Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 42 in total

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  1. Gundamaraju R, Hwi KK, Singla RK, Vemuri RC, Mulapalli SB
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2014 Oct;6(4):267-73.
    PMID: 25276061 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.138237
    The plant Albizia amara (Roxb.) Boiv. bark was used in traditional medical practices of India to treat cardiovascular diseases. Hyperlipidemia is the greatest risk factor of coronary heart disease.
  2. Ramli N, Ahamed PO, Elhady HM, Taher M
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2014 Oct;6(4):280-4.
    PMID: 25276063 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.138248
    Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by parasitic protozoa from the genus of Plasmodium. The protozoans have developed resistance against many of current drugs. It is urgent to find an alternative source of new antimalarial agent. In the effort to discover new antimalarial agents, this research has been conducted on Plectranthus amboinicus.
  3. Haron M, Ismail S
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2014 Oct-Dec;7(4):341-9.
    PMID: 26692748 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.159580
    BACKGROUND: Glucuronidation catalyzed by uridine 5'- diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) is a major phase II drug metabolism reaction which facilitates drug elimination. Inhibition of UGT activity can cause drug-drug interaction. Therefore, it is important to determine the inhibitory potentials of drugs on glucuronidation.
    OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the inhibitory potentials of mitragynine, 7-hydroxymitragynine, ketamine and buprenorphine, respectively on 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) glucuronidation in rat liver microsomes, human liver microsomes and recombinant human UGT1A1 and UGT2B7 isoforms.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of the above four compounds on the formation of 4-MU glucuronide from 4-MU by rat liver microsomes, human liver microsomes, recombinant human UGT1A1 and UGT2B7 isoforms were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.
    RESULTS: For rat liver microsomes, ketamine strongly inhibited 4-MU glucuronidation with an IC50 value of 6.21 ± 1.51 μM followed by buprenorphine with an IC50 value of 73.22 ± 1.63 μM. For human liver microsomes, buprenorphine strongly inhibited 4-MU glucuronidation with an IC50 value of 6.32 ± 1.39 μM. For human UGT1A1 isoform, 7-hydroxymitragynine strongly inhibited 4-MU glucuronidation with an IC50 value of 7.13 ± 1.16 μM. For human UGT2B7 isoform, buprenorphine strongly inhibited 4-MU glucuronidation followed by 7-hydroxymitragynine and ketamine with respective IC50 values of 5.14 ± 1.30, 26.44 ± 1.31, and 27.28 ± 1.18 μM.
    CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate the possibility of drug-drug interaction if 7-hydroxymitragynine, ketamine, and buprenorphine are co-administered with drugs that are UGT2B7 substrates since these three compounds showed significant inhibition on UGT2B7 activity. In addition, if 7-hydroxymitragynine is to be taken with other drugs that are highly metabolized by UGT1A1, there is a possibility of drug-drug interaction to occur.
    KEYWORDS: 4-methylumbelliferone; 7-hydroxymitragynine; buprenorphine; glucuronidation; ketamine; mitragynine
  4. Ahmad A, Khan MU, Kumar BD, Kumar GS, Rodriguez SP, Patel I
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2014 10 1;7(4):302-8.
    PMID: 26692742 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.158438
    OBJECTIVES: To assess the beliefs, attitudes and self-use of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy (AYUSH) medicines among senior pharmacy students.

    METHODOLOGY: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among pharmacy students in four pharmacy schools located in Andhra Pradesh in South India. This study was conducted from the August to September 2014. The study population included all pharmacy students enrolled in Doctor of Pharmacy, Bachelor of Pharmacy and Diploma in Pharmacy programs in studied pharmacy schools. The pretested AYUSH survey had 8 questions on AYUSH related beliefs and 8 question on AYUSH related attitudes. The survey also asked participants about AYUSH related knowledge, frequency of use of AYUSH and the reason for using AYUSH. The data analysis was performed using SPSS Version 20. Chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U-test were employed to study the association between the independent and dependent variables.

