Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 597 in total

  1. Pan K, Chan W, Shanmugam P, Ong G, Kamaruddin F, Tan S
    Malays Orthop J, 2014 Mar;8(1):32-6.
    PMID: 25347294 MyJurnal DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1403.015
    Patients with extensive malignancies involving the femur often require total femoral replacement when their limbs can be salvaged. Reported series are small and involve heterogeneity of tumours. We present nine patients with osteosarcomas of the femur treated at our institution between 2003 and 2010 with a mean follow-up of 27 (6 to 56) months. Their ages ranged from 9 to 17 (mean 14 years). They had large volume tumours (mean 911 cm3) and presented late with a mean of 5.5 months from the onset of symptoms to definitive treatment. All patients underwent resection and total femur replacement. Six patients have died and two are alive with good function at the time of this report. One was lost to follow-up. These patients require a high level of treatment care and have a guarded prognosis.
  2. Ramdhan I, Nawfar S, Paiman M
    Malays Orthop J, 2014 Mar;8(1):75-8.
    PMID: 25347622 MyJurnal DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1403.006
    Radial nerve palsy following traumatic humeral diaphyseal fractures occurs uncommonly. Most recover with good outcome. However the cases with poor outcome or recovery will have tendon transfers to regain the lost functions. Various tendon transfer methods and choices are available in literatures citing acceptable to good results. We report a case of radial nerve transection secondary to a closed traumatic diaphyseal fracture of the humerus which did not improve despite the repair. As many conventional technique produce asynergistic muscle action with secondary post-transfer deformity, thus we had resorted to tendon transfer procedure using an unconventional donor and recipient tendons yielding good results. This new combination of tendon transfers was invented involves better dynamic correlation of synergistic muscles action and produces good outcome and hand function.
  3. Tawonsawatruk T, Mulpruek P, Hamilton D, Wajanavisit W, Tan S
    Malays Orthop J, 2014 Mar;8(1):37-40.
    PMID: 25347522 DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1403.016
    It has been reported that oestrogen receptor alpha (ER-α) polymorphisms are associated with knee osteoarthritis (OA). In this study, we assessed whether there was any association between the codon 594 (G>A) polymorphism in ER-α and radiographic features of OA or patient function. Radiographs, WOMAC score and patient reported time of symptom onset were assessed in 194 patients presenting for total knee replacement at Ramathibodi hospital over a one year period. ESR-1 genotyping was assessed. There were 107 (55.15%) patients with common homozygote (GG), 78 (40.20%) patients with heterozygote (GA) and nine (4.65%) patients with rare homozygote (AA). There was poor correlation (r = <0.2) between group difference in the radiographic parameters, time of onset of symptom , or in WOMAC scores. This polymorphism is not associated with the clinical features of knee osteoarthritis. The role of this polymorphism is unlikely then to be used as a biological marker predicting the progression of knee OA.
  4. Khoo C, Haseeb A, Ajit Singh V
    Malays Orthop J, 2014 Jul;8(2):14-21.
    PMID: 25279087 DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1407.010
    Cannulated screw fixation is a widely accepted surgical method for management of fractures of the neck of femur especially in patients with poor premorbid conditions, minimally displaced fractures and those from a younger age group. A five year retrospective study was carried out in 53 consecutive patients between 2006 to 2010 to determine the pattern of injuries, management, outcomes and the associated predictive factors.All the patients underwent cannulated screw fixation, with 37 (69.8%) having had surgery within 24 hours and the remaining 16 (30.2%) 24 hours after the initial injury. All patients were followed up to union of fractures and complications thereafter if any. Good outcome was observed in 43 (81.1%) patients leaving only 10 (18.9%) patients with a poor outcome, of whom nine developed avascular necrosis (90%) and one non-union (10%). We found no significant relationship between the incidence of avascular necrosis and age of patient, fracture displacement, numbers of cannulated screws used, fracture reduction acceptability and anatomical location of the fracture. The time interval from injury to surgery and the presence of posterior comminution did seem to influence the rate of avascular necrosis but due to the small number of patients, was not statistically significant.We conclude that cannulated screw fixation is a viable option of treatment for fractures of the neck of femur.
  5. Chang C, Chan H, Lim S, Khoo E, Zulkiflee O
    Malays Orthop J, 2014 Jul;8(2):49-51.
    PMID: 25279094 MyJurnal DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1407.004
    Postoperative wound infection in an instrumented spine patient is often disastrous. Management includes implant removal leading to spine instability. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) applied to the spine surgical wound is one of the wound care technique with successful results. We report a case of a man who sustained Chance fracture of Lumbar 1 (L1) vertebra treated with long segment posterior instrumentation, who unfortunately developed Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) positive E. coli infection one month after the operation. After careful debridement of the wound, the implant became exposed. Three cycles of NPWT were applied and the wound healed with granulation tissue completely covering the implant, and thus negating the need to remove the implant. In conclusion, the NPWT is a good alternative in postoperative wound management especially in an instrumented spine patient.
