The effects of anticipated climate change and the potential impact on animal production are discussed in the context of varying biophysical features, agro-ecological zones (AEZs), ecosystems, land use, and responses in animal genetic diversity and production. The AEZs in Asia have great diversity in their links to food production in crop-animal small farm systems, the poverty complex and livelihoods of the poor. In these environments. climate change effects on animals were mediated through heat stress, water availability, quantity and quality of the available feed resources, type of production system and productivity. The responses to heat stress are tabulated and they vary according to species, breeds within-species, AEZs, physiological and nutritional status, genetic potential and multifunctionality. Among ruminant production systems, dairy production was especially vulnerable to heat stress. Interestingly in India, buffalo numbers owned largely by the landless and small farmers in the semi-arid and arid regions have grown twice as fast as the buffalo population in the irrigated areas. The implications and strategies to cope with climate change involve mitigation, adaptation and policy. The principal strategy is targetting to the reduce on in greenhouse gas (GHG) emission from the agricultural sector from enteric fermentation and manure, and ways to intensify C sequestration. An important link is that of breeding and conserving indigenous animal genetic resources as a means to mitigate climate change, with associated benefits to the trade of live animals and animal products. Improved integrated tree crops-ruminant systems are an important pathway to enhance C sequestration. The opportunities for research and development (R&D) are enormous and they would need policy support and large investments to provide improved understanding of ways to ensure sustainable animal production systems. Coping with the totality of the effects and impact of climate change constitutes the challenges for agricultural R&D and the improved livelihood of the resource-poor in the future.
Chlorella is one of the common microalgae found in a wide range of habitats, including Antarctica. Chlorella UMACC 234 is an interesting isolate in the collection of Antarctic microalgae in the University of Malaya algae culture collection (UMACC) as it grows well at temperatures much higher than the ambience. The alga was isolated from snow samples collected from Casey, Antarctica. This study investigates the influence of nitrogen source on the growth, biochemical composition and fatty acid profile of Chlorella UMACC 234. The cultures were grown in Bold’s Basal Medium with 3.0 mM NaNO3, NH4Cl or urea. The cultures grown on NaNO3 attained the highest specific growth rate (μ = 0.43 day–1) while the specific growth rates of those grown on NH4Cl and urea were not significantly different (p > 0.05). The urea-grown cells produced the highest amounts of lipids (25.7% dry weight) and proteins (52.5% dry weight) compared to those grown on other nitrogen sources. The cell numbers attained by the cultures grown at NaNO3 levels between 0.3 and 3.0 mM were similar but decreased markedly at 9.0 mM NaNO3. The fatty acids of Chlorella UMACC 234 were dominated by saturated fatty acids, especially 16:0 and 18:0. The percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids was very low, especially in cells grown on urea (0.9% total fatty acids). Characterisation of the growth and biochemical composition of this Antarctic Chlorella is important to our studies on the relationship of Chorella isolates from tropical, temperate and polar regions, especially in terms of phylogeny and stress adaptation.
Recent studies by the United Nations University - Institute of Advanced Studies (UNU-IAS) demonstrate that bioprospecting is taking place in Antarctica and the Southern Ocean and that related commercial applications were being marketed. The bioprospectors’ interest in Antarctica stems from two reasons. First, the lack of knowledge surrounding Antarctic biota provides opportunities to discover novel organisms of potential use to biotechnology. Second, Antarctica’s environmental extremes, such as cold temperatures, extreme aridity and salinity present conditions in which biota have evolved unique characteristics for survival (UNU-IAS 2003). Thus bioprospecting opportunities include, inter alia, the discovery of novel bioactives in species found in cold and dry lithic habitat, novel pigments found in hyper-saline lakes and antifreezes in sea-lakes (Cheng & Cheng 1999).