    RESULTS: A total of 428 pharmacy students participated in the survey. 32.2% of the study population was females and 32.5% of the population resided in rural areas. Males were more likely to have positive beliefs about AYUSH when compared to females (odd ratio [OR] = 4.62, confidence interval [CI] = 2.37-8.99, P < 0.001). Similarly, students living in hostels were more positive in their beliefs about AYUSH compared with students living at home (OR = 2.14, CI = 1.12-4.07, P < 0.05). Students living in hostel also had a positive attitude about AYUSH use (OR = 1.74, CI = 1.03-2.93, P < 0.05).

    CONCLUSION: Pharmacy students held favorable attitude and beliefs about AYUSH use. This baseline survey provides important information about the pharmacy student's perception about AYUSH. Further research is needed to explore the reasons that shape the pharmacy student's beliefs and attitudes about AYUSH.

  5. Christapher PV, Parasuraman S, Christina JM, Asmawi MZ, Vikneswaran M
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2015 Jan-Mar;7(1):1-6.
    PMID: 25598627 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.147125
    Polygonum minus (Polygonaceae), generally known as 'kesum' in Malaysia is among the most commonly used food additive, flavoring agent and traditionally used to treat stomach and body aches. Raw or cooked leaves of P. minus are used in digestive disorders in the form of a decoction and the oil is used for dandruff. The pharmacological studies on P. minus have demonstrated antioxidant, in vitro LDL oxidation inhibition, antiulcer activity, analgesic activity, anti-inflammatory activity, in vitro antiplatelet aggregation activity, antimicrobial activity, digestive enhancing property and cytotoxic activity. The spectroscopic studies of essential oil of P. minus showed the presence of about 69 compounds, which are responsible for the aroma. The phytochemical studies showed presence of flavonoids and essential oils. This review is an effort to update the botanical, phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological data of the plant P. minus.
  6. Balijepalli MK, Suppaiah V, Chin AM, Buru AS, Sagineedu SR, Pichika MR
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2015 Jan-Mar;7(1):38-44.
    PMID: 25598633 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.147197
    BACKGROUND: Swietenia macrophylla King. (Meliaceae) seeds (SMS); commonly known as sky fruit and locally known in Malaysia as Tunjuk Langit; have been used in traditional Malay medicine for the treatment of diabetes and hypertension. The people eat only a tiny amount of raw seed, weighing not more than 5 mg.
    AIM: To evaluate the safety of Swietenia macrophylla seeds (SMS) at a single-dose oral administration of 2 g/kg body weight (bw) in sprague dawley (SD) rats.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight-week old male and female SD rats were administered a single-oral dose of 2g/kg bw. The rats' general behavior, and toxic signs were observed throughout the 14-day study period. The food and water intake by rats and their body weight were monitored during the study period. At the end of the study period, the relative weights of the organs (lung, liver, spleen, heart, kidney, testis, stomach); the hematological and biochemical parameters were measured; the architecture and histology of the organs (liver, kidney and lungs) were observed.
    RESULTS: Oral administration of SMS to rats did not affect, either food or water intake; relative organ weight of vital organs; the hematological and biochemical parameters; did not show significant changes in the architecture and histology of vital organs. Overall, there were neither signs of toxicity nor deaths recorded during the study period.
    CONCLUSION: The rat dose of 2 g/kg bw is equivalent to the human dose of 325 mg/kg bw, which is well below the usual amount consumed by people, did not show any signs of toxicity in rats.
    KEYWORDS: Diabetes; Swietenia macrophylla; sky fruit; toxicity; traditional Malay medicine; tunjuk langit
  7. Shafaei A, Aisha AF, Siddiqui MJ, Ismail Z
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2015 Jan-Mar;7(1):32-7.
    PMID: 25598632 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.147196
    Ficus deltoidea (FD) is one of the native plants widely distributed in several countries in Southeast Asia. Previous studies have shown that FD leaf possess antinociceptive, wound healing and antioxidant properties. These beneficial effects have been attributed to the presence of primary and secondary metabolites such as polyphenols, amino acids and flavonoids.
  8. Saidan NH, Aisha AF, Hamil MS, Majid AM, Ismail Z
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2015 Jan-Mar;7(1):23-31.
    PMID: 25598631 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.147195
    Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. (Lamiaceae) is a traditional medicinal plant which has been used in treating various ailments such as kidney diseases, bladder inflammation, arthritis and diabetes. The leaves contain high concentration of phenolic compounds, thus, rosmarinic acid (RA), 3'-hydroxy-5, 6, 7, 4'-tetramethoxyflavone (TMF), sinensetin (SIN) and eupatorin (EUP) were chosen as a marker compounds for standardization of various O. stamineus leaf extracts.
  9. Hashim YZ, Phirdaous A, Azura A
