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  1. Minhat Halimatus Sakdiah, Liyana Najwa Inche Mat, Abdul Syafiq A. Radzis, Ng, Yiet Fai, Nur Syazwany Nasir Khan
    Int J Public Health Res, 2018;8(1):894-898.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative
    disease after Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and the most frequent sub-cortical
    degenerative disease, characterized by universal progressive disorder of the
    nervous system that affects movement. This cross sectional study aimed to
    determine the prevalence and correlates of PD among elderly attending the
    neurology clinic in Serdang Hospital.
    Methods A total of 150 records of patients attended the clinic from January to
    December 2016 were randomly selected. Data was collected using a
    proforma form seeking information related to age, gender, race, locality, and
    presence of comorbidity particularly diabetes mellitus. The data was analysed
    using the Statistical Package for Social Science (IBM SPSS) version 22.0.
    Results The prevalence of PD among the elderly involved in the study was 34%.
    Majority of the respondents were aged 60 to 70 years old (54.7%), male
    (53.3%), Chinese (56.7%), from urban locality (93.0%) and were not diabetic
    (69.3%). The inferential statistics showed no significant association between
    all the factors with PD. However, the associations between age and diabetes
    mellitus with PD were almost significant with p values of 0.07 and 0.08
    respectively.
    Conclusions Overall, the prevalence of PD among elderly who attended the neurology
    clinic in year 2016 was less than half with none of the factors under study
    were significantly associated with PD. However with bigger sample size,
    possible significant association may be obtained between age and diabetes
    mellitus.
  2. Zulkifli Harun, Saharuddin Ahmad
    Int J Public Health Res, 2018;8(1):878-874.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Premature ejaculation (PE) is an important sexual problem among men
    attending health clinic. Impacts of this condition towards quality of life still
    require further exploration. Aims of the study is to determine the proportion
    and determinants for PE and its impact on Quality of Life (QOL) among men
    attending a public health clinic in Kuantan
    Methods A cross-sectional study involving 290 respondents was conducted at a public
    health clinic over the period of five months (Nov 2015-March 2016). A
    validated self-administrated questionnaire that consisted of sociodemographic
    questionnaire, clinical characteristics, premature ejaculation
    diagnostic tool (PEDT) and WHO quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF) were
    used.
    Results The proportion of PE was 33.9% with PE 18.1% (49/271) and probable PE
    15.8% (43/271). Multivariate analysis showed that level of education
    (p=0.002, OR 3.281/95% CI 1.183, 9.101) and hypertension (p=0.047, OR
    1.788/95% CI 1.008, 3.170) were the only significant predictors for PE after
    controlling self-reported erectile dysfunction, pulmonary and neurological
    disorder. PE patients had lower median scores QOL in all four domain
    namely physical health, psychological, social relationship, environment (all
    domains with p
  3. Norfazilah Ahmad, Mohd Rohaizat Hassan, Incham Manggat, Mohd Rizam Abdul Rahman, Hazlina Mohd Miskam, Sazman Wahab, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2018;8(1):913-923.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction The Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is caused by Human
    Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and a disease with high morbidity
    and mortality.Young mothers are sub-populations that are at high risk for HIV
    through sexual activity. In addition, information on the level of knowledge,
    attitude and practice among young mothers in Malaysia regarding HIV/AIDS
    prevention is still limited.Therefore, the objective of this study is to examine
    the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices towards the prevention of
    HIV/AIDS among young mothers and the factors that influence them.
    Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary hospital in a city center
    among 147 young mothers aged 18-30 years old at the Post Natal and
    Obstetrics and Gynecology Ward (O & G). Data collection was conducted in
    April-November 2014 and the respondents' selection was based on simple
    random sampling. A questionnaire containing validated instruments was used
    in this study. Approval for conducting research has been obtained from the
    UKM Research Ethics Committee before the data collection procedure is
    implemented.
    Results Majority of the young mothers have good knowledge (78.8%) and practice
    (71.2%) towards HIV/AIDS prevention. While more than half of them (56.7%)
    have positive attitude towards the prevention of HIV/AIDS. Living in the
    urban area and being married are significantly associated with having good
    knowledge and positive attitude towards HIV/AIDS prevention. While,
    mothers who are 5 years older compared to the younger ones and being
    married are significantly associated with having good practice towards
    HIV/AIDS prevention.
    Conclusions The level of knowledge, attitudes and practices as well as the associated
    factors could be the baseline to formulate health intervention to prevent
    HIV/AIDS among this vulnerable group.