Marine mammal searches were opportunistically conducted during the East Coast Johor Scientific Expedition (ECJSE) on 21-30 May 2012, on a live-on-board (LOB) diving vessel, MV BLACK PEARL. The expedition was designed mainly to survey coral reef ecosystems and water quality. Daylight visual observations of the sea were undertaken during sailing and stopping/anchored from the most upper open-deck of the vessel. The survey resulted in two sightings of long-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus capensis), each at Pulau Aur and Pulau Tinggi. Both observations were brief (< 5 minutes) and were made when the vessel was anchored. Based on anecdotal evidences, skeletal remains and previous surveys, the vulnerable dugong, Indo-Pacific bottlenose, Indo-Pacific humpback, Irrawaddy and long-beaked common dolphins, the false killer and pygmy killer whales, and the baleen whales are known to occur in the East Coast Johor waters, at least occasionally. The low sighting rate with marine mammals during this survey is highly likely caused by the survey design and also may be due to the environmental conditions and ecological factors. Dedicated and periodical boat and aerial surveys for marine mammals need to be conducted to determine species diversity and to understand the seasonality, habitat use, and social interactions of the marine mammal populations in the area. The findings will be most useful for marine park and fisheries authorities to plan conservation management strategies for marine mammals and promote their conservation through eco-tourism activities.
To investigate the breeding habitat preference of black flies, a comprehensive black fly survey was conducted for the first time in Peninsular Malaysia. Preimaginal black flies (pupae and larvae) were collected manually from 180 stream points encompassing northern, southern, central and east coast of the Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 47 black fly species were recorded in this study. The predominant species were Simulium trangense (36.7%) and Simulium angulistylum (33.3%). Relatively common species were Simulium cheongi (29.4%), Simulium tani (25.6%), Simulium nobile (16.2%), Simulium sheilae (14.5%) and Simulium bishopi (10.6%). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of all stream variables revealed four PCs that accounted for 69.3% of the total intersite variance. Regression analysis revealed that high species richness is associated with larger, deeper, faster and higher discharge streams with larger streambed particles, more riparian vegetation and low pH (F=22.7, d.f.=1, 173; P<0.001). Relationship between species occurrence of seven common species (present in >10% of the sampling sites) was assessed. Forward logistic regression analysis indicated that four species were significantly related to the stream variables. S. nobile and S. tani prefer large, fast flowing streams with higher pH, large streambed particles and riparian trees. S. bishopi was commonly found at high elevation with cooler stream, low conductivity, higher conductivity and more riparian trees. In contrast, S. sheilae was negatively correlated with PC-2, thus, this species commonly found at low elevation, warmer stream with low conductivity and less riparian trees. The results of this study are consistent with previous studies from other geographic regions, which indicated that both physical and chemical stream conditions are the key factors for black fly ecology.
In dengue vector control, attempts to minimize or replace the use of pesticides have mostly involved use of predators, but success has been severely impeded by difficulties associated with financial and environmental costs, predator mass production, and persistence in target habitats. Visual deterrents have been used successfully to control animal pests, in some cases in an effort to replace pesticide use. Despite evidence that visual signals are crucial in site choice for egg deposition by dengue vectors, and that female mosquitoes respond to artificial predation, the role of predator intimidation as it affects the oviposition behavior of dengue vectors remains largely unexplored. Here, we examined the oviposition responses of Aedes aegypti exposed to various mosquito predator pictures. Gravid females were presented with equal opportunities to oviposit in two cups with predator images [Toxorhynchites splendens-TXI, Goldfish (Carassius auratus)-small (SFI) and large (LFI) and Tx. splendens+Goldfish-TXFI] and two others without pictures. Differences in egg deposition were examined between sites with and without these images. When given a chance to oviposit in cups with and without TXI, Ae. aegypti females were similarly attracted to both sites. When provided an opportunity to oviposit in cups displaying pictures of fish (SFI or LFI) and blank cups, egg deposition rates were much lower in the fish picture sites. Females showed a preference for blank cups over TXFI for egg deposition. They also equally avoided cups with pictures of fish, regardless of the size of the picture. Our results indicate that the presence of images of goldfish and their association with Tx. larvae significantly reduced egg deposition by Ae. aegypti, and this was not the case with the predatory larvae alone. The observations that the images of natural predators can repel gravid females of a dengue vector provide novel possibilities to develop effective and inexpensive alternative tools to harmful insecticides.
Indonesia is one of the megadiversity country in the world endowed with rich and unique biodiversity insects such as blackflies species (Diptera: Simuliidae). Blackflies are found almost anywhere with running water suitable as habitat for the immature stages. This family is one of the most important groups of blood-sucking insects. This study collates the records of Simulium (Diptera: Simuliidae) in previous publications related fauna of Indonesia. Based on the results of this study, there were 124 species of blackflies in Indonesian Archipelago. All species are assigned to the genus Simulium Latreille s.l., and are placed into five subgenera, i.e. Gomphostilbia Enderlein, Morops Enderlein, Nevermannia Enderlein, Simulium Latreille s.str. and Wallacellum Takaoka. Further classification into 27 species groups within the subgenera were also made. Checklists of Indonesian Simuliidae are provided including data on the distribution of each species.
Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) are documented from various locations along Borneo's coast, including three sites in Sarawak, Malaysia, three sites in Sabah, Malaysia, three locations in Kalimantan, Indonesia and the limited coastal waters of the Sultanate of Brunei. Observations in all these areas indicate a similar external morphology, which seems to fall somewhere between that documented for Chinese populations known as S. chinensis, and that of Sousa sahulensis in Australia and Papua New Guinea. Sightings occur in shallow nearshore waters, often near estuaries and river mouths, and associations with Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris) are frequently documented. Population estimates exist for only two locations and sightings information throughout Borneo indicates that frequency of occurrence is rare and group size is usually small. Threats from fisheries by-catch and coastal development are present in many locations and there are concerns over the ability of these small and fragmented populations to survive. The conservation and taxonomic status of humpback dolphins in Borneo remain unclear, and there are intriguing questions as to where these populations fit in our evolving understanding of the taxonomy of the genus.
The past decade has seen increased international recognition of the importance of the services provided by natural ecosystems. It is unclear however whether such international awareness will lead to improved environmental management in many regions. We explore this issue by examining the specific case of fish migration and dams on the Mekong river. We determine that dams on the Mekong mainstem and major tributaries will have a major impact on the basin's fisheries and the people who depend upon them for food and income. We find no evidence that current moves towards dam construction will stop, and consider two scenarios for the future of the fisheries and other ecosystems of the basin. We conclude that major investment is required in innovative technology to reduce the loss of ecosystem services, and alternative livelihood strategies to cope with the losses that do occur.
In many regions of the world, biodiversity surveys are not routinely conducted prior to activities that lead to land conversion, such as development projects. Here we use top-down methods based on global range maps and bottom-up methods based on macroecological scaling laws to illuminate the otherwise hidden biodiversity impacts of three large hydroelectric dams in the state of Sarawak in northern Borneo. Our retrospective impact assessment finds that the three reservoirs inundate habitat for 331 species of birds (3 million individuals) and 164 species of mammals (110 million individuals). A minimum of 2100 species of trees (900 million individuals) and 17 700 species of arthropods (34 billion individuals) are estimated to be affected by the dams. No extinctions of bird, mammal, or tree species are expected due to habitat loss following reservoir inundation, while 4-7 arthropod species extinctions are predicted. These assessment methods are applicable to any data-limited system undergoing land-use change.
The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea, with neighboring Indonesian Seas and South China Sea, lies at the center of the world's tropical marine biodiversity. Encircled by 3 populous, developing nations, the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia, the Sea and its adjacent coastal and terrestrial ecosystems, supports ca. 33 million people, most with subsistence livelihoods heavily reliant on its renewable natural resources. These resources are being impacted severely by rapid population growth (> 2% yr-1, with expected doubling by 2035) and widespread poverty, coupled with increasing international market demand and rapid technological changes, compounded by inefficiencies in governance and a lack of awareness and/or acceptance of some laws among local populations, particularly in parts of the Philippines and Indonesia. These key root causes all contribute to illegal practices and corruption, and are resulting in severe resource depletion and degradation of water catchments, river, lacustrine, estuarine, coastal, and marine ecosystems. The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea forms a major geopolitical focus, with porous borders, transmigration, separatist movements, piracy, and illegal fishing all contributing to environmental degradation, human suffering and political instability, and inhibiting strong trilateral support for interventions. This review analyzes these multifarious environmental and socioeconomic impacts and their root causes, provides a future prognosis of status by 2020, and recommends policy options aimed at amelioration through sustainable management and development.
This article is based on the findings of the Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA) Subregion 53, Bay of Bengal. It introduces the Subregion. The wide disparity in development indicators in the Bay of Bengal Subregion (BOBSR) is presented. The large population of poor people living in South Asia is presented as a factor that needs special attention. The article focuses on the 3 geographic sites selected for detailed analysis: i) the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna river systems; ii) the Merbok Estuary mangroves, Malaysia; and iii) the Sunderbans mangroves, Bangladesh. Integrated water management based upon regional cooperation among Bangladesh, India and Nepal holds opportunities for mutual benefit. Policy options are proposed. For mangrove ecosystems, the impacts of urbanization in Malaysia and the unmanaged expansion of shrimp farming in Bangladesh are analyzed. Improved governance was seen to hold promise for enhancing economic benefits from shrimp farming while safeguarding the natural ecological system. However, these measures need to be a part of national efforts to achieve the UN Millennium Development Goals.
