Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 362 in total

  1. Dhillon KS
    Malays Orthop J, 2014 Nov;8(3):42-7.
    PMID: 26401236 DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1411.010
    We are all aware that there has been a dramatic increase in the number of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions that are carried out here in Malaysia as well as around the world. The numbers of ACL injuries have undoubtedly increased over the years with greater participation of young adults in sporting activities. However it is not certain whether the increase in the numbers of reconstructions can be accounted for by the increasing numbers of ACL injuries. Without doubt commercial interests as well the influence of the biomedical companies have a role to play. In the past the rationale for surgical treatment of an ACL tear was that the ACL is vital for knee function and that in the long term ACL deficiency will lead to more injuries of the meniscus and more degeneration of the joint. This belief was prevalent because the natural history of an ACL deficient knee and the ultimate outcome of reconstruction of the ACL were both not known. However in recent years a substantial amount of research has been published, which has elucidated the natural history of ACL deficient knees as well as the long term outcome of reconstruction of the ACL.
  2. Dhillon KS
    Malays Orthop J, 2015 Mar;9(1):47-52.
    PMID: 28435599 DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1503.008
    We are all aware that there has been a dramatic increase in the number of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions that are carried out here in Malaysia as well as around the world. The numbers of ACL injuries have undoubtedly increased over the years with greater participation of young adults in sporting activities. However it is not certain whether the increase in the numbers of reconstructions can be accounted for by the increasing numbers of ACL injuries. Without doubt commercial interests as well the influence of the biomedical companies have a role to play. In the past the rational for surgical treatment of an ACL tear was that the ACL is vital for knee function and that in the long term ACL deficiency will lead to more injuries of the meniscus and more degeneration of the joint. This belief was prevalent because the natural history of an ACL deficient knee was not known although the ultimate outcome of reconstruction of the ACL was not known either. However in past few years a substantial amount research has been published, which has elucidated the natural history of ACL deficient knees as well as the long term outcome of reconstruction of the ACL.
  3. Balakrishnan S, Shahid Nj, Fairuz T, Ramdhan I
    Malays Orthop J, 2014 Mar;8(1):42-4.
    PMID: 25347049 DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1403.017
    Diabetic foot infections make up a significant number of orthopaedic ward admissions. The recommended choice of empirical antibiotics used in Malaysia for diabetic foot infections is based on the National Antibiotic Guidelines 2008. The pattern of bacteriology and the effectiveness of the treatment of diabetic foot infections based on this guideline were analyzed through a retrospective study in our hospital. Data over a period of one year (May 2012- April 2013) was analyzed, and 96 patients were included in this study. Polymicrobial growth (58%) was mainly isolated, followed with an almost equal percentage of gram-negative (22%) and gram-positive organisms (20%). The empirical antibiotics based on the national antibiotic guidelines were used as definitive antibiotics in 85% of the cases. Although there was slight variation in the pattern of organisms as compared to other studies conducted in this country, the high rate of positive clinical response proved that the antibiotic guideline was still effective in diabetic foot infection treatment.

    KEY WORDS: Diabetic foot infections, National Antibiotic Guidelines, Culture and Sensitivity.

