Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 362 in total

  1. Muhammad-Lutfi AR, Zaraihah MR, Anuar-Ramdhan IM
    Malays Orthop J, 2014 Nov;8(3):22-6.
    PMID: 26401231 MyJurnal DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1411.005
    Good knowledge and practice regarding diabetic foot care will reduce the risk of diabetic foot complications and ultimately amputation. This study is conducted to assess patients' knowledge and compliance of diabetic foot care. A cross sectional study performed on patients who were admitted to HSNZ from the 1st September 2013 to 30th April 2014 for diabetic foot infections. They were interviewed with a questionnaire of 15 'yes' or 'no' questions on foot care knowledge and practice. Score of 1 was given for each 'yes' answer. The level of knowledge and practice, whether good or poor, was determined based on the median score of each category. The result was tested using a chi-square test in SPSS version 17. A total of 157 patients were included in this study with a mean age of 56.33 years (31-77). There were 72 male (45.9%) and 85 female (54.1%) patients with the majority of them being Malays (154 patients, 98.1%). Majority of the patients (58%) had poor foot care knowledge while 97 patients (61.8%) had poor diabetic foot care practice as compared to the median score. Based on the chi square test of relatedness, there was no significant association between knowledge and practice with any of the variables. In conclusion, the majority of patients admitted for diabetic foot infections had poor knowledge and practice of diabetic foot care. Education regarding foot care strategies should be emphasized and empowered within the diabetic population.
    Study site: Hospital Sultanah Nur Zahirah, Kuala Terengganu,Terengganu, Malaysia
  2. Anizar-Faizi A, Hisam A, Sudhagar KP, Moganadass M, Suresh C
    Malays Orthop J, 2014 Nov;8(3):1-6.
    PMID: 26401227 MyJurnal DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1411.001
    The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of surgical treatment in displaced acetabular fractures in our local facilities. Previous studies reveal good outcome via open reduction method with achievement of congruent joint. We note that studies in this respect have not been conducted in our region. We retrospectively analyzed thirty patients with acetabular fractures who underwent open reduction and internal fixation. The data collection was performed over a 4-year period, from 2008 to 2011. The results showed 20 out of 30 patients (66.7%) had excellent/good results (Harris Hip Score equal or more than 80). Post operative complications were deep infection (6.7%), iatrogenic sciatic nerve injury (10.0%), avascular necrosis (16.7%), heterotopic ossificans (3.3%), degenerative changes in hip joint (43.3%) and loss of reduction (3.3%). In conclusion, surgical treatment of displaced acetabular fractures produces good functional outcome despite the complications.
  3. Dhillon KS
    Malays Orthop J, 2014 Nov;8(3):42-7.
    PMID: 26401236 DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1411.010
    We are all aware that there has been a dramatic increase in the number of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions that are carried out here in Malaysia as well as around the world. The numbers of ACL injuries have undoubtedly increased over the years with greater participation of young adults in sporting activities. However it is not certain whether the increase in the numbers of reconstructions can be accounted for by the increasing numbers of ACL injuries. Without doubt commercial interests as well the influence of the biomedical companies have a role to play. In the past the rationale for surgical treatment of an ACL tear was that the ACL is vital for knee function and that in the long term ACL deficiency will lead to more injuries of the meniscus and more degeneration of the joint. This belief was prevalent because the natural history of an ACL deficient knee and the ultimate outcome of reconstruction of the ACL were both not known. However in recent years a substantial amount of research has been published, which has elucidated the natural history of ACL deficient knees as well as the long term outcome of reconstruction of the ACL.
  4. Anuar-Ramdhan IM, Azahari IM, Med Orth M
    Malays Orthop J, 2014 Nov;8(3):33-6.
