Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) was first reported by J. Erdheim and W. Chester, in 1930. There are less than 250 reported cases till date. We report a case of ECD in a 16- year-old Malay male, who initially presented with elusive anemic symptoms with more specific symptoms of bony pain, cardiorespiratory and hepatic involvement evolving as the disease progressed.
This prospective randomised study was undertaken to compare surgical parameters as well as clinical and radiological outcomes of subvastus (SV) to midvastus (MV) approaches in staged bilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Twenty-three patients, aged 55-76 years, who underwent staged bilateral TKAs, were followed up for 6 months. The SV approach was used on one knee and MV approach on the other. We found similar lateral retinacular release rates and patellar resurfacing rates between the two approaches .The SV approached knees had a more significant blood loss and increased operative time compared to the MV approached knees but they achieved significantly earlier active straightleg raises (SLR) postoperatively (p<0.05 for all). The average postoperative pain, flexion, and Knee Society scores were comparable for both approaches. TKA via SV vs. MV approaches provides comparable satisfactory short-term clinical and radiological outcomes, even though there was slightly more difficulty, more blood loss and longer operative times with the SV approach.
We present the case of a patient with multiple atraumatic osteoporotic vertebral fractures in an adolescent with suprasellar germinoma and also review of relevant literature. The patient suffered from a rare adolescent brain tumour with common complications which are often overlooked and give rise to significant morbidity. Suprasellar germinoma is an intracranial neoplasm, that in addition to its rarity, has variable clinical presentation. Despite appropriate treatment and good outcome, tumour related morbidity is still of concern for these patients.
Heterotopic ossification (HO) is the growth of bone in soft tissue, and can be broadly classified into neurogenic, genetic and traumatic causes. The pathophysiology of HO remains unknown. This disorder is extremely rare in infants and can mimic or coexist with thrombophlebitis, cellulitis or osteomyelitis. Most importantly, HO has to be differentiated from bone-forming tumours such as osteosarcoma and osteochondroma. We report a case of traumatic HO in a fiveday- old newborn following intravenous cannulation of the right wrist and left ankle, with the latter complicated with osteomyelitis. We highlight the clinical and radiological features of HO and differential diagnoses of soft tissue ossification in early childhood.
Firearm injuries to the spine commonly present with acute neurology caused by direct penetration or indirectly from concussive effects of bullet impact on the vertebral column. We report a case of delayed neurologic presentation of retained intra-spinal bullet in a 42 year-old African who had chronic low back pain and sciatica with a past history of gunshot injury to the spine and radiograph revealed a bullet at the L4-5 disc level. Intra-operative exploration showed a fibrous mass around the bullet compressing on the L4 existing nerve root and L5 traversing nerve root. Removal of the retained bullet resulted in a good clinical outcome with complete resolution of symptoms.
We report a case of a human bite that was initially inadequately treated and progressed to chronic osteomyelitis, finally resulting in digital amputation. Human bites are seemingly innocuous, but if neglected, may lead to subsequent infection and morbidity. Persistence of symptoms should alert the practitioner to the possibility of infection extending to the soft tissue or bone. Bacteriological studies commonly yield mixed aerobic and anaerobic flora. Early debridement and antibiotic treatment may prevent development of severe soft tissue or bone infection.
Traumatic hemipelvectomy is an uncommon and life threatening injury. We report a case of a 16-year-old boy involved in a traffic accident who presented with an almost circumferential pelvic wound with wide diastasis of the right sacroiliac joint and symphysis pubis. The injury was associated with complete avulsion of external and internal iliac vessels as well as the femoral and sciatic nerves. He also had ipsilateral open comminuted fractures of the femur and tibia. Emergency debridement and completion of amputation with preservation of the posterior gluteal flap and primary anastomosis of the inferior gluteal vessels to the internal iliac artery stump were performed. A free fillet flap was used to close the massive exposed area.
Total talus dislocation is a rare injury and is commonly accompanied by associated fractures. Common worrisome sequelae are infection, avascular necrosis and post-traumatic arthritis. We report here on a patient who sustained an open total talus dislocation with an ipsilateral medial malleolus fracture. Following early debridement, reduction and a combination of internal and external fixations, early recovery was good with no evidence of avascular necrosis.
Shoulder girdle injuries after high energy traumatic impacts to the shoulder have been well documented. Based on the series of 1603 injuries of the shoulder girdle reported by Cave and colleagues, 85% of the dislocations were glenohumeral, 12% acromioclavicular and 3% sternoclavicular (1). Less frequently described are injuries involving both the sternoclavicular and acromioclavicular joints simultaneously in one extremity. The present report discusses a case of traumatic floating clavicle associated with ipsilateral forearm and wrist injury which was treated surgically.