  4. Chua, Y.C.J., Lim, L.A., Hudzairy, A.
    Malays Orthop J, 2009;3(1):91-94.
    We are reporting a case of post-traumatic chronic osteomyelitis of the tibia with an open wound exposing an intra medullar nail implant for 13 years. The patient presented with fresh ipsilateral tibia plateau fracture. He was treated by removal of the implant, debridement and local placement of Gentamicin-impregnated PMMA beads according to guidelines of two-stage Belfast technique . After five months of wound treatment, the exposed bone was covered by healthy granulation tissue and the patient was able to fully bear weight.
  5. Shalimar, A., Jamari, S., Abdul Halim, A.R., Roohi, S.A., Naicker, A.S., Sharaf, I.
    Malays Orthop J, 2007;1(1):34-38.
    Domestic paediatric hand injuries make up the bulk of overall paediatric hand injuries. This is a retrospective study of domestic paediatric hand injuries admitted into an urban hospital that required surgical intervention. The most common injuries sustained were tendon injuries (24%), total amputations (20%) and lacerations wounds (16%). Accordingly the most common surgical interventions were tendon repairs (28%), toilet suturing (24%) and refashioning (20%). Parents and care providers need to be more vigilant and careful when supervising children including ensuring the safe storage of dangerous items. Sharp items may require additional safety features and warning labels.
  6. Tan B, Shanmugam R, Gunalan R, Chua Y, Hossain G, Saw A
    Malays Orthop J, 2014 Jul;8(2):35-9.
    PMID: 25279090 DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1407.012
    Taylor's spatial frame (TSF) and Ilizarov external fixators (IEF) are two circular external fixator commonly used to address complex deformity and fractures. There is currently no data available comparing the biomechanical properties of these two external fixators. This study looks into the mechanical characteristics of each system. TSF rings with 6 oblique struts, 4 tube connectors, 4 threaded rods, and 6 threaded rods were compared to a standard IEF rings with 4 threaded rods. Compression and torsional loading was performed to the frame as well as construct with Polyvinylchloride tubes. TSF rings with 4 tube connectors had the highest stiffness (3288 N/mm) while TSF rings with 6 struts was the least stiff. The situation was reversed for torsion where TSF rings with 6 oblique struts had the highest torsional stiffness (82.01 Nm/Degree) and frame Ilizarov rings with 4 threaded rods the least. Standard TSF construct of two ring with 6 oblique struts have better torsional stiffness and lower axial stiffness compared to the standard IEF.
  7. Solayar GN, Chinappa J, Harris IA, Chen DB, Macdessi SJ
    Malays Orthop J, 2017 Jul;11(2):45-52.
    PMID: 29021879 MyJurnal DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1707.006
    Introduction: Optimal coronal and sagittal component positioning is important in achieving a successful outcome following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Modalities to determine post-operative alignment include plain radiography and computer tomography (CT) imaging. This study aims to determine the accuracy and reliability of plain radiographs in measuring coronal and sagittal alignment following TKA. Materials and Methods: A prospective, consecutive study of 58 patients undergoing TKA was performed comparing alignment data from plain radiographs and CT imaging. Hip-knee-angle (HKA), sagittal femoral angle (SFA) and sagittal tibial angle (STA) measurements were taken by two observers from plain radiographs and compared with CT alignment. Intra- and inter-observer correlation was calculated for each measurement. Results: Intra-observer correlation was excellent for HKA (r>0.89) with a mean difference of <1.9°. The least intra-observer correlation was for SFA (mean r=0.58) with a mean difference of 8°. Inter-observer correlation was better for HKA (r>0.95) and STA (r>0.8) compared to SFA (r=0.5). When comparing modalities (radiographs vs CT), HKA estimations for both observers showed the least maximum and mean differences while SFA observations were the least accurate. Conclusion: Radiographic estimation of HKA showed excellent intra- and inter-observer correlation and corresponds well with CT imaging. However, radiographic estimation of sagittal plane alignment was less reliably measured and correlated less with CT imaging. Plain radiography was found to be inferior to CT for estimation of biplanar prosthetic alignment following TKA.
  8. Gupta H, Batta NS, Kataria H, Batra V, Upadhyay AD, Jain V, et al.
    Malays Orthop J, 2020 Mar;14(1):34-41.
    PMID: 32296480 DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.2003.006
    Introduction: An increased tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove (TTTG) distance is used for deciding a treatment plan in patello-femoral instability (PFI). The centre of the patellar tendon and the chondral trochlear groove can be directly visualised on MRI, and measured, giving the patellar tendon-trochlear groove (PTTG) distance. A study was designed to compare the inter-rater and the test-retest reliabilities of PTTG and TTTG measurements in MRI of patients without PFI and in a group with PFI.

    Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional reliability study was done on archival MRI films of 50 patients without patellar instability and 20 patients with patellar instability. TTTG and PTTG distances were independently measured by two orthopaedic surgeons and two radiologists. A hybrid PTTG measurement with bony landmarks on the femoral side and the patellar tendon landmark on the tibial side, was used to estimate the influence of the differences in the femoral and tibial landmarks on the difference in reliabilities. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated for all four raters, as well as separately for each rater.

    Results: The PTTG distance had a higher inter-rater reliability (ICC=0.86, 95% CI=0.79-0.92) compared to the TTTG distance (ICC=0.70, 95% CI=0.59-0.80) in patients without PFI. Similar trends were seen in patients with PFI (0.83 vs 0.66). The inter-rater reliability for the hybrid PTTG distance was found to lie in between the TTTG and PTTG.

    Conclusions: The MRI-based PTTG distance had better inter-rater reliability compared with the MRI-based TTTG distance.