  6. Ariffin M, Lloyd S, Rhani S, Kamalnizat, Baharudin A
    Malays Orthop J, 2014 Jul;8(2):40-2.
    PMID: 25279091 DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1407.001
    The management of post-radiation wound breakdown over the posterior cervico thoracic region can be a challenging task for a surgeon. The aim of the treatment is to produce a well vascularized and a low tensile flap which will close a large defect. We describe the use of the lower trapezius flap to reconstruct the wound breakdown and to obtain stable tissue coverage in a patient with postradiation necrosis. This flap minimizes the disruption of the scapula-thoracic function while preserving the range of movement over the shoulder. From the literature review, it was noted that the dorsal scapular artery (DSA) and transverse cervical artery (TCA) aid in the blood supply to the trapezius muscle and prevent local necrosis during rotation of the flap. The trapezius flap is widely accepted because of the minor donor site morbidity, large arc of rotation and adequate blood supply.
  7. Tan B, Shanmugam R, Gunalan R, Chua Y, Hossain G, Saw A
    Malays Orthop J, 2014 Jul;8(2):35-9.
    PMID: 25279090 DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1407.012
    Taylor's spatial frame (TSF) and Ilizarov external fixators (IEF) are two circular external fixator commonly used to address complex deformity and fractures. There is currently no data available comparing the biomechanical properties of these two external fixators. This study looks into the mechanical characteristics of each system. TSF rings with 6 oblique struts, 4 tube connectors, 4 threaded rods, and 6 threaded rods were compared to a standard IEF rings with 4 threaded rods. Compression and torsional loading was performed to the frame as well as construct with Polyvinylchloride tubes. TSF rings with 4 tube connectors had the highest stiffness (3288 N/mm) while TSF rings with 6 struts was the least stiff. The situation was reversed for torsion where TSF rings with 6 oblique struts had the highest torsional stiffness (82.01 Nm/Degree) and frame Ilizarov rings with 4 threaded rods the least. Standard TSF construct of two ring with 6 oblique struts have better torsional stiffness and lower axial stiffness compared to the standard IEF.
  8. Jagdish K, Paiman M, Nawfar A, Yusof M, Zulmi W, Azman W, et al.
    Malays Orthop J, 2014 Mar;8(1):14-20.
    PMID: 25279079 MyJurnal DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1403.012
    A seven years retrospective study was performed in 45 consecutive vascular injuries in the extremities to investigate the pattern of injuries, managements and outcomes. Motor-vehicle accidents were the leading cause of injuries (80%), followed by industrial injuries (11.1%) and iatrogenic injuries (4.4%). Popliteal and brachial artery injuries were commonly involved (20%). Fifteen (33.3%) patients had fractures, dislocation or fracture dislocation around the knee joint and 6 (13.3%) patients had soft tissue injuries without fracture. Traumatic arterial transection accounted for 34 (75.6%) cases, followed by laceration in 7 (15.6%) and 9 (6.7%) contusions. Associated nerve injuries were seen in 8 (17.8 %) patients using intra-operative findings as the gold standard, both conventional angiogram (CA) and computerized tomography angiogram (CTA) had 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity in determining the site of arterial injuries. The mean ischemic time was 25.31 hours (4 - 278 hours). Thirty-three (73.3 %) patients were treated more than 6 hours after injury and 6 patients underwent revascularization after 24 hours; all had good collateral circulation without distal pulses or evidence of ischemic neurological deficit. The mean ischemic time in 39 patients who underwent revascularization within 24 hours was 13.2 hours. Delayed amputation was performed in 5 patients (11.1%). Of the 6 patients who underwent delayed revascularization, one patient had early amputation, one -had delayed amputation following infection and multiple flap procedures while the rest of the patients' limbs survived. Joint stiffness was noted in 10 patients (22.2%) involving the knee joint, elbow and shoulder in two patients each. Infection was also noted in 5 patients (11.1%) with two of them were due to infected implants. Other complications encountered included nonunion (2 patients, 4.4%), delayed union (1 patient, 2.2%),limb length discrepancy (1 patient, 2.2%), hematoma (1 patient, 2.2%) and leaking anastomosis in one patient (2.2%). Volkmann's ischemic contracture occurred in 3 (6.7%) patients. There was no complication noted in 8 (17.8%) patients Three patients (6.7%) died of whom two were not due to vascular causes. We conclude that early detection and revascularization of traumatic vascular injuries is important but delayed revascularization also produced acceptable results.