For several decades, primatologists have been interested in understanding how sympatric primate species are able to coexist. Most of our understanding of primate community ecology derives from the assumption that these animals interact predominantly with other primates. In this study, we investigate to what extent multiple community assembly hypotheses consistent with this assumption are supported when tested with communities of primates in isolation versus with communities of primates, birds, bats, and squirrels together. We focus on vertebrate communities on the island of Borneo, where we examine the determinants of presence or absence of species, and how these communities are structured. We test for checkerboard distributions, guild proportionality, and Fox's assembly rule for favored states, and predict that statistical signals reflecting interactions between ecologically similar species will be stronger when nonprimate taxa are included in analyses. We found strong support for checkerboard distributions in several communities, particularly when taxonomic groups were combined, and after controlling for habitat effects. We found evidence of guild proportionality in some communities, but did not find significant support for Fox's assembly rule in any of the communities examined. These results demonstrate the presence of vertebrate community structure that is ecologically determined rather than randomly generated, which is a finding consistent with the interpretation that interactions within and between these taxonomic groups may have shaped species composition in these communities. This research highlights the importance of considering the broader vertebrate communities with which primates co-occur, and so we urge primatologists to explicitly consider nonprimate taxa in the study of primate ecology.
The conversion of forest to agriculture continues to contribute to the loss and fragmentation of remaining orang-utan habitat. There are still few published estimates of orang-utan densities in these heavily modified agricultural areas to inform range-wide population assessments and conservation strategies. In addition, little is known about what landscape features promote orang-utan habitat use. Using indirect nest count methods, we implemented surveys and estimated population densities of the Northeast Bornean orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus morio) across the continuous logged forest and forest remnants in a recently salvage-logged area and oil palm plantations in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. We then assessed the influence of landscape features and forest structural metrics obtained from LiDAR data on estimates of orang-utan density. Recent salvage logging appeared to have a little short-term effect on orang-utan density (2.35 ind/km 2 ), which remained similar to recovering logged forest nearby (2.32 ind/km 2 ). Orang-utans were also present in remnant forest patches in oil palm plantations, but at significantly lower numbers (0.82 ind/km 2 ) than nearby logged forest and salvage-logged areas. Densities were strongly influenced by variation in canopy height but were not associated with other potential covariates. Our findings suggest that orang-utans currently exist, at least in the short-term, within human-modified landscapes, providing that remnant forest patches remain. We urge greater recognition of the role that these degraded habitats can have in supporting orang-utan populations, and that future range-wide analyses and conservation strategies better incorporate data from human-modified landscapes.
Wild chimpanzee populations are still declining due to logging, disease transmission and hunting. The bushmeat trade frequently leads to an increase in the number of orphaned primates. HELP Congo was the first project to successfully release wild-born orphan chimpanzees into an existing chimpanzee habitat. A collection of post monitoring data over 16 years now offers the unique opportunity to investigate possible behavioural adaptations in these chimpanzees. We investigated the feeding and activity patterns in eight individuals via focal observation techniques from 1997-1999 and 2001-2005. Our results revealed a decline in the number of fruit and insect species in the diet of released chimpanzees over the years, whereas within the same period of time, the number of consumed seed species increased. Furthermore, we found a decline in time spent travelling, but an increase in time spent on social activities, such as grooming, as individuals matured. In conclusion, the observed changes in feeding and activity patterns seem to reflect important long-term behavioural and ecological adaptations in wild-born orphan released chimpanzees, demonstrating that the release of chimpanzees can be successful, even if it takes time for full adaptation.
Sedges (Cyperaceae) form an important ecological component of many ecosystems around the world. Sword and rapier sedges (genus Lepidosperma) are common and widespread components of the southern Australian and New Zealand floras, also occurring in New Caledonia, West Papua, Borneo, Malaysia and southern China. Sedge ecology is seldom studied and no comprehensive review of sedge ecology exists. Lepidosperma is unusual in the Cyperaceae with the majority of species occurring in dryland habitats.