  9. Chee, E.K., Ewe, T.W.
    Malays Orthop J, 2010;4(2):0-0.
    In total knee arthroplasty, mechanical alignment guides have improved the accuracy of implant alignment, but errors are not uncommon. In the present study, an image-free computer-assisted navigation system was used to analyse the accuracy of an extramedullary (tibial) alignment system, which is based on predetermined, fixed anatomical landmarks. Comparisons were made between two surgeons, with different levels of competency in order to determine if experience affected the accuracy of extramedullary tibial jig placement, in either the coronal and sagittal planes or both planes. The results showed that the accuracy of the extramedullary tibial alignment system, in the coronal plane (in up to 80-87% of cases) was much better than for posterior slope, and sagittal plane. Surgeon experience was not a significant factor.
  10. Hanifah J, Joehaimey J, Yusof MI
    Malays Orthop J, 2017 Jul;11(2):85-88.
    PMID: 29021888 MyJurnal DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1707.018
    Spinal epidural abscess is a severe, generally pyogenic, infection of the epidural space of spinal cord or cauda equina. The swelling caused by the abscess leads to compression or vascular disruption of neurological structures that requires urgent surgical decompression to avoid significant permanent disability. We share a rare case of Klebsiella pneumoniae spinal epidural abscess secondary to haematogenous spread of previous lung infection that presented late at our centre with cauda equina syndrome that showed good short-term outcome in delayed decompression. A 50-year old female presented with one-week history of persistent low back pain with progressively worsening bilateral lower limb weakness for seven days and urinary retention associated with saddle anesthesia of 2-day duration. Magnetic resonance imaging with contrast of the lumbo-sacral region showed an intramuscular collection of abscess at left gluteus maximus and left multifidus muscle with a L3-L5 posteriorly placed extradural lesion enhancing peripherally on contrast, suggestive of epidural abscess that compressed the cauda equina. The pus was drained using the posterior lumbar approach. Tissue and pus culture revealed Klebsiella pneumoniae, suggestive of bacterial infection. The patient made immediate improvement of muscle power over bilateral lower limbs postoperative followed by ability to control micturition and defecation the 4th post-operative day. A good short-term outcome in delayed decompression of cauda equine syndrome is extremely rare. Aggressive surgical decompression combined with antibiotic therapy led to good short-term outcome in this patient despite delayed decompression of more than 48 hours.
  11. Kurnaz R, Ikizler M, Ozbayburtlu M, Gunes T
    Malays Orthop J, 2018 Mar;12(1):51-53.
    PMID: 29725515 DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1803.012
    Proximal humerus fracture is a common arm trauma and rarely occurs with vascular injury which however is a serious complication. In this case report, we present a long segment dissection of the axillary and brachial arteries as a rare complication due to fragmented proximal humerus fracture and shoulder dislocation. An 80-year old female patient was seen at the emergency department. Radiograph examination has revealed a fragmented proximal humerus fracture besides dislocation of the head of humerus towards the axillary area. On vascular examination, acute arterial occlusion such as absence of radial and ulnar pulses were observed in her left hand. The patient was immediately taken to the operating room. The dissection included the entire segment approximately 20cm between the distal subclavian artery and the distal brachial artery. This injured segment was removed and a 6mm Polytetrafluroethylene (PTFE) graft with rings was interpositoned between subclavian and brachial arteries. This case is a rarity because of such a significant complication after a small injury. Axillary artery injuries caused by humeral neck fractures are rare but should not be missed by the physician.
  12. Singh, S., Choon, S.K., Tai, C.C.
    Malays Orthop J, 2008;2(2):34-36.
    We describe herein a modified technique for reconstruction of chronic rupture of the quadriceps tendon in a patient with bilateral total knee replacement and distal realignment of the patella. The surgery involved the application of a Dacron graft and the ‘double eights’ technique. The patient achieved satisfactory results after surgery and we believe that this technique of reconstruction offers advantages over other methods.
  13. Logheswaren S, Sulaiman AR, Munajat I
    Malays Orthop J, 2017 Jul;11(2):82-84.
    PMID: 29021887 MyJurnal DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1707.014
    The ideal size of intramedullary device to fix corrective osteotomy of proximal femur in abnormal bone in children and small patients may not be easily available. We report the successful use of Rush rod in combination with multiple Kirschner wires to fix the corrective osteotomy of coxa vara and shepherd crook deformity in two patients with osteogenesis imperfecta and fibrous dysplasia. The union was achieved on time, neck shaft angle and rotation were maintained.
  14. Saw A
    Malays Orthop J, 2018 Jul;12(2):68-72.
    PMID: 30112135 MyJurnal DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1807.015