  9. Choong C, Chan H, Azuhairy A, Hau MA, Zulkiflee O
    Malays Orthop J, 2014 Jul;8(2):55-8.
    PMID: 25279096 DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1407.006
    Conventional chondrosarcomas rarely metastasize and it is extremely unusual to see multicentric- behaviour in malignant cartilage tumour. We report a 40 year old lady with presentation of two non-contiguous metachronous foci of low to intermediate grade of chondrosarcoma over left pelvic bone and right scalp respectively in the absence of pulmonary or visceral metastasis.
  10. Saturveithan C, Arieff A, Premganesh G, Sivapathasundaram N
    Malays Orthop J, 2014 Jul;8(2):52-4.
    PMID: 25279095 MyJurnal DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1407.005
    A one year old boy was admitted with left shoulder pain with reduced range of motion of five days' duration associated. Inflammatory markers were raised and radiograph of the left shoulder revealed widening of the metaphysis of the proximal humerus. Empirically, he was started on intravenous C-penicillin and cloxacillin after initial joint aspiration yielded only synovial fluid with negative culture. Subsequent MRI revealed acute osteomyelitis of the proximal left humerus with concurrent septic arthritis of the shoulder joint. Cultures from the arthrotomy washout grew Salmonella sp, sensitive to ampicillin. He recovered following six weeks of intravenous unasyn ( ampicillin and sulbactum). This rare case of salmonella osteomyelitis in a non-sickle cell disease patient was diagnosed with serial laboratory and radiological studies and was successfully treated with adequate duration of antibiotics and operative intervention.
  11. Aizah N, Su Y, Shaifulnizam C, MRos M
    Malays Orthop J, 2014 Jul;8(2):66-8.
    PMID: 25279099 MyJurnal DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1407.015
    Extruded bone is a rare complication of high energy open fractures, and there is only a handful of literature on reimplantation of the extruded segment. No clear guidelines exist regarding timing of reimplantation, stabilization of extruded bone segments, and also bone disinfection and sterilization techniques. Previous reports describe sterilization using thermal or chemical methods. We present a case of successful reimplantation of an extruded metaphyseal segment of femur after gamma sterilization in a fourteen- year old boy.
  12. Chan H, Ooi C, Lim M, Ong E, Zulkiflee O
    Malays Orthop J, 2014 Jul;8(2):59-62.
    PMID: 25279097 MyJurnal DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1407.007
    Shoulder impingement syndrome and acromioclavicular joint osteoarthritis often occur simultaneously and easily missed. Kay et al. reported excellent results with combined arthroscopic subacromial decompression and resection of the distal end of the clavicle in patients with both disorders(1). Arthroscopic treatment of these disorders produces more favourable results than open procedures. We report two patients who were not responding to conservative management and were treated with direct arthroscopic distal clavicle excision and subacromial decompression in single setting. Both patients gained good postoperative outcome in terms of pain score, function and strength improvement assessed objectively with visual analogue score (VAS) and University of California Los Angeles Score (UCLA).
  13. Lee D, Loh E, Kueh C, Poi J, Francis T, Koh KC, et al.
    Malays Orthop J, 2013 Jul;7(2):18-20.
    PMID: 25722820 MyJurnal DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1307.009
    We set out to assess the efficacy of radiofrequency-induced intradiscal nucleoplasty in reducing pain in symptomatic patients with MRI-defined lumbar disc herniation and their satisfaction with the procedure. We compared the patients' pain intensity and severity of disability scores before and after undergoing the procedure in a retrospective questionnaire. These patients reported statistically significant reduction of pain intensity and disability level after the procedure. We conclude that radiofrequencyinduced intradiscal nucleoplasty is an acceptable alternative minimally invasive procedure in relieving the symptoms of patients with lumbar disc herniation.
  14. Kwan M, Chan C, Ng W, Merican A, Chung W, Chan S
    Malays Orthop J, 2013 Jul;7(2):12-7.
    PMID: 25722819 MyJurnal DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1307.008
    There are reported cases of cortical reaction over the tension side of the normal femoral shafts in patients on long term treatment with alendronate, leading to subsequent femoral shaft fractures. We performed a retrospective review of patients with low-energy femoral shaft fracture on alendronate, admitted to our institution during the period 2004 to May 2009. The presence of radiological changes of cortical hypertrophy with or without Looser's zone over the tension side of the femoral bone (normal limb) was determined and correlated with clinical symptoms. Thirteen patients were identified. Average duration of alendronate use was 6.5 ± 3.3 years (ranges, two to 10 years). These radiological changes were noted in four patients. Average duration of alendronate usage in these four patients was 6.5 ± 2.4 years (ranges, 5 to10 years). Prodromal thigh pain was present in a patient, who had cortical hypertrophy with the presence of a Looser's zone traversing the cortex on the femoral shaft. One patient had Looser's zone limited at the lateral hypertrophied cortex without prodromal pain. The interobserver kappa coefficient was 0.96. A femoral radiograph should be performed in all patients who are on long-term alendronate therapy who present with thigh pain. We propose a new grading system based on our observation of the radiological features in these four cases. This new grading of the radiological spectrum of femoral shaft cortical pathology has the potential to stratify the risk of low energy femoral fracture for patients treated with long-term alendronate therapy.