  4. Nor Dalila Marican, Rozita Hod, Nadiah Wan-Arfah, Azmi Hassan
    Int J Public Health Res, 2018;8(1):933-938.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Non-specific low back pain is one of the most common physical ailments
    affecting millions of people worldwide. This condition constitutes a
    significant public health problem and was listed as a prevalent health
    complaint in most societies. Even though there are many anecdotal claims
    for reflexology in the treatment of various conditions such as a migraine,
    arthritis and multiple sclerosis, but very little clinical evidence exists for
    reflexology on the management of low back pain per se. This study aims to
    evaluate the effects of foot reflexology therapy as an adjunctive treatment to
    the Malaysian low back pain standard care in relieving pain and promoting
    health-related quality of life among people with non-specific low back pain.
    Methods This is a parallel randomized controlled trial with pre and post-treatment
    study design. The study setting for the intervention located at Penawar
    Reflexology Center, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia. A total of 100
    participants with non-specific low back pain will be allocated to one of two
    groups, using a randomization computer program of Research Randomizer.
    The control group will receive low back pain standard care, while the
    intervention group will receive standard care plus eight sessions of foot
    reflexology therapy. The pain intensity and health-related quality of life
    scores will be measured using Visual Analogue Scale and Euro-quality of
    life scale respectively in both groups. The study was approved by the
    Human Research Ethics Committee of University Sultan Zainal Abidin
    (UHREC/2016/2/011). The study protocol was registered at
    ClinicalTrials.gov, with the ID number of NCT02887430.
    Measurements Outcome measures will be undertaken at pre-intervention (week 1), postintervention
    (week 6) and follow-up (week 10).
    Conclusions This will be the first trial to compare the foot reflexology therapy with
    control group among people who medically diagnosed with non-specific low
    back pain in Malaysia. The result of this study will contribute to better
    management of this population, especially for Malaysia healthcare setting.
  5. Edmund Yu, Wei Chang, Narwani Hussin, Marliana Abd Rahim, Sreevali, Muthuvadivelu, Chan, Wai Seong
    Int J Public Health Res, 2018;8(1):907-912.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction There is an increasing trend of obesity in children and adolescent globally.
    The objectives of this study were to identify the prevalence of overweight
    and obesity among students from secondary schools and to determine the
    mean random blood sugar (RBS) for the overweight and obese students.
    Methods This was a cross sectional study. Two secondary schools that were scheduled
    for visit by the School Health Team, Taiping in July 2016 were included. A
    standardized data collection sheet was used to collect the data. Overweight
    and obesity were defined based on WHO 2007 reference for BMI-for-age
    criteria. Random blood glucose was checked for overweight and obese
    students.
    Results A total of 184 school students consented and participated. 128 (69.6%) were
    female and 90 (48.9%) were Malays. The mean weight and height were 56.21
    kg and 1.61 m respectively with BMI of 21.49 kg/m2
    . Overall, the prevalence
    of obese and overweight were 12.5% and 10.9% respectively. Among the 4
    BMI groups, there were no significant difference found in sex (p=0.849) and
    races (p=0.536). However, there was significant difference (p=0.042) in
    mean RBS for obese and overweight students between races. RBS readings
    among overweight and obese students were within normal range with mean
    of 5.95 (0.67) mmol/l (range between 4.60 – 7.70 mmol/l).
    Conclusions The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity were comparable with
    other studies done in Malaysia. Nevertheless, there was no prevalence of
    Type II diabetes mellitus among them.
  6. Norfazilah Ahmad, Siti Norbayah Yusof, Nurmawati Ahmad, Zaleha Md Nor, Juhaida Mohd Noor, Hasanain Faisal Ghazi, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2018;8(1):924-932.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health challenge especially in low- and
    middle-income countries reflects improper, delayed or missed diagnosis.
    Contact screening should be utilized both as an efficient and effective
    targeted approach to intensify TB case finding.
    Methods Through a comprehensive systematic literature review of online database,
    this paper aims at providing an insight into the current practice of TB contact
    screening and to provide evidence based practice for formulation of
    appropriate policies in low- and middle-income countries. There are 24
    articles included in this review from studies published from 2005 to 2014.
