Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 42 in total

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  1. Salleh NA, Ismail S, Ab Halim MR
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2016 Oct-Dec;8(4):309-315.
    PMID: 27695274 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.188873
    BACKGROUND: Curcuma xanthorrhiza is a native Indonesian plant and traditionally utilized for a range of illness including liver damage, hypertension, diabetes, and cancer.
    OBJECTIVE: The study determined the effects of C. xanthorrhiza extracts (ethanol and aqueous) and their constituents (curcumene and xanthorrhizol) on UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) and glutathione transferase (GST) activities.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The inhibition studies were evaluated both in rat liver microsomes and in human recombinant UGT1A1 and UGT2B7 enzymes. p-nitrophenol and beetle luciferin were used as the probe substrates for UGT assay while 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as the probe for GST assay. The concentrations of extracts studied ranged from 0.1 to 1000 μg/mL while for constituents ranged from 0.01 to 500 μM.
    RESULTS: In rat liver microsomes, UGT activity was inhibited by the ethanol extract (IC50 =279.74 ± 16.33 μg/mL). Both UGT1A1 and UGT2B7 were inhibited by the ethanol and aqueous extracts with IC50 values ranging between 9.59-22.76 μg/mL and 110.71-526.65 μg/Ml, respectively. Rat liver GST and human GST Pi-1 were inhibited by ethanol and aqueous extracts, respectively (IC50 =255.00 ± 13.06 μg/mL and 580.80 ± 18.56 μg/mL). Xanthorrhizol was the better inhibitor of UGT1A1 (IC50 11.30 ± 0.27 μM) as compared to UGT2B7 while curcumene did not show any inhibition. For GST, both constituents did not show any inhibition.
    CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that C. xanthorrhiza have the potential to cause herb-drug interaction with drugs that are primarily metabolized by UGT and GST enzymes.
    SUMMARY: Findings from this study would suggest which of Curcuma xanthorrhiza extracts and constituents that would have potential interactions with drugs which are highly metabolized by UGT and GST enzymes. Further clinical studies can then be designed if needed to evaluate the in vivo pharmacokinetic relevance of these interactions Abbreviations Used: BSA: Bovine serum albumin, CAM: Complementary and alternative medicine, cDNA: Complementary deoxyribonucleic acid, CDNB: 1-Chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, CuSO4.5H2O: Copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate, CXEE: Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanol extract, CXAE: Curcuma xanthorrhiza aqueous extract, GC-MS: Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, GSH: Glutathione, GST: Glutathione S-transferase, KCl: Potassium chloride, min: Minutes, MgCl2: Magnesium chloride, mg/mL: Concentration (weight of test substance in milligrams per volume of test concentration), mM: Milimolar, Na2CO3: Sodium carbonate, NaOH: Sodium hydroxide, nmol: nanomol, NSAIDs: Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug, p-NP: para-nitrophenol, RLU: Relative light unit, SEM: Standard error of mean, UDPGA: UDP-glucuronic acid, UGT: UDP-glucuronosyltransferase.
    KEYWORDS: Curcuma xanthorrhiza; UDP-glucuronosyltransferase; glutathione transferase; xanthorrhizol
  2. Hashim YZ, Phirdaous A, Azura A
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2014 Jul;6(3):191-4.
    PMID: 25002797 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.132593
    Agarwood is a priceless non-timber forest product from Aquilaria species belonging to the Thymelaeaceae family. As a result of a defence mechanism to fend off pathogens, Aquilaria species develop agarwood or resin which can be used for incense, perfumery, and traditional medicines. Evidences from ethnopharmacological practices showed that Aquilaria spp. have been traditionally used in the Ayurvedic practice and Chinese medicine to treat various diseases particularly the inflammatory-associated diseases. There have been no reports on traditional use of agarwood towards cancer treatment. However, this is most probably due to the fact that cancer nomenclature is used in modern medicine to describe the diseases associated with unregulated cell growth in which inflammation and body pain are involved.
  3. Amelia K, Singh J, Shah FH, Bhore SJ
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2015 Apr-Jun;7(2):209-12.
    PMID: 25829797 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.150536
    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important part of the human diet and serves as a source of natural products. Identification and understanding of genes in P. vulgaris is important for its improvement. Characterization of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) is one of the approaches in understanding the expressed genes. For the understanding of genes expression in P. vulgaris pod-tissue, research work of ESTs generation was initiated by constructing cDNA libraries using 5-day and 20-day old bean-pod-tissues. Altogether, 5972 cDNA clones were isolated to have ESTs. While processing ESTs, we found a transcript for calmodulin (CaM) gene. It is an important gene that encodes for a calcium-binding protein and known to express in all eukaryotic cells. Hence, this study was undertaken to analyse and annotate it.
  4. Amelia K, Khor CY, Shah FH, Bhore SJ
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2015 Apr-Jun;7(2):203-8.
    PMID: 25829796 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.150532
    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are widely consumed as a source of proteins and natural products. However, its yield needs to be increased. In line with the agenda of Phaseomics (an international consortium), work of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) generation from bean pods was initiated. Altogether, 5972 ESTs have been isolated. Alcohol dehydrogenase (AD) encoding gene cDNA was a noticeable transcript among the generated ESTs. This AD is an important enzyme; therefore, to understand more about it this study was undertaken.
  5. Wong SK, Lim YY, Ling SK, Chan EW
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2014 Jan;6(1):67-72.
    PMID: 24497746 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.122921
    Three compounds isolated from the methanol (MeOH) leaf extract of Vallaris glabra (Apocynaceae) were those of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs). This prompted a quantitative analysis of their contents in leaves of V. glabra in comparison with those of five other Apocynaceae species (Alstonia angustiloba, Dyera costulata, Kopsia fruticosa, Nerium oleander, and Plumeria obtusa), including flowers of Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle), the commercial source of chlorogenic acid (CGA).
  6. Parasuraman S, Zhen KM, Banik U, Christapher PV
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2017 Jul-Sep;9(3):247-252.
    PMID: 28827965 DOI: 10.4103/pr.pr_8_17
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of curcumin on olanzapine-induced obesity in rats.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used for experiments. The animals were divided into six groups, namely, normal control, olanzapine control, betahistine (10 mg/kg), and curcumin 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg treated groups. Except the normal control group, all other animals were administered with olanzapine 4 mg/kg intraperitoneally to induce obesity. The drugs were administered once daily, per oral for 28 days. During the experiment, body weight changes and behavior alterations were monitored at regular intervals. At the end of the experiment, blood sample was collected from all the experimental animals for biochemical analysis. Part of the liver and kidney tissues was harvested from the sacrificed animals and preserved in neutral formalin for histopathological studies.