  15. Chan C, Ng W, Merican A
    Malays Orthop J, 2013 Jul;7(2):41-4.
    PMID: 25722826 MyJurnal DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1307.012
    Non-union is a well recognized complication of femoral neck fractures. The decision whether to attempt fracture fixation or to resort to hip replacement is particularly difficult in patients in the borderline age group in whom complex attempts at gaining union may fail and later present a difficult revision. On the other hand the patient may be young enough that arthroplasty best be avoided . Besides, presence of ipsilateral femoral shaft fracture with delayed union in addition to the femoral neck non-union will pose major problems at operation. We share our experience in treating a femoral neck fracture non-union with ipsilateral femoral shaft delayed union in the shaft and in the distal femur in a fifty years old patient. The fracture was treated with an angle blade plate and supracondylar nail supplemented with a free vascularised fibular bone grafting and autologous cancellous graft. There was radiological union at fourth month. At sixth months, the patient was free of pain and able to walk without support. Thus, we would like to suggest that vascularised fibula bone grafting with supracondylar nailing is a viable option for this pattern of fracture.
  16. Thevarajan K, Teo P
    Malays Orthop J, 2013 Jul;7(2):37-40.
    PMID: 25722825 MyJurnal DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1307.003
    Various methods, such as vascularized bone transfers, Illizarov bone transport, allogenic bone grafts, bone graft substitutes, are available in treating traumatic bone loss. Free non-vascularised fibular graft is an autografting method that only requires minimal facilities or expertise. However, this method is not popularized due to its avascular property and there is not many reports regarding its use in treating a large traumatic bone loss. We reported a case in our center to demonstrate its possibility of successfully treating the traumatic radial bone loss in pediatric patient. Patient had good recovery with the regain of good range of movement of forearm and there is no harvest site morbidity after two years of follow up.
  17. Pan K, Chan W
    Malays Orthop J, 2013 Nov;7(3):21-3.
    PMID: 25674303 MyJurnal DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1311.003
    Fractures of the femoral shaft treated with interlocking nails will ultimately result in breakage of the nail if the bone does not unite. Further management requires removal of the broken nail which may be a difficult process for the distal segment. If we can identify the symptoms just before the nail breaks, an exchange nailing becomes much easier. We present a patient with fibromatosis who underwent repeated surgery as well as radiotherapy at the age of 16. Six years later, she had a pathological fracture of the upper third of the femur for which an interlocking nail was inserted. The femur did not unite and the nail subsequently broke. Over a period of 12 years, three nails broke and had to be replaced. Two to 3 months before each breakage, the patient experienced the same set of symptoms for each episode. Knowing that her fracture was not going to heal will now alert us to do an exchange nailing before the nail broke again. It is well known that where there is evidence of non-union, pre-emptive treatment is necessary before implant failure.

    KEY WORDS: Femur nonunion, interlocking nail, symptoms before breakage of nail.

  18. Wang C, Bea K, Zulkiflee O
    Malays Orthop J, 2013 Nov;7(3):18-20.
    PMID: 25674302 MyJurnal DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1311.002
    Clavicle fracture is commonly treated conservatively. However uncommon complication can arise causing impingement. We report a patient who sustained distal clavicle fracture and was treated conservatively. However he developed persistent shoulder pain that affected his daily life. Shoulder impingement was diagnosed and arthroscopic subacromioclavicular decompression was done. Following early physiotherapy the early recovery was good with full range of motion of the shoulder.
  19. Rengsen P, Tiong K, Teo Y, Goh T, Sivapathasundram N
    Malays Orthop J, 2013 Nov;7(3):15-7.
    PMID: 25674301 DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1311.001
    Giant cell tumour in the metatarsal of a skeletally immature person is uncommon. Adequate surgical resection in this region can be difficult to achieve as there is little space between the rays of the foot. Furthermore, there is the challenge of restoring the metatarsophalangeal articulation after resection of the tumor. We describe a technique using non-vascularised fibular graft for reconstructing the 2nd metatarsal after en-bloc resection for giant cell tumour in a 14 year old adolescent female.
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