    Results Findings in literature varies substantially. Generally, contact screening is
    better intensified with clear operational guidelines, adequate training, include
    close contact outside household as appropriate and follow up at least for 1
    year. Prioritizing high risk close contacts is helpful in resource limited
    setting. Tuberculin skin test is still of value as screening tool and intensified
    case finding must be accompanied with effective management protocol.
    Prophylaxis treatment is recommended especially for children especially less
    than 5 years old, unvaccinated, malnourished, living with person having HIV
    and close contact with MDR-TB.
    Conclusions Policy recommendations in improving TB management must incorporate
    complementary strategies to enhance case finding, effective management
    protocol for follow up or prophylaxis treatment, training for public health
    capacity and concerted dedication from various stakeholders
  7. Mohd Rizal Abdul Manaf, Ahmad Fareed Abdul Rahman Aniza Ismail, Sharifa Ezat Wan Puteh, Azimatunnoor Aizuddin
    Int J Public Health Res, 2018;8(1):950-955.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction The availability of obesity specific quality of life measurement tool is limited.
    The Malay version of Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite is an obesity
    specific quality of life questionnaire which has been translated for use in
    Malaysia. The aim of this study is to evaluate the validity and reliability of this
    questionnaire to measure quality of life among different body mass index
    (BMI) groups.
    Methods One hundred and twenty subjects with different BMI categories who attended
    an outpatient government clinic were recruited for this study. The translated
    Malay version of IWQOL-Lite was used to assess the impact of weight on
    quality of life of respondents. Content validity, criterion validity and construct
    validity were used to assess the questionnaire validity while internal
    consistencies and test-retest reliability were used to assess the questionnaire
    reliability.
    Results The Malay version of IWQOL-Lite showed good psychometric properties. The
    content validity was agreed upon by expert panels. The mean score of all
    IWQOL-Lite domains were able to discriminate between different BMI
    groups. Good internal consistency was demonstrated by Cronbach alpha of
    0.936. Test-retest reliability ranged from 0.828 to 0.932. The physical function
    score (IWQOL-Lite) correlated positively with Physical Component Summary
    of Short Form-36 questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis found that the
    questions loaded on their respective five domains.
    Conclusions The results suggested that the Malay version of IWQOL-Lite is a valid and
    reliable tool to measure quality of life among obese and overweight subjects in
    Malaysia.
  8. Afifah Idris, Rosnah Ismail
    Int J Public Health Res, 2018;8(1):885-893.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Married couples often do influence each other’s emotions and behaviors. The
    effect of this interpersonal marriage relationship on emotional job demands
    and job performance toward work-family conflict (WFC) is still under
    research. This article aims to determine the effects of married couple’s job
    factors (emotional job demands and job performance) on wife’s WFC.
    Methods A total of 120 dyads in private sectors were recruited via private invitations
    to social gatherings. Packets of self-administered questionnaires were given
    included emotional domain of Demand-Induced Strain Compensation,
    Spielberger Trait Anger Scale, work-family conflict and job performance
    measures. Dyadic analysis using Actor-Partner Interdependence Model was
    used.
    Results The emotional demand of wife significantly contribute higher effect (ES=
    0.34 (95%CI: 0.23, 0.45); p
  9. Safurah Khairul Fadzil, Marhanis Salihah Omar, Noorlaili Mohd Tohit
    Int J Public Health Res, 2018;8(2):998-105.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction The use of dietary supplements had risen over the years among chronic
    disease patients with most of it were of patients' own initiative. This study
    aimed to describe the supplements use, assess the knowledge and attitude
    towards supplements and its interaction with prescribed medication, and
    determine whether knowledge and attitude towards supplements could
    influence treatment adherence in chronic disease patients.
    Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among chronic disease patients in
    Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, Kuala Lumpur from
    September to November 2016 upon their written informed consent. This
    study consists of a collection of validated instruments that measured the use
    of dietary supplements and its reason; the knowledge and attitude on dietary
    supplements and supplements-drug interaction and medication adherence.
    Results A total number of 250 respondents were interviewed and 72.4% was found to
    use supplements of own initiatives. Most of the respondents were using
    supplements to maintain health (78.8%), prevent health problems (72.4%)
    and improve overall health (63.2%). It was found that respondents'
    knowledge on supplement-drug interactions were not at the satisfactory level.
    The treatment adherence was found not to be associated with knowledge and
    attitude towards supplements nor numbers of supplements use.
    Conclusions Chronic disease patients mainly knew on the purpose of supplements for
    health and wellness, but had less knowledge on supplement-drug interactions,
    warranting patients' education on that particular field.
