Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 62 in total

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  1. Tekade RK, Maheshwari RG, Sharma PA, Tekade M, Chauhan AS
    Curr Pharm Des, 2015;21(31):4614-36.
    PMID: 26486147
    siRNA technology presents a helpful means of gene silencing in mammalian cells. Advancement in the field includes enhanced attentiveness in the characterization of target and off-target effects employing suitable controls and gene expression microarrays. These will permit expansion in the measurement of single and multiple target combinations and also permit comprehensive efforts to understand mammalian cell processes. Another fact is that the delivery of siRNA requires the creation of a nanoparticulate vector with controlled structural geometry and surface modalities inside the targeted cells. On the other hand, dendrimers represent the class of carrier system where massive control over size, shape and physicochemical properties makes this delivery vector exceptional and favorable in genetic transfection applications. The siRNA therapeutics may be incorporated inside the geometry of the density controlled dendrimers with the option of engineering the structure to the specific needs of the genetic material and its indication. The existing reports on the siRNA carrying and deliverance potential of dendrimers clearly suggest the significance of this novel class of polymeric architecture and certainly elevate the futuristic use of this highly branched vector as genetic material delivery system.
  2. Maleki A, Ghafourian S, Pakzad I, Badakhsh B, Sadeghifard N
    Curr Pharm Des, 2018;24(11):1204-1210.
    PMID: 29237374 DOI: 10.2174/1381612824666171213094730
    BACKGROUND: Neisseria meningitidis is considered as a dangerous pathogen threatening human health. Nowadays, the new drug target is focused. Toxin antitoxin (TA) system is recently identified as an antimicrobial drug target. Also, in N. meningitidis, iron-uptake system could be an interesting target for drug discovery.

    METHODS: In this study, fbpA and mazE genes were chosen as new antimicrobial targets and treated with antisense peptide nucleic acid (PNA). Firstly, they were evaluated by bioinformatics and then analyzed by experimental procedures. Secondly, the functionality was evaluated by stress conditions.

    RESULTS: Our results interestingly demonstrated that when fbpA and mazE loci of N. meningitidis were targeted by antisense PNA, 8 µM concentration of fbpA-PNA as well as 30 µM concentration of mazE-PNA inhibited the growth of N. meningitides and were found to be bacteriostatic, whereas 10 μM concentration of fbpA-PNA showed bacteriocidal activity.

    CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated the bactriocidal activity of fbpA-PNA and bacteriostatic activity of mazEPNA. Therefore, mazE and fbpA genes should be potent antimicrobial targets but further analysis including in vivo analysis should be performed.

  3. Alam F, Islam MA, Sasongko TH, Gan SH
    Curr Pharm Des, 2016;22(28):4430-42.
    PMID: 27229721 DOI: 10.2174/1381612822666160527160236
    Although type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are two independent diseases, evidences from epidemiological, pathophysiological and animal studies have indicated a close pathophysiological relationship between these diseases. Due to the pathophysiological similarity of T2DM and AD, which includes insulin resistance and deficiency, protein aggregation, oxidative stress, inflammation, autophagocytosis and advanced glycation end products; AD is often referred to as "type 3 diabetes". In addition to the targeted regimens usually used for treating T2DM and AD individually, currently, anti-diabetic drugs are successfully used to reduce the cognitive decline in AD patients. Therefore, if a common pathophysiology of T2DM and AD could be clearly determined, both diseases could be managed more efficiently, possibly by shared pharmacotherapy in addition to understanding the broader spectrum of preventive strategies. The aim of this review is to discuss the pathophysiological bridge between T2DM and AD to lay the foundation for the future treatment strategies in the management of both diseases.
  4. Zeeshan F, Madheswaran T, Pandey M, Gorain B
    Curr Pharm Des, 2018;24(42):5019-5028.
    PMID: 30621558 DOI: 10.2174/1381612825666190101111525
    BACKGROUND: The conventional dosage forms cannot be administered to all patients because of interindividual variability found among people of different race coupled with different metabolism and cultural necessities. Therefore, to address this global issue there is a growing focus on the fabrication of new drug delivery systems customised to individual needs. Medicinal products printed using 3-D technology are transforming the current medicine business to a plausible alternative of conventional medicines.