    RESULTS: Curcumin showed a significant reduction in olanzapine-induced body weight gain on the rats and improved the locomotor effects. The effect of curcumin on olanzapine-induced body weight gain is not comparable with that of betahistine.

    CONCLUSION: This study has shown metabolic alteration effect of curcumin on olanzapine, an antipsychotic drug, treated SD rats.

    SUMMARY: Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug used for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Obesity is an adverse effect of olanzapine, and the present study was made an attempt to study the effect of curcumin on olanzapine-induced obesity in rats. In this present study, curcumin significantly reduced olanzapine-induced body weight gain in rats. Abbreviations Used: 5HT: 5-hydroxytryptamine, ALP: Alkaline phosphatase, ALT: Alanine transaminase, ANOVA: Analysis of variance, AST: Aspartate transaminase, CMC: Carboxymethyl cellulose, D: Dopamine, H and E: Hematoxylin and Eosin stain, H: Histamine, HDL-C: Highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol, IP: Intraperitoneal, MAO: Monoamine oxidase, NaOH: Sodium hydroxide, SD rats: Sprague Dawley rats, TCs: Total cholesterols, TG: Triglyceride.
  7. Yap CV, Subramaniam KS, Khor SW, Chung I
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2017 Oct-Dec;9(4):378-383.
    PMID: 29263632 DOI: 10.4103/pr.pr_19_17
    Background: Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common gynecologic malignancy in developed countries. Annonacin, a natural pure compound extracted from the seeds of Annona muricata, is a potential alternative therapeutic agent to treat EC.