  10. Siti Nor Mat, Norzaher Ismail, Syafiq Taib, Hasanain Faisal Ghazi, Zahir Izuan Azhar, Mohammad Saffree Jeffre, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2018;8(2):1006-1014.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Pneumococcal disease causes considerable morbidity and mortality,
    including among adults. Adult pneumococcal vaccines help to prevent these
    burdens, yet, they are underutilized. Our objective is to systematically collect
    and summarize the available evidence on the potential factors that lead to
    pneumococcal vaccination acceptance among of adult community.
    Methods A systematic literature search was conducted involving studies published
    from January 1999 to December 2015. The studies were identified by
    searching electronic resources (PubMed/MEDLINE and Pro Quest database)
    and manual searches of references. The keywords “vaccine/ immunization”,
    “uptake/ coverage”, “determinant/ factor”, and “Streptococcus pneumoniae/
    pneumococcus/ pneumococcal” were used. Final studies result and data were
    reviewed by two independent authors. Disagreement was resolved through
    discussion and consensus.
    Results A total of 171 studies were identified, only 17 studies were included in final
    discussion with 10 domains identified in the paper. 7 studies (41%) had
    reported that the provider domain, patients’ perception and
    socio-demographic factor have had the most effect on the pneumococcal
    vaccination acceptance rate. In addition, only 18% (3) of reviewed papers had
    highlighted that socio-economic was a factor influenced the pneumococcal
    vaccination acceptance while 24% (4 studies) were attributed to the comorbid
    domains.
    Conclusions Healthcare provider and patients’ perception about pneumococcal vaccination
    for adult population are significant domains which influence the acceptance
    towards vaccination. Strong recommendations from healthcare provider for
    pneumococcal vaccination would be an important step to increase vaccination
    acceptance among the population.
  11. Mohd Shafik Abd Majid, Fadzrul Hafiz Johani, Wan Rosmawati Wan Ismail, Diyana Mohd Mokhtar, Qistina Mohd Ghazali, Norfazilah Ahmad, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2018;8(2):1005-1024.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Strongyloides stercoralis is an intestinal helminth that infects humans
    through contact with soil containing the larvae.
    Methods A systematic search was performed for relevant titles, abstract and keywords
    in database from Cochrane Library, PLOS One, PubMed and several other
    sources in October 2017 based on PICO strategy. Out of 511 papers that were
    evaluated for possible inclusion, final assessment for eligibility has yielded a
    total of 17 papers to be included which were found suitable for analysis
    covering period from 2012 till 2016.
    Results A major challenge of giving an overview of prevalence data for S. stercoralis
    lies in the low sensitivity of diagnostic method used which resulted in very
    low prevalence in certain countries. Cambodia and Laos presented with high
    prevalence ranging from 17.4% to 45.9% by using high sensitivity of
    diagnostic methods. The current prevalence situation of S. stercoralis in
    Southeast Asia still have wide gaps remains due to several reasons.
    Conclusions The information we have today only scratches the surface which cannot truly
    reflect the true burden of S. stercoralis in Southeast Asia The main risk factor
    is personal hygiene practices especially amongst males.
  12. Lim, Kuang Kuay, Chan, Ying Ying, Nur Azna Mahmud, Hasimah Ismail, Tan, Beng Chin, Chua, Boon Kee, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2018;8(2):980-986.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) during pregnancy may impair the
    neurological development of the fetus. The aim of this study is to determine
    the iodine status among pregnant women (PW) in Sarawak after introduction
    of mandatory universal salt iodisation (USI) for seven years.
    Methods A total of 508 first trimester PW attending government Maternal and Child
    Health Care clinics in all 11 divisions in Sarawak between 1st April and 15th
    June 2015 were recruited. Urine samples were obtained and analysed for
    urinary iodine concentration (UIC) using the modified Sandell-Kolthoff
    reaction method. For pregnant women, an adequate iodine intake was defined
    as a median UIC between 150-249 µg/L according to the
    WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD’s criterion. For further analyses, the 11 divisions
    were then combined into 3 regions, namely Northern (Miri, Bintulu,
    Limbang), Central (Kapit, Mukah, Sibu, Sarikei, Betong) and Southern (Kota
    Samarahan, Kuching, Sri Aman).
    Results The median UIC of the PW in Sarawak was 105.6 µg/L, indicating iodine
    deficiency. A total of 330 (65.0%) PW had UIC
  13. Natrah Rani, Faiz Daud, Hamidah Alias
    Int J Public Health Res, 2018;8(2):988-997.