    METHODS: The PubMed database and Google scholar were browsed by keywords of 3-D printing, drug delivery, and personalised medicine. The data about techniques employed in the manufacturing of 3-D printed medicines and the application of 3-D printing technology in the fabrication of individualised medicine were collected, analysed and discussed.

    RESULTS: Numerous techniques can fabricate 3-D printed medicines however, printing-based inkjet, nozzle-based deposition and laser-based writing systems are the most popular 3-D printing methods which have been employed successfully in the development of tablets, polypills, implants, solutions, nanoparticles, targeted and topical dug delivery. In addition, the approval of Spritam® containing levetiracetam by FDA as the primary 3-D printed drug product has boosted its importance. However, some drawbacks such as suitability of manufacturing techniques and the available excipients for 3-D printing need to be addressed to ensure simple, feasible, reliable and reproducible 3-D printed fabrication.

    CONCLUSION: 3-D printing is a revolutionary in pharmaceutical technology to cater the present and future needs of individualised medicines. Nonetheless, more investigations are required on its manufacturing aspects in terms cost effectiveness, reproducibility and bio-equivalence.

  5. Asiful Islam M, Alam F, Kamal MA, Gan SH, Wong KK, Sasongko TH
    Curr Pharm Des, 2017;23(11):1598-1609.
    PMID: 27875971 DOI: 10.2174/1381612823666161122142950
    Nonsense mutations contribute to approximately 10-30% of the total human inherited diseases via disruption of protein translation. If any of the three termination codons (UGA, UAG and UAA) emerges prematurely [known as premature termination codon (PTC)] before the natural canonical stop codon, truncated nonfunctional proteins or proteins with deleterious loss or gain-of-function activities are synthesized, followed by the development of nonsense mutation-mediated diseases. In the past decade, PTC-associated diseases captured much attention in biomedical research, especially as molecular therapeutic targets via nonsense suppression (i.e. translational readthrough) regimens. In this review, we highlighted different treatment strategies of PTC targeting readthrough therapeutics including the use of aminoglycosides, ataluren (formerly known as PTC124), suppressor tRNAs, nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, pseudouridylation and CRISPR/Cas9 system to treat PTC-mediated diseases. In addition, as thrombotic disorders are a group of disease with major burdens worldwide, 19 potential genes containing a total of 705 PTCs that cause 21 thrombotic disorders have been listed based on the data reanalysis from the 'GeneCards® - Human Gene Database' and 'Human Gene Mutation Database' (HGMD®). These PTC-containing genes can be potential targets amenable for different readthrough therapeutic strategies in the future.
  6. Teoh SL, Das S
    Curr Pharm Des, 2017;23(12):1845-1859.
    PMID: 28231756 DOI: 10.2174/1381612822666161027120043
    The incidence and mortality due to breast cancer is increasing worldwide. There is a constant quest to know the underlying molecular biology of breast cancer in order to arrive at diagnosis and plan better treatment options. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding and single stranded RNAs which influence the gene expression and physiological condition in any tumor. The miRNAs may act on different pathways in various cancers. Recently, there are research reports on various miRNAs being linked to breast cancers. The important miRNAs associated with breast cancers include miR-21, miR-155, miR-27a, miR-205, miR-145 and miR-320a. In the present review we discuss the role of miRNAs in breast cancer, its importance as diagnostic markers, prognosis and metastasis markers. We also highlight the role of miRNAs with regard to resistance to few anticancerous drugs such as Tamoxifen and Trastuzumab. The role of miRNA in resistance to treatment is one of the core issues discussed in the present review. Much information on the miRNA roles is available particularly in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy setting, because this protocol allows the rapid association of miRNA expression with the treatment response. This review opens the door for designing better therapeutic options in drug resistance cases in breast cancer.
  7. Hardwick J, Taylor J, Mehta M, Satija S, Paudel KR, Hansbro PM, et al.
    Curr Pharm Des, 2021;27(1):2-14.
    PMID: 32723255 DOI: 10.2174/1381612826666200728151610