    PMID: 26401234 MyJurnal DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1411.008
    The diaphyseal tibia fracture is best treated with intramedullary nail but in some cases where the nail is not applicable, plate fixation will be the next option of fixation. The extensile anterior approach is normally used for conventional compression plate fixation in tibia shaft fractures. The extensive surgical dissection may devitalizes the bony fragments and interfere with the fracture union as well as soft tissue healing. Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis (MIPO) provides good preservation of blood supply and fracture hematoma at the fracture site thus promotes biological bone healing. The use of indirect reduction techniques and small skin incisions to introduce the plate is technically demanding and requires fluoroscopy exposures throughout the surgery, being some of its drawbacks. We recommend MIPO for conventional compression plate fixation in tibial shaft fractures in view of the reduced surgical trauma to the surrounding soft tissue and good functional outcome.
  5. Chiu CK, Chan C, Kwan MK
    Malays Orthop J, 2014 Nov;8(3):27-9.
    PMID: 26401232 MyJurnal DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1411.006
    A method of transpedicular bone grafting using contrast impregnated bone to improve the visualization of bone graft on the image intensifier is reported. A - 36-year old man who had sustained traumatic burst fracture of T12 vertebra, with Load-Sharing Classification (LSC) score of 8, was treated with posterior short segment fusion from T11 to L1 with transpedicular bone graft of T12 vertebra. We were able to correct the kyphotic end plate angle (EPA) from 19º to 1.4º. Anterior bone graft augmentation was achieved with contrast enhaced transpedicular bone grafts. At six months follow up, CT scan showed good bony integration of the anterior column with EPA of 4.5º and two years later, radiographs showed EPA of 7.6 º.
  6. Balakrishnan S, Shahid Nj, Fairuz T, Ramdhan I
    Malays Orthop J, 2014 Mar;8(1):42-4.
    PMID: 25347049 DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1403.017
    Diabetic foot infections make up a significant number of orthopaedic ward admissions. The recommended choice of empirical antibiotics used in Malaysia for diabetic foot infections is based on the National Antibiotic Guidelines 2008. The pattern of bacteriology and the effectiveness of the treatment of diabetic foot infections based on this guideline were analyzed through a retrospective study in our hospital. Data over a period of one year (May 2012- April 2013) was analyzed, and 96 patients were included in this study. Polymicrobial growth (58%) was mainly isolated, followed with an almost equal percentage of gram-negative (22%) and gram-positive organisms (20%). The empirical antibiotics based on the national antibiotic guidelines were used as definitive antibiotics in 85% of the cases. Although there was slight variation in the pattern of organisms as compared to other studies conducted in this country, the high rate of positive clinical response proved that the antibiotic guideline was still effective in diabetic foot infection treatment.

    KEY WORDS: Diabetic foot infections, National Antibiotic Guidelines, Culture and Sensitivity.

  7. Ramdhan I, Nawfar S, Paiman M
    Malays Orthop J, 2014 Mar;8(1):75-8.
    PMID: 25347622 MyJurnal DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1403.006
    Radial nerve palsy following traumatic humeral diaphyseal fractures occurs uncommonly. Most recover with good outcome. However the cases with poor outcome or recovery will have tendon transfers to regain the lost functions. Various tendon transfer methods and choices are available in literatures citing acceptable to good results. We report a case of radial nerve transection secondary to a closed traumatic diaphyseal fracture of the humerus which did not improve despite the repair. As many conventional technique produce asynergistic muscle action with secondary post-transfer deformity, thus we had resorted to tendon transfer procedure using an unconventional donor and recipient tendons yielding good results. This new combination of tendon transfers was invented involves better dynamic correlation of synergistic muscles action and produces good outcome and hand function.
  8. Tawonsawatruk T, Mulpruek P, Hamilton D, Wajanavisit W, Tan S
    Malays Orthop J, 2014 Mar;8(1):37-40.
    PMID: 25347522 DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1403.016
    It has been reported that oestrogen receptor alpha (ER-α) polymorphisms are associated with knee osteoarthritis (OA). In this study, we assessed whether there was any association between the codon 594 (G>A) polymorphism in ER-α and radiographic features of OA or patient function. Radiographs, WOMAC score and patient reported time of symptom onset were assessed in 194 patients presenting for total knee replacement at Ramathibodi hospital over a one year period. ESR-1 genotyping was assessed. There were 107 (55.15%) patients with common homozygote (GG), 78 (40.20%) patients with heterozygote (GA) and nine (4.65%) patients with rare homozygote (AA). There was poor correlation (r = <0.2) between group difference in the radiographic parameters, time of onset of symptom , or in WOMAC scores. This polymorphism is not associated with the clinical features of knee osteoarthritis. The role of this polymorphism is unlikely then to be used as a biological marker predicting the progression of knee OA.