    MyJurnal
    Pengenalan Penjagaan pesakit kanak-kanak leukemia memerlukan pemerhatian dan
    tumpuan yang tinggi untuk memastikan rawatan yang disarankan oleh Pakar
    Perubatan dapat dilaksanakan dengan baik. Perkara ini sedikit sebanyak akan
    menjejaskan fungsi sosial, meningkatkan stres, kebimbangan dan
    kemurungan dalam kalangan penjaga. Oleh itu, kajian irisan lintang ini
    dijalankan untuk mengkaji prevalen serta faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi
    stres, kebimbangan dan kemurungan dalam kalangan penjaga kepada pesakit
    leukemia kanak-kanak.
    Metodologi Sampel kajian adalah seramai 54 orang. Data diukur menggunakan DASS-21
    versi Bahasa Malaysia yang telah divalidasi oleh kajian lepas.
    Keputusan Hasil kajian mendapati bahawa prevalen stres tahap rendah dalam kalangan
    penjaga kepada pesakit leukemia kanak-kanak adalah sebanyak 88.9%
    manakala prevalen stres tahap tinggi adalah sebanyak 11.1%. Prevalen
    kebimbangan tahap rendah adalah sebanyak 90.7% dan prevalen
    kebimbangan tahap tinggi adalah sebanyak 9.3%. Prevalen kemurungan
    tahap rendah adalah sebanyak 96.3% dan prevalen kemurungan tahap tinggi
    adalah sebanyak 3.7% dalam kalangan penjaga. Terdapat beberapa faktor
    yang mempengaruhi stres dan kemurungan dalam kalangan penjaga secara
    signifikan (p
  14. Sam, Froze Jiee, Razitasham Safii, Helmy Hazmi
    Int J Public Health Res, 2018;8(2):956-964.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Antenatal care is widely acknowledged as an effective tool to prevent adverse
    outcomes in pregnant women and their children. In Malaysia, early entry to
    antenatal care refers to a first visit within the 12th week of gestation. Delayed
    access to antenatal care has not been extensively studied in Malaysia,
    whereas several studies have reported a high prevalence of late antenatal
    booking in developing countries. The objective of this study was to determine
    the factors and barriers associated with late antenatal booking and the level of
    knowledge about the timing of antenatal booking among women of
    childbearing age in the Lundu District of Sarawak.
    Methods This was a cross-sectional study among 284 pregnant women in all five
    Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Clinics of Lundu.
    Results The prevalence of late antenatal booking in Lundu was 28.2%. Unmarried
    women were more likely to book their pregnancy late compared to married
    women. The prevalence of late antenatal booking was also higher among
    unemployed women than those who were employed. Respondents without
    their own income also tended to book their pregnancy later than those who
    had their own income. Significantly, a high percentage of late antenatal
    booking was also reported among those who never utilize any contraceptive
    method, did not plan their pregnancy, those without a history of past medical
    illness or complications in a previous pregnancy and among those who have a
    problem with their marriage certificate. Those who booked their pregnancy
    beyond the 12th week of gestation were also reported to have a lower level of
    knowledge about the need for an antenatal booking, as compared to those
    who started their antenatal care early.
    Conclusions Unplanned pregnancy, marriage certificate issues, an absence of past medical
    illness and past obstetric complications were significant predictors of late
    antenatal booking. Correct and appropriate information relating to antenatal
    care should be delivered to the public. Health education and advocacy are
    vital to promote the importance of early antenatal booking to achieve the goal
    of safe motherhood.
  15. Fateh Addin Nejm Addin Al-Emad, Zaleha Md. Isa
    Int J Public Health Res, 2017;7(1):783-790.
    MyJurnal
    The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of secondary school students in Sana'a Yemen related to exposure to second-hand smoking.
  16. Muhammad Adil Zainal Abidin, Hayati Kadi @ Shahar, Rosliza Abdul Manaf
    Int J Public Health Res, 2017;7(1):774-782.
    MyJurnal
    Smoking is one of the addiction problems that needs an effective intervention. Smoking cessation studies have shown the promising result, but the central issue was to prevent relapse. A retrospective cohort study was conducted at Quit Smoking Clinic in Klinik Kesihatan Tanglin, Kuala Lumpur to determine the outcome and predictors of smoking cessation.