    Curcumin is a major curcuminoid present in turmeric. The compound is attributed to various therapeutic properties, which include anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-malarial, and neuroprotection. Due to its therapeutic potential, curcumin has been employed for centuries in treating different ailments. Curcumin has been investigated lately as a novel therapeutic agent in the treatment of cancer. However, the mechanisms by which curcumin exerts its cytotoxic effects on malignant cells are still not fully understood. One of the main limiting factors in the clinical use of curcumin is its poor bioavailability and rapid elimination. Advancements in drug delivery systems such as nanoparticle-based vesicular drug delivery platforms have improved several parameters, namely, drug bioavailability, solubility, stability, and controlled release properties. The use of curcumin-encapsulated niosomes to improve the physical and pharmacokinetic properties of curcumin is one such approach. This review provides an up-to-date summary of nanoparticle-based vesicular drug carriers and their therapeutic applications. Specifically, we focus on niosomes as novel drug delivery formulations and their potential in improving the delivery of challenging small molecules, including curcumin. Overall, the applications of such carriers will provide a new direction for novel pharmaceutical drug delivery, as well as for biotechnology, nutraceutical, and functional food industries.
  8. Bagheri E, Saremi K, Hajiaghaalipour F, Faraj FL, Ali HM, Abdulla MA, et al.
    Curr Pharm Des, 2018;24(13):1395-1404.
    PMID: 29384057 DOI: 10.2174/1381612824666180130124308
    Quinazoline is an aromatic bicyclic compound exhibiting several pharmaceutical and biological activities. This study was conducted to investigate the potential wound healing properties of Synthetic Quinazoline Compound (SQC) on experimental rats. The toxicity of SQC was determined by MTT cell proliferation assay. The healing effect of SQC was assessed by in vitro wound healing scratch assay on the skin fibroblast cells (BJ-5ta) and in vivo wound healing experiment of low and high dose of SQC on adult Sprague-Dawley rats compared with negative (gum acacia) and positive control (Intrasite-gel). Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E), Masson's Trichrome (MT) staining and immunohistochemistry analysis were performed to evaluate the histopathological alterations and proteins expression of Bax and Hsp70 on the wound tissue after 10 days. In addition, levels of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in wound tissue homogenates. The SQC significantly enhanced BJ-5ta cell proliferation and accelerated the percentage of wound closure, with less scarring, increased fibroblast and collagen fibers and less inflammatory cells compared with the negative control. The compound also increases endogenous enzymes and decline lipid peroxidation in wound homogenate.
  9. Zahedifard M, Faraj FL, Paydar M, Looi CY, Hasandarvish P, Hajrezaie M, et al.
    Curr Pharm Des, 2015;21(23):3417-26.
    PMID: 25808938
    The anti-carcinogenic effect of the new quinazolinone compound, named MMD, was tested on MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. The synthesis of quinazolinone-based compounds attracted strong attention over the past few decades as an alternative mean to produce analogues of natural products. Quinazolinone compounds sharing the main principal core structures are currently introduced in the clinical trials and pharmaceutical markets as anti-cancer agents. Thus, it is of high clinical interest to identify a new drug that could be used to control the growth and expansion of cancer cells. Quinazolinone is a metabolite derivative resulting from the conjugation of 2-aminobenzoyhydrazide and 5-methoxy-2- hydroxybenzaldehyde based on condensation reactions. In the present study, we analysed the influence of MMD on breast cancer adenoma cell morphology, cell cycle arrest, DNA fragmentation, cytochrome c release and caspases activity. MCF-7 is a type of cell line representing the breast cancer adenoma cells that can be expanded and differentiated in culture. Using different in vitro strategies and specific antibodies, we demonstrate a novel role for MMD in the inhibition of cell proliferation and initiation of the programmed cell death. MMD was found to increase cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytosol and this effect was enhanced over time with effective IC50 value of 5.85 ± 0.71 μg/mL detected in a 72-hours treatment. Additionally, MMD induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and caused DNA fragmentation with obvious activation of caspase-9 and caspases-3/7. Our results demonstrate a novel role of MMD as an anti-proliferative agent and imply the involvement of mitochondrial intrinsic pathway in the observed apoptosis.
  10. Hajiaghaalipour F, Faraj FL, Bagheri E, Ali HM, Abdulla MA, Majid NA
    Curr Pharm Des, 2017;23(41):6358-6365.
    PMID: 28325143 DOI: 10.2174/1381612823666170321093345
    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is the third most common form of cancer in both men and women around the world. The chemistry and biological study of heterocyclic compounds have been an interesting area for a long time in pharmaceutical and medicinal chemistry.