    Cadaveric dissection is an integral component of medical education. There had been concerns about negative impact on medical students exposed to deceased donors before their clinical years, but most studies reported overall positive outcome following this form of teaching. Due to reducing number of body donations in most parts of the world, many institutions are adopting alternative models especially for the teaching of gross anatomy. A new body donation programme that incorporate humanistic values in the procurement process was initiated by Tsu Chi University of Taiwan in 1996. Early observations following teaching with the so-called "silent mentors" noted less negative emotional impact on the students. With increasing number of body donation following the initiation of the silent mentor programme as reported in some regions, we will be able to continue the time-honoured cadaveric dissection for anatomy teaching, at the same time promoting humanistic values on junior doctors.
  15. Ng BW, Abdullah AF, Nadarajah S
    Malays Orthop J, 2017 Mar;11(1):57-59.
    PMID: 28435576 MyJurnal DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1703.003
    Acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) dissociation is one of the common injuries affecting adults. The stability of ACJ largely depends on the integrity of acromioclavicular ligament, coracoclavicular ligament, capsule, trapezius muscle and deltoid muscle. The injury has been classified by Rockwood into six types and treatment options can be guided by the classification. TightRope fixation is one of the many surgical procedures available to address acromioclavicular joint separation. It consists of tensioning of a no. 5 Fibrewire suture secured at both ends to low-profile metallic buttons. Despite various advantages of using this technique, complications such as suture cut-out, clavicle fracture and suture failure have been documented. The author presents a case of a type III acromioclavicular joint dissociation treated with TightRope which suture cutout was noted intra-operatively. Decision to amend the fixation using a cut one-third tubular plate as an additional anchor for the metallic button on the clavicle was made. Patient's progress was evaluated using the University of California at Los Angeles Shoulder Score (UCLA Shoulder Score) and significant improvement was noted six months post operatively. We propose this technique as a solution to the encountered problem.
  16. Azwa, N., Shalimar, A., Jamari, S.
    Malays Orthop J, 2007;1(2):33-35.
    Although lipoma is common in the upper limbs, it rarely occurs in the palm, and usually does not compress the surrounding structures. Here, we report a patient presenting with compressive neuropathy of the ulna and median nerves secondary to a palmar lipoma. Surgical excision led to full neurological recovery.
  17. Boo, L., Sofiah, S., Selvaratnam, L., Tai, C.C., Pingguan-Murphy, B., Kamarul, T.
    Malays Orthop J, 2009;3(2):16-23.
    Purpose:To investigate the feasibilty of using processed human amniotic membrane (HAM) to support the attachment and proliferation of chondrocytes in vitro which it turn can be utilised as a cell delivery vehicle in tissue engineering applications. Methods: Fresh HAM obtained from patients undergoing routine elective ceasarean sections was harvested., processed and dried using either freez drying (FD) or air drying (AD) methods prior to sterilisation by gamma irradiation. Isolated, processed and characterised rabbit autologous chondrolytes were seeded on processsed HAM and cultured for up to three weeks. Cell attachment and proliferation were examined qualitatively using inverted brightfield microcospy. Results: Processed HAM appeared to allow cell attachment when implanted with chrondocytes. Although cells seeded on AD and FD HAM did not appear to attach as strongly as those seeded on glycerol preserved intact human amniotic membrane, these cells to be proliferated in cell culture conditions. Conclusion: Prelimanary results show that processed HAM chondrocyte attachment and proliferation.
  18. Samal P, Mohapatra NC, Mishra J, Mylarappa A, Das P
    Malays Orthop J, 2020 Mar;14(1):84-87.
    PMID: 32296488 DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.2003.014
    Giant cell tumour of tendon sheath is a benign soft tissue lesion most commonly found in the flexor aspect of hand and wrist. However, it is uncommon in foot and ankle and rare in bilateral achilles tendon. We report a case of 17-year-old female who presented with progressive enlargement of bilateral achilles tendon for six months. MRI findings showed that most of the tumour had intermediate to low signal intensity. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of giant cell tumour of tendon sheath. To help the patient regain the strength of the achilles tendon and walking abilities, a large area of tendon tumour was excised, followed by reconstruction with transfer of the peroneus brevis (PB) and posterior tibial (PT) tendon autograft. At two years follow-up, functional result was satisfactory.
  19. Chan MF, Kwek E
    Malays Orthop J, 2020 Mar;14(1):81-83.
    PMID: 32296487 DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.2003.013
    Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the leading causative organisms in pyogenic liver disease. It can cause disseminated infections, but rarely to bone, and rarely in healthy hosts. We report an unusual case of a distal humerus fracture from osteomyelitis secondary to dissemination in a non-immuno-compromised patient. The patient was surgically managed with external fixation and insertion of anti-biotic beads, in conjunction with medical therapy via culture direct antibiotics. This report highlights the diagnostic approach and treatment options for these atypical cases.
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