  17. Narwani Hussin, Hafizah Jumat, Mabelle Wong, Liau Siow Yen, Jeremy Robert Jinuin Jimin, Beh Boon Cong, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2017;7(1):757-764.
    MyJurnal
    Rheumatic heart disease is still endemic in developing countries and among the indigenous population in developed countries. However, there is no comprehensive data on rheumatic heart disease patients in Malaysia. The Cardiology Department of Queen Elizabeth ll Hospital (QEH ll), Sabah started this hospital-based registry in 2010. The objective of this analysis was to report the demographic profile, severity of disease, types of valve involvement and the practice of secondary prophylaxis among these patients.
  18. Kamal Kenny, Zoharah Omar, El Sheila Kanavathi, Priya Madhavan
    Int J Public Health Res, 2017;7(1):765-773.
    MyJurnal
    Health care systems play a vital role in providing health services and in optimising the population’s health of each nation. The Malaysian health care system primarily consists of the public and private health services. One of the prominent private health care services offered in the General Practitioner’s (GP) Clinic. Despite the prominent role GPs play in the health care system in this country, little is known about their practices, the issues and challenges faced by GPs in this country. The objective of this study was to describe the current GP practice operations in Malaysia in terms of its general operations, financial expenditure and revenue, market competitiveness and laboratory services offered by the clinics.
  19. Norlen Mohame, Lokman Hakim, S., Thahirahtul Asma Zakaria, Anis Salwa Kamarudin, Ahmad Riadz Mazeli, Sirajuddin Hashim
    Int J Public Health Res, 2017;7(2):814-828.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: Most health advisories related to outdoor physical activity during haze are general in nature. The advisories normally advise everyone to reduce or limit prolonged exertion or heavy exertion without mentioning the acceptable duration for performing outdoor physical activity causing difficulty for public to decide to stop or cancel a particular outdoor or sport event. The aim of this paper is to determine the acceptable duration for performing outdoor physical activity pattern during haze based on API level.

    Methods: Health risk assessment approach that comprises of hazard identification, exposure assessment, dose-response, and risk characterization steps was used to determine the potential inhaled dose and risk associated with performing the physical activity during haze. We have considered many factors that include time spent for physical activity patterns for Malaysian adult, age and physical intensity-specific inhalation rate (m3/min), and the indoor/outdoor ratio of PM10. A hypothetical exposure scenario of PM10 was created using the breakpoints of PM10 concentration for the calculation of respective API levels during haze.

    Results: The association between physical activity pattern, API level and risk quotient were presented in the form of risk radar diagram. Based on the 50th percentile inhalation rate, all prolonged exertion and heavy exertion should be avoided when API reach >201 (very unhealthy) and >175 (unhealthy) respectively. Below the said API, the duration for performing prolonged exertion and heavy exertion should be reduced according to the API level. When API reaches 140, high intensity physical activity should be limited to < 90 minutes. A football match which requires 90 minutes, should be postponed of cancelled if API > 140. Whereas, for the same API level, prolonged exertion (moderate intensity physical activity) should be limited to 4 hours.

    Conclusions: Reducing the physical activity is an effective strategy to lower the dose of inhaled pollutants and reduce the health risk during poor air quality. Based on the assessment, taking into account the uncertainty of risk assessment methodology, we proposed all prolonged exertion should be avoided when API reach very unhealthy status (>201). Below the said API level, outdoor physical activity should be reduced according to the level of API respectively. The recommendation is not applicable for the sensitive groups. The computed risk radar provide a valuable guide for the public to organize or considering postponing an outdoor event during haze.
  20. Idayu Badilla Idris
    Int J Public Health Res, 2017;7(2):829-835.
    MyJurnal
    Emotional and behavioural problems among children have been increasing in many western as
    well as the eastern countries. Although the problem has been given attention and priority in
    terms of early detection, many children with early symptoms of emotional and behavioural
    problems has still not been detected at the early stages. This phenomenon is worrying as mental
    health problems were shown to be stable in the long run and if left undetected it may manifest
    into various problems in adulthood. This paper explores the issues on emotional and
    behavioural problems in terms of its definition, prevalence, aetiology, long term consequences
    and treatment. It also explores on mental health problems in a non-western country, i.e.
    Malaysia including its prevalence and intervention strategies which has been carried out in
    overcoming this worrying issue. Finally this review paper stresses the importance of providing
    a well-designed epidemiological study in Malaysia in assessing the current prevalence of
    emotional and behavioural problems in young children and adolescent
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