines are safe, biocompatible and cost-effective, it is poorly immunogenic. Strategies to improve its immunogenicity by the use of long peptides, adjuvants and nanoparticle delivery mechanisms are discussed.
  16. Yee PT, Poh CL
    Curr Pharm Des, 2016;22(44):6694-6700.
    PMID: 27510488 DOI: 10.2174/1381612822666160720165613
    The Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) is caused by Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and Coxsackieviruses. Common HFMD symptoms are high fever (≥ 39°C), rashes, and ulcers but complications due to virulent EV-A71 may arise leading to cardiopulmonary failure and death. The lack of vaccines and antiviral drugs against EV-A71 highlights the urgency of developing preventive and treatment agents. Recent studies have reported the emergence of novel antiviral agents and vaccines that utilize microRNAs (miRNAs). They belong to a class of small (19-24 nt) non coding RNA molecules. As miRNAs play a major role in the host regulatory system, there is a huge opportunity for interplay between host miRNAs and EV-A71 expressions. A total of 42 out of 64 miRNAs were up-regulated in EV-A71-infected cells. There was consistent up-regulation of miR-1246 gene expression that targeted the DLG3 gene which contributes to neurological pathogenesis. In contrast, miR-30a that targets calcium channels for membrane transportation was down-regulated. This leads to repression of EV-A71 replication. The impact of host miRNAs on immune activation, shutdown of host protein synthesis, apoptosis, signal transduction and viral replication are discussed. miRNAs have been used in the construction of live attenuated vaccines (LAV) such as the poliovirus LAV that has miRNA binding sites for let-7a or miR-124a. The miRNAbearing vaccine will not replicate in neuronal cells carrying the corresponding miRNA but could still replicate in the gastrointestinal tract and hence remains to act as immunogens. As such, miRNAs are attractive candidates to be developed as vaccines and antivirals.
  17. Choudhury H, Pandey M, Wen LP, Cien LK, Xin H, Yee ANJ, et al.
    Curr Pharm Des, 2020;26(42):5365-5379.
    PMID: 32693762 DOI: 10.2174/1381612826666200721000958
    Breast cancer (BC) is the commonest cause of cancer deaths among Women. It is known to be caused due to mutations in certain receptors, viz. estrogens or progesterones. The most frequently used conventional treatment strategies against BC include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and partial or entire mastectomy, however, these strategies are often associated with multiple adverse effects, thus reducing patient compliance. Advancement of nanotechnology in the medical application has been made to enhance the therapeutic effectiveness with a significant reduction in the unintended side-effects associated with incorporated anticancer drugs against cancer. The surface engineering technology of the nanocarriers is more pronounced in delivering the therapeutics specifically to target cells. Consequently, folic acid, a small molecular ligand for the folate receptor overexpressed cells, has shown immense response in treating BC cells. Folic acid conjugated nanocarriers have shown remarkable efficiency in targeting overexpressed folate receptors on the surface of BC cells. Binding of these target-specific folate-conjugated nanocarriers substantially improves the internalization of chemotherapeutics in BC cells, without much exposing the other parts of the body. Simultaneously, these folate-- conjugated nanocarriers provide imaging for regular monitoring of targeted drug delivery systems and their responses to an anticancer therapy. Therefore, this review demonstrates the potential of folate-conjugated nanotherapeutics for the treatment and theranostic approaches against BC along with the significant challenges to anticancer therapy, and the prospective insights into the clinical importance and effectiveness of folate conjugate nanocarriers.
  18. Vijayan V, Shalini K, Yugesvaran V, Yee TH, Balakrishnan S, Palanimuthu VR
    Curr Pharm Des, 2018;24(28):3366-3375.
    PMID: 30179118 DOI: 10.2174/1381612824666180903110301
    BACKGROUND: Triple-Negative Breast Cancer is an aggressive type of breast cancer, which is not treatable by chemotherapy drugs, due to the lack of Estrogen Receptor (ER), Progesterone Receptor (PR) expression and Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2) on the cell surface.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of paclitaxel loaded PLGA nanoparticle (PTX-NPs) on the cytotoxicity and apoptosis of the different MDA-MB type of cell lines.

    METHOD: PTX-NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation method and characterized earlier. The cytotoxicity of PTX-NPs was evaluated by MTT and LDH assay, later apoptosis was calculated by flow cytometry analysis.

    RESULTS: The prepared NP size of 317.5 nm and zetapontial of -12.7 mV showed drug release of 89.1 % at 48 h. MDA-MB-231 type cell showed significant cytotoxicity by MTT method of 47.4 ± 1.2 % at 24 h, 34.6 ± 0.8 % at 48 h and 23.5 ± 0.5 % at 72 h and LDH method of 35.9 ± 1.5 % at 24 h, 25.4 ± 0.6 % at 48 h and 19.8 ± 2.2 % at 72 h with apoptosis of 47.3 ± 0.4 %.

    CONCLUSION: We have found that PTX-NPs showed the cytotoxic effect on all the MDA-MB cancer cell lines and showed potent anticancer activities against MDA-MB-231 cell line via induction of apoptosis.

  19. Mahmod Al-Qattan MN, Mordi MN
    Curr Pharm Des, 2019;25(7):817-831.
    PMID: 30834826 DOI: 10.2174/1381612825666190304122624
    Modulating cellular processes through extracellular chemical stimuli is medicinally an attractive approach to control disease conditions. GPCRs are the most important group of transmembranal receptors that produce different patterns of activations using intracellular mediators (such as G-proteins and Beta-arrestins). Adenosine receptors (ARs) belong to GPCR class and are divided into A1AR, A2AAR, A2BAR and A3AR. ARs control different physiological activities thus considered valuable target to control neural, heart, inflammatory and other metabolic disorders. Targeting ARs using small molecules essentially works by binding orthosteric and/or allosteric sites of the receptors. Although targeting orthosteric site is considered typical to modulate receptor activity, allosteric sites provide better subtype selectivity, saturable modulation of activity and variable activation patterns. Each receptor exists in dynamical equilibrium between conformational ensembles. The equilibrium is affected by receptor interaction with other molecules. Changing the population of conformational ensembles of the receptor is the method by which orthosteric, allosteric and other cellular components control receptor signaling. Herein, the interactions of ARs with orthosteric, allosteric ligands as well as intracellular mediators are described. A quinary interaction model for the receptor is proposed and energy wells for major conformational ensembles are retrieved.
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