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2014 Jul;6(3):191-4.
    PMID: 25002797 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.132593
    Agarwood is a priceless non-timber forest product from Aquilaria species belonging to the Thymelaeaceae family. As a result of a defence mechanism to fend off pathogens, Aquilaria species develop agarwood or resin which can be used for incense, perfumery, and traditional medicines. Evidences from ethnopharmacological practices showed that Aquilaria spp. have been traditionally used in the Ayurvedic practice and Chinese medicine to treat various diseases particularly the inflammatory-associated diseases. There have been no reports on traditional use of agarwood towards cancer treatment. However, this is most probably due to the fact that cancer nomenclature is used in modern medicine to describe the diseases associated with unregulated cell growth in which inflammation and body pain are involved.
  10. Gundamaraju R, Maheedhar K, Hwi KK
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2014 Jul;6(3):227-33.
    PMID: 25002803 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.132600
    Ulcerations have been effecting humans and causing major damage in the gastro intestinal tract. A need for development of a flawless anti-ulcer medication was always in the agenda. Thus, the need to conduct a study was provoked.
  11. Bhore SJ, Preveena J, Kandasamy KI
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2013 Apr;5(2):134-7.
    PMID: 23798890 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.110545
    Resins and gums are used in traditional medicine and do have potential applications in pharmacy and medicine. Agarwood is the fragrant resinous wood, which is an important commodity from Aquilaria species and has been used as a sedative, analgesic, and digestive in traditional medicine. Endophytic bacteria are potentially important in producing pharmaceutical compounds found in the plants. Hence, it was important to understand which types of endophytic bacteria are associated with pharmaceutical agarwood-producing Aquilaria species.
  12. Hamid RA, Kee TH, Othman F
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2013 Apr;5(2):129-33.
    PMID: 23798889 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.110544
    Acanthopanax trifoliatus is a ginseng-like plant, which has been widely used to treat various diseases including inflammatory-related diseases.
  13. Hanapi NA, Ismail S, Mansor SM
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2013 Oct;5(4):241-6.
    PMID: 24174816 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.118806
    To date, many findings reveal that most of the modern drugs have the ability to interact with herbal drugs.
  14. Motaghed M, Al-Hassan FM, Hamid SS
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2013 Jul;5(3):200-6.
    PMID: 23900121 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.112428
    Nigella sativa or black seed extract has been reported to show various medicinal benefits. Thymoquinone which is an active compound of its seed has been reported to contain anti-cancer properties.
  15. Wong SK, Lim YY, Ling SK, Chan EW
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2014 Jan;6(1):67-72.
    PMID: 24497746 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.122921
    Three compounds isolated from the methanol (MeOH) leaf extract of Vallaris glabra (Apocynaceae) were those of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs). This prompted a quantitative analysis of their contents in leaves of V. glabra in comparison with those of five other Apocynaceae species (Alstonia angustiloba, Dyera costulata, Kopsia fruticosa, Nerium oleander, and Plumeria obtusa), including flowers of Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle), the commercial source of chlorogenic acid (CGA).
  16. Rajeh MA, Kwan YP, Zakaria Z, Latha LY, Jothy SL, Sasidharan S
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2012 Jul;4(3):170-7.
    PMID: 22923956 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.99085
    The methanol extract of Euphorbia hirta L (Euphorbiaceae), which is used in traditional medicines, was tested for in vivo toxicity.
  17. Chan EW, Soh EY, Tie PP, Law YP
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2011 Oct;3(4):266-72.
    PMID: 22224051 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.89748
    BACKGROUND: The role of non-polymeric phenolic (NP) and polymeric tannin (PT) constituents in the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of six brands of green, black, and herbal teas of Camellia sinensis were investigated.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total phenolic content (TPC) and ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity (AEAC) were assessed using the Folin-Ciocalteu and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, respectively. Minimum inhibitory dose (MID) against Gram-positive Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus, and Gram-negative. Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was assessed using the disc-diffusion method. Teas were extracted with hot water successively three times for one hour each time. The extracts were fractionated using Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography to obtain the NP and PT constituents.