    Objective: To study the antitumor activity of annonacin and its mechanism of action in EC cells (ECCs).

    Materials and Methods: Viability of ECCs treated with annonacin for 72 h was determined using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay. The induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death was evaluated using propidium iodide and annexin V-PE/7-AAD assay, respectively. DNA strand breaks were visualized using transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay, and the effects of annonacin on survival signaling were determined using western blotting.

    Results: Annonacin exhibited antiproliferative effects on EC cell lines (ECC-1 and HEC-1A) and primary cells (EC6-ept and EC14-ept) with EC50values ranging from 4.62 to 4.92 μg/ml. EC cells were shown arrested at G2/M phase after treated with 4 μg/ml of annonacin for 72 h. This led to a significant increase in apoptotic cell death (65.7%) in these cells when compared to vehicle-treated cells (P < 0.005). We further showed that annonacin-mediated apoptotic cell death was associated with an increase in caspase-3 cleavage and DNA fragmentation. Cell apoptosis was accompanied with downregulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase survival protein expression and induction of G2/M cell cycle arrest.

    Conclusion: Annonacin may be a potential novel therapeutic agent for EC patients.

    SUMMARY: We aimed to study the antitumor activity of annonacin and its mechanism of action in endometrial cancer cells. Annonacin exerted antiproliferation effects on both endometrial cancer cell lines and primary cells via induction of apoptosis and inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Our data represented that annonacin could be an alternative therapeutic treatment to combat endometrial cancer. Abbreviations Used: 7-AAD: 7-Amino-Actinomycin, ATP: Adenosine diphosphate, BSA: Bovine serum albumin, DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid, EC: Endometrial cancer, ECC-1: Endometrial cancer cell-1, EC50: Half maximal effective concentration, Ept: Epithelial, FBS: Fetal bovine serum, HEC-1A: Human endometrial carcinoma-1A, MTT: Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium, NaCl: Sodium chloride, NADH: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, RPMI 1640: Roswell Park Memorial Institute Medium, SDS: Sodium dodecyl sulfate.
  8. Motaghed M, Al-Hassan FM, Hamid SS
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2013 Jul;5(3):200-6.
    PMID: 23900121 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.112428
    Nigella sativa or black seed extract has been reported to show various medicinal benefits. Thymoquinone which is an active compound of its seed has been reported to contain anti-cancer properties.
  9. Gundamaraju R, Maheedhar K, Hwi KK
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2014 Jul;6(3):227-33.
    PMID: 25002803 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.132600
    Ulcerations have been effecting humans and causing major damage in the gastro intestinal tract. A need for development of a flawless anti-ulcer medication was always in the agenda. Thus, the need to conduct a study was provoked.
  10. Muthiah YD, Ong CE, Sulaiman SA, Ismail R
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2016 Oct-Dec;8(4):292-297.
    PMID: 27695271
    In Southeast Asia and many parts of the world, herbal products are increasingly used in parallel with modern medicine.
  11. Haron M, Ismail S
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2014 Oct-Dec;7(4):341-9.
    PMID: 26692748 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.159580
    BACKGROUND: Glucuronidation catalyzed by uridine 5'- diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) is a major phase II drug metabolism reaction which facilitates drug elimination. Inhibition of UGT activity can cause drug-drug interaction. Therefore, it is important to determine the inhibitory potentials of drugs on glucuronidation.
    OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the inhibitory potentials of mitragynine, 7-hydroxymitragynine, ketamine and buprenorphine, respectively on 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) glucuronidation in rat liver microsomes, human liver microsomes and recombinant human UGT1A1 and UGT2B7 isoforms.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of the above four compounds on the formation of 4-MU glucuronide from 4-MU by rat liver microsomes, human liver microsomes, recombinant human UGT1A1 and UGT2B7 isoforms were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.
    RESULTS: For rat liver microsomes, ketamine strongly inhibited 4-MU glucuronidation with an IC50 value of 6.21 ± 1.51 μM followed by buprenorphine with an IC50 value of 73.22 ± 1.63 μM. For human liver microsomes, buprenorphine strongly inhibited 4-MU glucuronidation with an IC50 value of 6.32 ± 1.39 μM. For human UGT1A1 isoform, 7-hydroxymitragynine strongly inhibited 4-MU glucuronidation with an IC50 value of 7.13 ± 1.16 μM. For human UGT2B7 isoform, buprenorphine strongly inhibited 4-MU glucuronidation followed by 7-hydroxymitragynine and ketamine with respective IC50 values of 5.14 ± 1.30, 26.44 ± 1.31, and 27.28 ± 1.18 μM.
    CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate the possibility of drug-drug interaction if 7-hydroxymitragynine, ketamine, and buprenorphine are co-administered with drugs that are UGT2B7 substrates since these three compounds showed significant inhibition on UGT2B7 activity. In addition, if 7-hydroxymitragynine is to be taken with other drugs that are highly metabolized by UGT1A1, there is a possibility of drug-drug interaction to occur.
    KEYWORDS: 4-methylumbelliferone; 7-hydroxymitragynine; buprenorphine; glucuronidation; ketamine; mitragynine
  12. Shafaei A, Aisha AF, Siddiqui MJ, Ismail Z
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2015 Jan-Mar;7(1):32-7.
    PMID: 25598632 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.147196
    Ficus deltoidea (FD) is one of the native plants widely distributed in several countries in Southeast Asia. Previous studies have shown that FD leaf possess antinociceptive, wound healing and antioxidant properties. These beneficial effects have been attributed to the presence of primary and secondary metabolites such as polyphenols, amino acids and flavonoids.
  13. Saidan NH, Aisha AF, Hamil MS, Majid AM, Ismail Z
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2015 Jan-Mar;7(1):23-31.
    PMID: 25598631 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.147195
    Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. (Lamiaceae) is a traditional medicinal plant which has been used in treating various ailments such as kidney diseases, bladder inflammation, arthritis and diabetes. The leaves contain high concentration of phenolic compounds, thus, rosmarinic acid (RA), 3'-hydroxy-5, 6, 7, 4'-tetramethoxyflavone (TMF), sinensetin (SIN) and eupatorin (EUP) were chosen as a marker compounds for standardization of various O. stamineus leaf extracts.
  14. Anand Swarup KR, Sattar MA, Abdullah NA, Abdulla MH, Salman IM, Rathore HA, et al.
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2010 Jan;2(1):31-5.
    PMID: 21808536 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.60582
    Cardiovascular complications are consistently observed in diabetic patients across all age groups. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of the fruit pulp of Hylocereus undatus (DFE) on aortic stiffness and oxidative stress in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. Twenty-four male, Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four groups: I (control), II (diabetic), III (DFE, 250 mg/kg) and IV (DFE 500 mg/kg). Diabetes was induced in groups II, III and IV by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of STZ (40 mg/kg). After confirmation of diabetes, group III and IV received DFE for 5 weeks. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) was used as a marker of aortic stiffness and was determined at the end of 5 weeks. DFE significantly decreased (P < 0.05) the fasting blood glucose levels in diabetic rats, but not to normal levels. Systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and PWV were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in diabetic rats at the end of 5 weeks in comparison with control group. DFE treatment significantly decreased (P < 0.05) these elevations. Oxidative damage was observed in group II after 5 weeks. Plasma malondialdehyde levels significantly decreased (P < 0.05), while superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant capacity significantly increased (P < 0.05) with DFE treatment in comparison with group II. These data demonstrate that DFE treatment was effective in controlling oxidative damage and decreasing the aortic stiffness measured by PWV in STZ-induced diabetes in rats.
  15. Bhore SJ, Preveena J, Kandasamy KI
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2013 Apr;5(2):134-7.
    PMID: 23798890 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.110545
    Resins and gums are used in traditional medicine and do have potential applications in pharmacy and medicine. Agarwood is the fragrant resinous wood, which is an important commodity from Aquilaria species and has been used as a sedative, analgesic, and digestive in traditional medicine. Endophytic bacteria are potentially important in producing pharmaceutical compounds found in the plants. Hence, it was important to understand which types of endophytic bacteria are associated with pharmaceutical agarwood-producing Aquilaria species.
  16. Chan EW, Soh EY, Tie PP, Law YP
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2011 Oct;3(4):266-72.
    PMID: 22224051 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.89748
    BACKGROUND: The role of non-polymeric phenolic (NP) and polymeric tannin (PT) constituents in the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of six brands of green, black, and herbal teas of Camellia sinensis were investigated.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total phenolic content (TPC) and ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity (AEAC) were assessed using the Folin-Ciocalteu and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, respectively. Minimum inhibitory dose (MID) against Gram-positive Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus, and Gram-negative. Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was assessed using the disc-diffusion method. Teas were extracted with hot water successively three times for one hour each time. The extracts were fractionated using Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography to obtain the NP and PT constituents.