  9. Chan H, Wang C, Azuhairy A, Hau A, Zulkiflee O
    Malays Orthop J, 2014 Mar;8(1):79-81.
    PMID: 25347391 DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1403.007
    Primary sacral tumours are rare, therefore experience of managing their associated complications are very limited. Effective surgical treatment of pelvic chondrosarcoma remains a major challenge for orthopaedic surgeons, due to the complex anatomic structure of the pelvis, the lack of defined compartment borders, the close vicinity to vital structures, and the risk of jeopardizing pelvic structural stability. We report a rare case of a giant sacral chondrosarcoma (100cm x 80cm) in an elderly male who successfully underwent tumour resection with good functional outcome and recovery. Long term follow up is essential in view of the possibility of local tumour recurrence.
  10. Pan K, Chan W, Shanmugam P, Ong G, Kamaruddin F, Tan S
    Malays Orthop J, 2014 Mar;8(1):32-6.
    PMID: 25347294 MyJurnal DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1403.015
    Patients with extensive malignancies involving the femur often require total femoral replacement when their limbs can be salvaged. Reported series are small and involve heterogeneity of tumours. We present nine patients with osteosarcomas of the femur treated at our institution between 2003 and 2010 with a mean follow-up of 27 (6 to 56) months. Their ages ranged from 9 to 17 (mean 14 years). They had large volume tumours (mean 911 cm3) and presented late with a mean of 5.5 months from the onset of symptoms to definitive treatment. All patients underwent resection and total femur replacement. Six patients have died and two are alive with good function at the time of this report. One was lost to follow-up. These patients require a high level of treatment care and have a guarded prognosis.
  11. Aizah N, Su Y, Shaifulnizam C, MRos M
    Malays Orthop J, 2014 Jul;8(2):66-8.
    PMID: 25279099 MyJurnal DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1407.015
    Extruded bone is a rare complication of high energy open fractures, and there is only a handful of literature on reimplantation of the extruded segment. No clear guidelines exist regarding timing of reimplantation, stabilization of extruded bone segments, and also bone disinfection and sterilization techniques. Previous reports describe sterilization using thermal or chemical methods. We present a case of successful reimplantation of an extruded metaphyseal segment of femur after gamma sterilization in a fourteen- year old boy.
  12. Saturveithan C, Arieff A, Premganesh G, Sivapathasundaram N
    Malays Orthop J, 2014 Jul;8(2):52-4.
    PMID: 25279095 MyJurnal DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1407.005
    A one year old boy was admitted with left shoulder pain with reduced range of motion of five days' duration associated. Inflammatory markers were raised and radiograph of the left shoulder revealed widening of the metaphysis of the proximal humerus. Empirically, he was started on intravenous C-penicillin and cloxacillin after initial joint aspiration yielded only synovial fluid with negative culture. Subsequent MRI revealed acute osteomyelitis of the proximal left humerus with concurrent septic arthritis of the shoulder joint. Cultures from the arthrotomy washout grew Salmonella sp, sensitive to ampicillin. He recovered following six weeks of intravenous unasyn ( ampicillin and sulbactum). This rare case of salmonella osteomyelitis in a non-sickle cell disease patient was diagnosed with serial laboratory and radiological studies and was successfully treated with adequate duration of antibiotics and operative intervention.
  13. Chang C, Chan H, Lim S, Khoo E, Zulkiflee O
    Malays Orthop J, 2014 Jul;8(2):49-51.