    METHODS: A new synthetic compound, 2-(1,1-dimethyl-1H-benzo[e]indol-2-yl)-3-((2-hydroxyphenyl)amino) acrylaldehyde, abbreviated as DBID, was prepared through the reaction of 2-(diformylmethylidene)-1,1- dimethylbenzo[e]indole with 2-aminophenol. The chemical structure of the synthesized compound was characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and APT-NMR spectroscopy and confirmed by elemental analysis (CHN). The compound was screened for the antiproliferation effect against colorectal cancer cell line, HCT 116 and its possible mechanism of action was elucidated. To determine the IC50 value, the MTT assay was used and its apoptosisinducing effect was investigated.

    RESULTS: DBID inhibited the proliferation of HCT 116 cells with an IC50 of 9.32 µg/ml and significantly increased the levels of caspase -8, -9 and -3/7 in the treated cells compared to untreated cells. Apoptosis features in HCT 116 cell was detected in treated cells by using the AO/PI staining that confirmed that the cells had undergone remarkable morphological changes in apoptotic bodies. Furthermore, this changes in expression of caspase -8, -9 and -3 were confirmed by gene and protein quantification using RT-PCR and western blot analysis, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: The current study showed that the DBID compound has demonstrated chemotherapeutic activity which was evidenced by significant increases in the expression and activation of caspase and exploit the apoptotic signaling pathways to trigger cancer cell death.

  11. Fai TK, Kumar PV
    Curr Pharm Des, 2021;27(21):2482-2504.
    PMID: 33504298 DOI: 10.2174/1381612827666210127121347
    This review article mainly focuses on the revolution of the synthesis of gold nanoplatform from the previous era to the present era. Initially, the gold nanoplatform was widely used by the electrical and electronic industries for their products due to its remarkable properties, such as large surface volume, redox activity, fluorescence quenching, and optical-electronic properties. In this era, due to the invention of localised surface plasmonic resonance, optoacoustic, photothermal and theragnostic characteristics of the gold nanoplatforms and their application in biosensors and various diagnostic methods, the pharmaceutical and biotechnological companies have started showing their interest in manufacturing gold nanoplatforms for their new product development. This colloidal dispersion is synthesized in various forms, such as a gold nanoparticle, gold nanoplatform, plasmonic gold nanoparticle, amphiphilic gold nanoparticle, and gold nanocrystal. This review article describes various methods for preparation of gold nanoplatforms with different size, shape, and physiobiological properties and their applications in different fields.
  12. Soni N, Tekade M, Kesharwani P, Bhattacharya P, Maheshwari R, Dua K, et al.
    Curr Pharm Des, 2017 08 30;23(21):3084-3098.
    PMID: 28356042 DOI: 10.2174/1381612823666170329150201
    BACKGROUND: Disseminated metastatic cancer requires insistent management owing to its reduced responsiveness for chemotherapeutic agents, toxicity to normal cells consequently lower survival rate and hampered quality of life of patients.

    METHODS: Dendrimer mediated cancer therapy is advantageous over conventional chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgical resection due to reduced systemic toxicity, and molecular level cell injury to cancerous mass, for an appreciable survival of the subject. Recently used dendrimer mediated nanotechnology for oncology aims to conquer these challenges. Dendrimers based nano-constructs are having architectures comparable to that of biological vesicles present in the human body.

    RESULTS: Operating with dendrimer technology, proffers the exclusive and novel strategies with numerous applications in cancer management involving diagnostics, therapeutics, imaging, and prognostics by sub-molecular interactions. Dendrimers are designed to acquire the benefits of the malignant tumor morphology and characteristics, i.e. leaky vasculature of tumor, expression of specific cell surface antigen, and rapid proliferation.