    RESULTS: Extraction yields ranged from 12 to 23%. Yields of NP fractions (70-81%) were much higher than those of PT fractions (1-11%), suggesting that the former are the major tea components. Ranking of antioxidant properties of extracts was green tea>black tea>herbal tea. For all six teas, antioxidant properties of PT fractions were significantly higher than extracts and NP fractions. Extracts and fractions of all six teas showed no activity against the three Gram-negative bacteria. Green teas inhibited all three Gram-positive bacteria with S. aureus being the least susceptible. Black and herbal teas inhibited the growth of M. luteus and B. cereus, but not S. aureus. The most potent were the PT fractions of Boh Cameron Highlands and Ho Yan Hor with MID of 0.01 and 0.03 mg/disc against M. luteus.

    CONCLUSION: Results suggested that NP constituents are major contributors to the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of teas of C. sinensis. Although PT constituents have stronger antioxidant and antibacterial properties, they constitute only a minor component of the teas.

  18. Patro G, Bhattamisra SK, Mohanty BK, Sahoo HB
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2016;8(1):22-8.
    PMID: 26941532 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.171099
    OBJECTIVE: Mimosa pudica Linn. (Mimosaceae) is traditionally used as a folk medicine to treat various ailments including convulsions, alopecia, diarrhea, dysentery, insomnia, tumor, wound healing, snake bite, etc., Here, the study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential of M. pudica leaves extract against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (in vitro) and its modulatory effect on rat brain enzymes.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total phenolic, flavonoid contents, and in vitro antioxidant potential against DPPH radical were evaluated from various extracts of M. pudica leaves. In addition, ethyl acetate extract of Mimosa pudica leaves (EAMP) in doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day were administered orally for 7 consecutive days to albino rats and evaluated for the oxidative stress markers as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH) from rat brain homogenate.
    RESULTS: The ethyl acetate extract showed the highest total phenolic content and total flavonoid content among other extracts of M. pudica leaves. The percentage inhibition and IC50 value of all the extracts were followed dose-dependency and found significant (P < 0.01) as compared to standard (ascorbic acid). The oxidative stress markers as SOD, CAT, and GSH were increased significantly (P < 0.01) at 200 and 400 mg/kg of EAMP treated animals and decreased significantly the TBARS level at 400 mg/kg of EAMP as compared to control group.
    CONCLUSION: These results revealed that the ethyl acetate extract of M. pudica exhibits both in vitro antioxidant activity against DPPH and in vivo antioxidant activity by modulating brain enzymes in the rat. This could be further correlated with its potential to neuroprotective activity due to the presence of flavonoids and phenolic contents in the extract.
    SUMMARY: Total phenolic, flavonoid contents and in-vitro antioxidant potential were evaluated from various extracts of M. pudica leaves. Again, in-vivo antioxidant evaluation from brain homogenate on oxidative stress markers as TBARS, SOD, CAT and GSH from rat was investigated. Our findings revealed that M. pudica possesses both in-vitro and in-vivo antioxidant activity due to presence of phenolics and flavonoids.
    KEYWORDS: 2; 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl; Brain homogenate; Flavonoids; Mimosa pudica; Oxidative stress
  19. Amran N, Rani AN, Mahmud R, Yin KB
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2016 Jan-Mar;8(1):66-70.
    PMID: 26941539 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.171104
    The fruits of Barringtonia racemosa and Hibiscus sabdariffa have been used in the treatment of abscess, ulcer, cough, asthma, and diarrhea as traditional remedy.
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