    PMID: 25279094 MyJurnal DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1407.004
    Postoperative wound infection in an instrumented spine patient is often disastrous. Management includes implant removal leading to spine instability. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) applied to the spine surgical wound is one of the wound care technique with successful results. We report a case of a man who sustained Chance fracture of Lumbar 1 (L1) vertebra treated with long segment posterior instrumentation, who unfortunately developed Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) positive E. coli infection one month after the operation. After careful debridement of the wound, the implant became exposed. Three cycles of NPWT were applied and the wound healed with granulation tissue completely covering the implant, and thus negating the need to remove the implant. In conclusion, the NPWT is a good alternative in postoperative wound management especially in an instrumented spine patient.
  14. Ariffin M, Lloyd S, Rhani S, Kamalnizat, Baharudin A
    Malays Orthop J, 2014 Jul;8(2):40-2.
    PMID: 25279091 DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1407.001
    The management of post-radiation wound breakdown over the posterior cervico thoracic region can be a challenging task for a surgeon. The aim of the treatment is to produce a well vascularized and a low tensile flap which will close a large defect. We describe the use of the lower trapezius flap to reconstruct the wound breakdown and to obtain stable tissue coverage in a patient with postradiation necrosis. This flap minimizes the disruption of the scapula-thoracic function while preserving the range of movement over the shoulder. From the literature review, it was noted that the dorsal scapular artery (DSA) and transverse cervical artery (TCA) aid in the blood supply to the trapezius muscle and prevent local necrosis during rotation of the flap. The trapezius flap is widely accepted because of the minor donor site morbidity, large arc of rotation and adequate blood supply.
  15. Jagdish K, Paiman M, Nawfar A, Yusof M, Zulmi W, Azman W, et al.
    Malays Orthop J, 2014 Mar;8(1):14-20.
    PMID: 25279079 MyJurnal DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1403.012
    A seven years retrospective study was performed in 45 consecutive vascular injuries in the extremities to investigate the pattern of injuries, managements and outcomes. Motor-vehicle accidents were the leading cause of injuries (80%), followed by industrial injuries (11.1%) and iatrogenic injuries (4.4%). Popliteal and brachial artery injuries were commonly involved (20%). Fifteen (33.3%) patients had fractures, dislocation or fracture dislocation around the knee joint and 6 (13.3%) patients had soft tissue injuries without fracture. Traumatic arterial transection accounted for 34 (75.6%) cases, followed by laceration in 7 (15.6%) and 9 (6.7%) contusions. Associated nerve injuries were seen in 8 (17.8 %) patients using intra-operative findings as the gold standard, both conventional angiogram (CA) and computerized tomography angiogram (CTA) had 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity in determining the site of arterial injuries. The mean ischemic time was 25.31 hours (4 - 278 hours). Thirty-three (73.3 %) patients were treated more than 6 hours after injury and 6 patients underwent revascularization after 24 hours; all had good collateral circulation without distal pulses or evidence of ischemic neurological deficit. The mean ischemic time in 39 patients who underwent revascularization within 24 hours was 13.2 hours. Delayed amputation was performed in 5 patients (11.1%). Of the 6 patients who underwent delayed revascularization, one patient had early amputation, one -had delayed amputation following infection and multiple flap procedures while the rest of the patients' limbs survived. Joint stiffness was noted in 10 patients (22.2%) involving the knee joint, elbow and shoulder in two patients each. Infection was also noted in 5 patients (11.1%) with two of them were due to infected implants. Other complications encountered included nonunion (2 patients, 4.4%), delayed union (1 patient, 2.2%),limb length discrepancy (1 patient, 2.2%), hematoma (1 patient, 2.2%) and leaking anastomosis in one patient (2.2%). Volkmann's ischemic contracture occurred in 3 (6.7%) patients. There was no complication noted in 8 (17.8%) patients Three patients (6.7%) died of whom two were not due to vascular causes. We conclude that early detection and revascularization of traumatic vascular injuries is important but delayed revascularization also produced acceptable results.
  16. Tan B, Shanmugam R, Gunalan R, Chua Y, Hossain G, Saw A
    Malays Orthop J, 2014 Jul;8(2):35-9.