    CONCLUSION: Dendrimers mediated targeted therapy recommends innovatory function equally in diagnostics (imaging, immune-detection) as well as chemotherapy. Currently, dendrimers as nanomedicine has offered a strong assurance and advancement in drastically varying approaches towards cancer imaging and treatment. The present review discusses different approaches for cancer diagnosis and treatment such as, targeted and control therapy, photodynamic therapy, photo-thermal therapy, gene therapy, antiangiogenics therapy, radiotherapy etc.

  13. Shadab M, Haque S, Sheshala R, Meng LW, Meka VS, Ali J
    Curr Pharm Des, 2017;23(3):440-453.
    PMID: 27784250 DOI: 10.2174/1381612822666161026163201
    BACKGROUND: The drug delivery of macromolecules such as proteins and peptides has become an important area of research and represents the fastest expanding share of the market for human medicines. The most common method for delivering macromolecules is parenterally. However parenteral administration of some therapeutic macromolecules has not been effective because of their rapid clearance from the body. As a result, most macromolecules are only therapeutically useful after multiple injections, which causes poor compliance and systemic side effects.

    METHOD: Therefore, there is a need to improve delivery of therapeutic macromolecules to enable non-invasive delivery routes, less frequent dosing through controlled-release drug delivery, and improved drug targeting to increase efficacy and reduce side effects.

    RESULT: Non-invasive administration routes such as intranasal, pulmonary, transdermal, ocular and oral delivery have been attempted intensively by formulating macromolecules into nanoparticulate carriers system such as polymeric and lipidic nanoparticles.

    CONCLUSION: This review discusses barriers to drug delivery and current formulation technologies to overcome the unfavorable properties of macromolecules via non-invasive delivery (mainly intranasal, pulmonary, transdermal oral and ocular) with a focus on nanoparticulate carrier systems. This review also provided a summary and discussion of recent data on non-invasive delivery of macromolecules using nanoparticulate formulations.

  14. Kanauchi O, Andoh A, AbuBakar S, Yamamoto N
    Curr Pharm Des, 2018;24(6):710-717.
    PMID: 29345577 DOI: 10.2174/1381612824666180116163411
    Recently, the risk of viral infection has dramatically increased owing to changes in human ecology such as global warming and an increased geographical movement of people and goods. However, the efficacy of vaccines and remedies for infectious diseases is limited by the high mutation rates of viruses, especially, RNA viruses. Here, we comprehensively review the effectiveness of several probiotics and paraprobiotics (sterilized probiotics) for the prevention or treatment of virally-induced infectious diseases. We discuss the unique roles of these agents in modulating the cross-talk between commensal bacteria and the mucosal immune system. In addition, we provide an overview of the unique mechanism by which viruses are eliminated through the stimulation of type 1 interferon production by probiotics and paraprobiotics via the activation of dendritic cells. Although further detailed research is necessary in the future, probiotics and/or paraprobiotics are expected to be among the rational adjunctive options for the treatment of various viral diseases.
  15. Solayman M, Ali Y, Alam F, Islam MA, Alam N, Khalil MI, et al.
    Curr Pharm Des, 2016;22(5):549-65.
    PMID: 26601968
    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common endocrine metabolic disorders. In addition to exercise and diet, oral anti-diabetic drugs have been used as a part of the management strategy worldwide. Unfortunately, none of the conventional anti-diabetic drugs are without side effects, and these drugs pose an economic burden. Therefore, the investigation of novel anti-diabetic regimens is a major challenge for researchers, in which nature has been the primary resource for the discovery of potential therapeutics. Many plants have been shown to act as anti-diabetic agents, in which the main active constituents are believed to be polyphenols. Natural products containing high polyphenol levels can control carbohydrate metabolism by various mechanisms, such as protecting and restoring beta-cell integrity, enhancing insulin releasing activity, and increasing cellular glucose uptake. Blackberries, red grapes, apricots, eggplant and popular drinks such as coffee, cocoa and green tea are all rich in polyphenols, which may dampen insulin resistance and be natural alternatives in the treatment of diabetes. Therefore, the aim of this review is to report on the available anti-diabetic polyphenols (medicinal plants, fruits and vegetables), their mechanisms in the various pathways of DM and their correlations with DM. Additionally, this review emphasizes the types of polyphenols that could be potential future resources in the treatment of DM via either novel regimens or as supplementary agents.
  16. Khan I, Kumar H, Mishra G, Gothwal A, Kesharwani P, Gupta U
    Curr Pharm Des, 2017;23(35):5315-5326.
    PMID: 28875848 DOI: 10.2174/1381612823666170829164828
    BACKGROUND: Delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer is becoming advanced day by day. However, the challenge of the effective delivery system still does exist. In various types of cancers, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women. Breast cancer is a combination of different diseases. It cannot be considered as only one entity because there are many specific patient factors, which are involved in the development of this disease. Nanotechnology has opened a new area in the effective treatment of breast cancer due to the several benefits offered by this technology.