    RESULTS: Extraction yields ranged from 12 to 23%. Yields of NP fractions (70-81%) were much higher than those of PT fractions (1-11%), suggesting that the former are the major tea components. Ranking of antioxidant properties of extracts was green tea>black tea>herbal tea. For all six teas, antioxidant properties of PT fractions were significantly higher than extracts and NP fractions. Extracts and fractions of all six teas showed no activity against the three Gram-negative bacteria. Green teas inhibited all three Gram-positive bacteria with S. aureus being the least susceptible. Black and herbal teas inhibited the growth of M. luteus and B. cereus, but not S. aureus. The most potent were the PT fractions of Boh Cameron Highlands and Ho Yan Hor with MID of 0.01 and 0.03 mg/disc against M. luteus.

    CONCLUSION: Results suggested that NP constituents are major contributors to the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of teas of C. sinensis. Although PT constituents have stronger antioxidant and antibacterial properties, they constitute only a minor component of the teas.

  17. Yew PN, Lee WL, Lim YY
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2017 Oct-Dec;9(4):366-371.
    PMID: 29263630 DOI: 10.4103/pr.pr_145_16
    Background: Porcupine dates are phytobezoar stones that are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) treatments against cancer, postsurgical recovery, dengue fever, etc. The medicinal values have not been scientifically investigated due to the availability and high pricing of the dates.

    Objectives: This paper represents the first report on the phytochemical content, in vitro antioxidant and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS)/reactive nitrogen species (RNS) scavenging properties of the extracts of three porcupine dates: grassy date (GD), black date (BD), and powdery date (PD).

    Materials and Methods: Dried samples were extracted with methanol and lyophilized. Samples were screened for phytochemical constituents, in vitro antioxidant assays based on total phenolic content (TPC), free radical scavenging, and ferric reducing power (FRP) as well as intracellular ROS and RNS scavenging properties.

    Results: Phytochemical screening and total tannins assay revealed that tannins, cardiac glycosides, and terpenoids were found in all porcupine dates with tannins forming the major portion of the TPC. In comparison to GD, BD and PD were found to contain significantly high TPC, radical scavenging activity, and FRP. At 200 μg/ml, BD and PD remarkably scavenged 2, 2-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride-induced ROS in RAW264.7 cells and significantly reduced nitric oxide in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cells.

    Conclusion: Overall, BD and PD exhibited promising in vitro antioxidant as well as intracellular ROS/RNS scavenging properties.