    PMID: 25279090 DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1407.012
    Taylor's spatial frame (TSF) and Ilizarov external fixators (IEF) are two circular external fixator commonly used to address complex deformity and fractures. There is currently no data available comparing the biomechanical properties of these two external fixators. This study looks into the mechanical characteristics of each system. TSF rings with 6 oblique struts, 4 tube connectors, 4 threaded rods, and 6 threaded rods were compared to a standard IEF rings with 4 threaded rods. Compression and torsional loading was performed to the frame as well as construct with Polyvinylchloride tubes. TSF rings with 4 tube connectors had the highest stiffness (3288 N/mm) while TSF rings with 6 struts was the least stiff. The situation was reversed for torsion where TSF rings with 6 oblique struts had the highest torsional stiffness (82.01 Nm/Degree) and frame Ilizarov rings with 4 threaded rods the least. Standard TSF construct of two ring with 6 oblique struts have better torsional stiffness and lower axial stiffness compared to the standard IEF.
  17. Khoo C, Haseeb A, Ajit Singh V
    Malays Orthop J, 2014 Jul;8(2):14-21.
    PMID: 25279087 DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1407.010
    Cannulated screw fixation is a widely accepted surgical method for management of fractures of the neck of femur especially in patients with poor premorbid conditions, minimally displaced fractures and those from a younger age group. A five year retrospective study was carried out in 53 consecutive patients between 2006 to 2010 to determine the pattern of injuries, management, outcomes and the associated predictive factors.All the patients underwent cannulated screw fixation, with 37 (69.8%) having had surgery within 24 hours and the remaining 16 (30.2%) 24 hours after the initial injury. All patients were followed up to union of fractures and complications thereafter if any. Good outcome was observed in 43 (81.1%) patients leaving only 10 (18.9%) patients with a poor outcome, of whom nine developed avascular necrosis (90%) and one non-union (10%). We found no significant relationship between the incidence of avascular necrosis and age of patient, fracture displacement, numbers of cannulated screws used, fracture reduction acceptability and anatomical location of the fracture. The time interval from injury to surgery and the presence of posterior comminution did seem to influence the rate of avascular necrosis but due to the small number of patients, was not statistically significant.We conclude that cannulated screw fixation is a viable option of treatment for fractures of the neck of femur.
  18. Bhardwaj A, Sivapathasundaram N, Yusof M, Minghat A, Swe K, Sinha N
    Malays Orthop J, 2014 Jul;8(2):6-13.
    PMID: 25279086 DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1407.009
    Background :Accidental needle-stick injuries (NSIs) are a hazard for health-care workers and general public health. Orthopaedic surgeons may be more prone to NSIs due to the prevalence of bone spikes in the operative field and the use of sharp orthopaedic instruments such as drills, saws and wires. A hospital-based cross sectional study was conducted in the orthopedic wards of Melaka General Hospital. The prevalence of NSIs was 32 (20.9%) and majority of it occurred during assisting in operation theatre 13(37.4%). Among them six (18.8%) were specialist, 12(37.5%) medical officer, 10 (31.2%) house officer and four staff nurses (12.5%). Among the respondents 142 (92.8%) had been immunized against Hepatitis B and 148 (96.7%) participants had knowledge regarding universal precaution. The incidence of NSI among health care workers at orthopaedics ward was not any higher in comparison with the similar studies and it was found out that the prevalence was more in junior doctors compared with specialist and staff nurses and it was statistically significant.
  19. Chan H, Ooi C, Lim M, Ong E, Zulkiflee O
    Malays Orthop J, 2014 Jul;8(2):59-62.
    PMID: 25279097 MyJurnal DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1407.007
    Shoulder impingement syndrome and acromioclavicular joint osteoarthritis often occur simultaneously and easily missed. Kay et al. reported excellent results with combined arthroscopic subacromial decompression and resection of the distal end of the clavicle in patients with both disorders(1). Arthroscopic treatment of these disorders produces more favourable results than open procedures. We report two patients who were not responding to conservative management and were treated with direct arthroscopic distal clavicle excision and subacromial decompression in single setting. Both patients gained good postoperative outcome in terms of pain score, function and strength improvement assessed objectively with visual analogue score (VAS) and University of California Los Angeles Score (UCLA).
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