Layer transfer techniques have been extensively explored for semiconductor device fabrication as a path to reduce costs and to form heterogeneously integrated devices. These techniques entail isolating epitaxial layers from an expensive donor wafer to form freestanding membranes. However, current layer transfer processes are still low-throughput and too expensive to be commercially suitable. Here we report a high-throughput layer transfer technique that can produce multiple compound semiconductor membranes from a single wafer. We directly grow two-dimensional (2D) materials on III-N and III-V substrates using epitaxy tools, which enables a scheme comprised of multiple alternating layers of 2D materials and epilayers that can be formed by a single growth run. Each epilayer in the multistack structure is then harvested by layer-by-layer mechanical exfoliation, producing multiple freestanding membranes from a single wafer without involving time-consuming processes such as sacrificial layer etching or wafer polishing. Moreover, atomic-precision exfoliation at the 2D interface allows for the recycling of the wafers for subsequent membrane production, with the potential for greatly reducing the manufacturing cost.
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from mesenchymal stem cells are promising nanotherapeutics in liver diseases due to their regenerative and immunomodulatory properties. Nevertheless, a concern has been raised regarding the rapid clearance of exogenous EVs by phagocytic cells. Here we explore the impact of protein corona on EVs derived from two culturing conditions in which specific proteins acquired from media were simultaneously adsorbed on the EV surface. Additionally, by incubating EVs with serum, simulating protein corona formation upon systemic delivery, further resolved protein corona-EV complex patterns were investigated. Our findings reveal the potential influences of corona composition on EVs under in vitro conditions and their in vivo kinetics. Our data suggest that bound albumin creates an EV signature that can retarget EVs from hepatic macrophages. This results in markedly improved cellular uptake by hepatocytes, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and hepatic stellate cells. This phenomenon can be applied as a camouflage strategy by precoating EVs with albumin to fabricate the albumin-enriched protein corona-EV complex, enhancing non-phagocytic uptake in the liver. This work addresses a critical challenge facing intravenously administered EVs for liver therapy by tailoring the protein corona-EV complex for liver cell targeting and immune evasion.
Hybrid graphene-superconductor devices have attracted much attention since the early days of graphene research. So far, these studies have been limited to the case of diffusive transport through graphene with poorly defined and modest-quality graphene/superconductor interfaces, usually combined with small critical magnetic fields of the superconducting electrodes. Here, we report graphene-based Josephson junctions with one-dimensional edge contacts of molybdenum rhenium. The contacts exhibit a well-defined, transparent interface to the graphene, have a critical magnetic field of 8 T at 4 K, and the graphene has a high quality due to its encapsulation in hexagonal boron nitride. This allows us to study and exploit graphene Josephson junctions in a new regime, characterized by ballistic transport. We find that the critical current oscillates with the carrier density due to phase-coherent interference of the electrons and holes that carry the supercurrent caused by the formation of a Fabry-Pérot cavity. Furthermore, relatively large supercurrents are observed over unprecedented long distances of up to 1.5 μm. Finally, in the quantum Hall regime we observe broken symmetry states while the contacts remain superconducting. These achievements open up new avenues to exploit the Dirac nature of graphene in interaction with the superconducting state.