We report a method for removing the distal segment of a broken locked intramedullary nail secondary to nonunion of the femur following radiotherapy for fibromatosis. A Kirschner wire with one tip fashioned into a hook was used to remove the distal segment without opening with the nonunion site. Details of the procedure are described.
The Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA) score has been developed to identify women at risk of osteoporosis. It can be used as a screening tool for patients at risk who would benefit from bone mineral density measurement and treatment. It was developed based on data from eight countries including Malaysia. However, most subjects were of Chinese (59%). This study evaluated the performance of OSTA among 152 post-menopausal Malay women. OSTA score calculation and DEXA scan were performed. Our results showed that the OSTA score is a good predictor of patients at risk of osteoporosis based on BMD measurements at the proximal femur. Instrument sensitivity was 87.5%, specificity was 95.8%, positive predictive value (PPV) was 0.538, negative predictive value (NPV) was 0.993, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was 0.895. We conclude that use of the OSTA score in postmenopausal Malay women is effective and has adequate sensitivity and specificity.
This report details the case of a 12-year-old girl with a painful, progressive swelling of the medial portion of the clavicle with no history of trauma or other constitutional symptoms. All laboratory investigations were normal except for an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Initial plain radiographs showed a destructive lesion with magnetic resonance imaging showing features of malignancy. Biopsies revealed osteomyelitis, but with negative bacterial cultures and no evidence of malignancy. Treatment with antibiotics did not result in a favourable response. Over time, the swelling increased in size with episodic exacerbations of pain. Follow-up radiographs showed sclerosis and hyperostosis. After five years, this was recognized as non-bacterial chronic recurrent osteomyelitis of the clavicle.
Synovial sarcoma is primarily a soft tissue malignancy that most often affects adolescents and young adults. It very rarely presents as a primary bone tumour and has only been reported in nine other cases to date. We report a case of primary synovial sarcoma arising from the proximal femur in a 57-year-old man.
We present here a unique case of humeroradial synostosis. These anomalies are due to longitudinal failure of differentiation. Approximately 150 cases of humeroradial synostosis have been reported worldwide, the majority of which are familial in nature or associated with syndromes. The case presented here involves an infant aged 1½ months, born with bilateral humeroradial synostosis without familial or syndromic association. To the best of our knowledge, no such case has been reported in Asia.
Research is an essential activity required for the advancement of science and improvement of human existence. To carry out a research, a proposal is mandatory. However, in spite of the widespread demand for research proposals, experience has shown that a number of them are so poorly written that they rejected by assessors. This article aims at assisting researchers develop acceptable research proposals by reviewing the different components of a research proposal.
A review of relevant literature on research proposal writing sourced from manual library and internet search was used for this review
A research proposal is a formal and detailed statement of intent to carry out a research. It presents and justifies a plan of action and shows how the investigator thinks. A research protocol on the other hand is a plan written to seek approval for research from a supervisor or an organization. It is developed as a guide for a study and helps to keep the researcher focused on the topic and scope of the research. A research proposal has the following components: The Title page; The Abstract/Executive Summary; The Introduction/Statement of the Problem; Literature Review; Information on the applicant's centre; The Objectives/Research Questions/Hypotheses; The Study Design; Methods; Plans for Analysis; Data Analysis; Plans for Data Interpretation; Plans to report. Thus, although proposals and protocols are sometimes used interchangeably, a proposal precedes a protocol.
To reduce the time wastage and frustration faced by intending researchers and their assessors it is essential that good proposals be written at all times.
A series of 11 patients with osteoporotic compression fracture of the spine who underwent posterior instrumentation and transpedicular bone drafting in Siriraj Hospital Bangkok was analysed retrospectively. The indications for surgery were neurological deficit, kyphotic deformity and intractable pain. The mean follow up period was 10.1 months (range, 2.1 - 25.5 months). On follow up, all patients indicated recovery from pain. Most patients (7/11) regained one Frankel grade and one patient who was Frankel grade D preoperatively remained grade D postoperatively. Daily functionality improved in nine patients, but two patients still required aid for walking and standing. There was no pedicle screw loosening, pull-out or implant breakage as of the last date of follow up. Adjacent vertebrae also did not show any fracture or reduction in height. We conclude that this operative method is acceptable for osteoporotic fracture of the spine, although a longer period of follow up is needed to further evaluate its efficacy.
A 47-year-old gentleman, with underlying seborrhoeic dermatitis that was treated with steroid therapy, and hepatitis B, presented with pain in his right hip. He was diagnosed with stage 2 osteonecrosis of the right hip (Ficat and Arlet classification). Core decompression and bone grafting was performed but recovery was complicated by a surgical site infection. Wound debridement, removal of bone graft and clearance of the bone tunnel were carried out. The patient was allowed to bear weight after surgery. Twelve days later, he developed right hip pain and radiographs showed fractured femur neck; the patient then underwent a two-stage total hip replacement (THR).