    SUMMARY: Tannins, cardiac glycoside, and terpenoids were found in all three types of porcupine dates with tannins being the major compoundsAntioxidant contents and properties of three dates were in the order black date (BD) > powdery date (PD) > grassy dateBD and PD extracts showed significant intracellular reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species scavenging properties. Abbreviations Used: TCM: Traditional Chinese Medicine, BD: Black date, GD: Grassy date, PD: Powdery date, TPC: Total phenolic content, FRS: Free radical scavenging, FRP: Ferric reducing power, NO: Nitric oxide, ROS: Reactive oxygen species, RNS: Reactive nitrogen species, GAE: Gallic acid equivalent, AAE: Ascorbic acid equivalent, PVPP: Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, DCFH-DA: Dichloro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate, AAPH: 2, 2-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride, LPS: Lipopolysaccharide.
  18. Hashim S, Beh HK, Hamil MS, Ismail Z, Majid AM
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2016 Oct-Dec;8(4):238-243.
    PMID: 27695261
    CONTEXT: Orthosiphon stamineus is a medicinal herb widely grown in Southeast Asia and tropical countries. It has been used traditionally as a diuretic, abdominal pain, kidney and bladder inflammation, gout, and hypertension.
    AIMS: This study aims to develop and validate the high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method for quantification of rosmarinic acid (RA), 3'-hydroxy-5,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone (TMF), sinensitin (SIN) and eupatorin (EUP) found in ethanol, 50% ethanol and water extract of O. stamineus leaves.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: HPTLC method was conducted using an HPTLC system with a developed mobile phase system of toluene: ethyl acetate: formic acid (3:7:0.1) performed on precoated silica gel 60 F254 TLC plates. The method was validated based on linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantification (LOQ), and specificity, respectively. The detection of spots was observed at ultraviolet 254 nm and 366 nm.
    RESULTS: The linearity of RA, TMF, SIN, and EUP were obtained between 10 and 100 ng/spot with high correlation coefficient value (R2) of more than 0.986. The limit of detection was found to be 122.47 ± 3.95 (RA), 43.38 ± 0.79 (SIN), 17.26 ± 1.16 (TMF), and 46.80 ± 1.33 ng/spot (EUP), respectively. Whereas the LOQ was found to be 376.44 ± 6.70 (RA), 131.45 ± 2.39 (SIN), 52.30 ± 2.01 (TMF), and 141.82 ± 1.58 ng/spot (EUP), respectively.
    CONCLUSION: The proposed method showed good linearity, precision, accuracy, and high sensitivity. Hence, it may be applied in a routine quantification of RA, SIN, TMF, and EUP found in ethanol, 50% of ethanol and water extract of O. stamineus leaves.
    SUMMARY: HPTLC method provides rapid estimation of the marker compound for routine quality control analysis.The established HPTLC method is rapid for qualitative and quantitative fingerprinting of Orthosiphon stamineus extract used for commercial product.Four identified markers (RA, SIN, EUP and TMF) found in three a different type of O. stamineus extracts specifically ethanol, 50% ethanol and water extract were successfully quantified using HPTLC method. Abbreviations Used: HPTLC: High-performance thin layer chromatography; RA: Rosmarinic acid; TMF: 3'-hydroxy-5,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone; SIN: Sinensitin; EUP: Eupatorin; E: Ethanol; EW: 50% ethanol; W: Water; BK: Batu Kurau; KB: Kepala Batas; S: Sik; CJ: Changkat Jering; SB: Sungai Buloh.
    KEYWORDS: rosmarinic acid; Eupatorin; Orthosiphon stamineus; high-performance thin-layer chromatography; sinensitin; validation
  19. Roy P, Abdulsalam FI, Pandey DK, Bhattacharjee A, Eruvaram NR, Malik T
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2015 Jun;7(Suppl 1):S57-62.
    PMID: 26109789 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.157997
    Swertia cordata and Swertia chirayita are temperate Himalayan medicinal plants used as potent herbal drugs in Indian traditional systems of medicine (Ayurvedic, Unani and Siddha).
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