    METHODS: Polymeric nanocarriers are among one of the effective delivery systems, which has given promising results in the treatment of breast cancers. Nanocarriers does exert their anticancer effect either through active or passive targeting mode.

    RESULTS: The use of nanocarriers has been resolute about the adverse effects of chemotherapeutic drugs such as poor solubility and less penetrability in tumor cells.

    CONCLUSION: The present review is focused on recent developments regarding polymeric nanocarriers, such as polymeric micelles, polymeric nanoparticles, dendrimers, liposomes, nanoshells, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes (CNT) and quantum dots, etc. for their recent advancements in breast cancer therapy.

  17. Choudhury H, Gorain B, Chatterjee B, Mandal UK, Sengupta P, Tekade RK
    Curr Pharm Des, 2017;23(17):2504-2531.
    PMID: 27908273 DOI: 10.2174/1381612822666161201143600
    BACKGROUND: Most of the active pharmaceutical ingredients discovered recently in pharmaceutical field exhibits poor aqueous solubility that pose major problem in their oral administration. The oral administration of these drugs gets further complicated due to their short bioavailability, inconsistent absorption and inter/intra subject variability.

    METHODS: Pharmaceutical emulsion holds a significant place as a primary choice of oral drug delivery system for lipophilic drugs used in pediatric and geriatric patients. Pharmacokinetic studies on nanoemulsion mediated drugs delivery approach indicates practical feasibility in regards to their clinical translation and commercialization.

    RESULTS: This review article is to provide an updated understanding on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic features of nanoemulsion delivered via oral, intravenous, topical and nasal route.

    CONCLUSION: The article is of huge interest to formulation scientists working on range of lipophilic drug molecules intended to be administered through oral, intravenous, topical and nasal routes for vivid medical benefits.

  18. Satija S, Sharma P, Kaur H, Dhanjal DS, Chopra RS, Khurana N, et al.
    Curr Pharm Des, 2021;27(43):4376-4387.
    PMID: 34459378 DOI: 10.2174/1381612827666210830100907
    With an estimated failure rate of about 90%, immunotherapies that are intended for the treatment of solid tumors have caused an anomalous rise in the mortality rate over the past decades. It is apparent that resistance towards such therapies primarily occurs due to elevated levels of HIF-1 (Hypoxia-induced factor) in tumor cells, which are caused by disrupted microcirculation and diffusion mechanisms. With the advent of nanotechnology, several innovative advances were brought to the fore; and, one such promising direction is the use of perfluorocarbon nanoparticles in the management of solid tumors. Perfluorocarbon nanoparticles enhance the response of hypoxia-based agents (HBAs) within the tumor cells and have been found to augment the entry of HBAs into the tumor micro-environment. The heightened penetration of HBAs causes chronic hypoxia, thus aiding in the process of cell quiescence. In addition, this technology has also been applied in photodynamic therapy, where oxygen self-enriched photosensitizers loaded perfluorocarbon nanoparticles are employed. The resulting processes initiate a cascade, depleting tumour oxygen and turning it into a reactive oxygen species eventually to destroy the tumour cell. This review elaborates on the multiple applications of nanotechnology based perfluorocarbon formulations that are being currently employed in the treatment of tumour hypoxia.
  19. Tiash S, Chowdhury ME
    Curr Pharm Des, 2016;22(37):5752-5759.
    PMID: 26864311
    Despite being widely used for treating cancer, chemotherapy is accompanied by numerous adverse effects as a result of systemic distribution and nonspecific interactions of the drugs with healthy tissues, eventually leading to therapeutic inefficacy and chemoresistance. Cyclophosphamide (Cyp) as one of the chemotherapeutic pro-drugs is activated in liver and used to treat breast cancer in high dose and in combination with other drugs. In an attempt to reduce the off-target effects and enhance the therapeutic efficacy, pH-sensitive carbonate apatite nanoparticles that had predominantly and size-dependently been localized in liver following intravenous administration, were employed to electrostatically immobilize Cyp and purposely deliver it to the liver for activation. Cyp-loaded particles formed by simple 30 min incubation at 37ºC of the DMEM (pH 7.4) medium containing CaCl2 and Cyp, enhanced in vitro cytotoxicity at different degrees depending on the cell types. The size of the particles could be tightly controlled by the amount of CaCl2 required to prepare the particles and thus the bio-distribution pattern inside different organs of the body. Unlike the small particles (~ 200 nm), the large size particles (~ 600 nm) which were more efficiently accumulated in liver, significantly reduced the tumor volume following intravenous injection in 4T1-induced murine breast cancer model at a very low dose (0.17 mg/Kg) of the drug initially added for complex formation, thus shedding light on the potential applications of the Cyp-loaded nano-formulations in the treatment of breast cancer.
  20. Khalivulla SI, Mohammed A, Mallikarjuna K
    Curr Pharm Des, 2021;27(6):775-788.
    PMID: 33355047 DOI: 10.2174/1381612826666201222154159
    BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a chronic disease affecting a large population worldwide and stands as one of the major global health challenges to be tackled. According to World Health Organization, about 400 million are having diabetes worldwide and it is the seventh leading cause of deaths in 2016. Plant-based natural products have been in use from ancient times as ethnomedicine for the treatment of several diseases, including diabetes. As a result of that, there are several reports on plant-based natural products displaying antidiabetic activity. In the current review, such antidiabetic potential compounds reported from all plant sources along with their chemical structures are collected, presented and discussed. These kinds of reports are essential to pool the available information to one source, followed by statistical analysis and screening to check the efficacy of all known compounds in a comparative sense. This kind of analysis can give rise to a few potential compounds from hundreds, which can further be screened through in vitro and in vivo studies, and human trails leading to the drug development.

    METHODS: Phytochemicals, along with their potential antidiabetic property, were classified according to their basic chemical skeleton. The chemical structures of all the compounds with antidiabetic activities were elucidated in the present review. In addition to this, the distribution and their other remarkable pharmacological activities of each species are also included.

    RESULTS: The scrutiny of literature led to the identification of 44 plants with antidiabetic compounds (70) and other pharmacological activities. For the sake of information, the distribution of each species in the world is given. Many plant derivatives may exert anti-diabetic properties by improving or mimicking insulin production or action. Different classes of compounds including sulfur compounds (1-4), alkaloids (5-11), phenolic compounds (12-17), tannins (18-23), phenylpropanoids (24-27), xanthanoids (28-31), amino acid (32), stilbenoid (33), benzofuran (34), coumarin (35), flavonoids (36-49) and terpenoids (50-70) were found to be potential active compounds for antidiabetic activity. Of the 70 listed compounds, majorly 17 compounds are obtained from triterpenoids, 13 from flavonoids and 7 from alkaloids. Among all the 44 plant species, the maximum number (7) of compounds were isolated from Lagerstroemia speciosa followed by Momordica charantia (6) and S. oblonga with 5 compounds.

    CONCLUSION: This is the first paper to summarize the established chemical structures of phytochemicals that have been successfully screened for antidiabetic potential and their mechanisms of inhibition. The reported compounds could be considered as potential lead molecules for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. Further, molecular and clinical trials are required to select and establish therapeutic drug candidates.

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