The paradigm that mathematics is a subject to be taught and learned is not correct. Mathematics is to be
produced. However, without hermeneutics, it would be difficult to do so. Unfortunately, hermeneutics was
all that have been neglected in mathematics education. Meanwhile, only with hermeneutics, teaching
and learning mathematics and also research in mathematics could flourish and be fruitful. Without it,
it would be extremely hard for students to come up with a new creation in mathematics. This paper
aims to shift the paradigm of mathematics education from learning (only) of mathematics into producing
mathematics. Some examples are presented to illustrate the power of hermeneutics in developing
mathematical imagination, ideas, and creativity towards mathematical discovery or invention.
In this paper, an improved method of reducing ambient noise in speech signals is introduced. The proposed noise canceller was developed using a computationally efficient (DFT) filter bank to decompose input signals into sub-bands. The filter bank was based on a prototype filter optimized for minimum output distortion. A variable step-size version of the (LMS) filter was used to reduce the noise in individual branches. The subband noise canceller was aimed to overcome problems associated with the use of the conventional least mean square (LMS) adaptive algorithm in noise cancellation setups. Mean square error convergence was used as a measure of performance under white and ambient interferences. Compared to conventional as well as recently developed techniques, fast initial convergence and better noise cancellation performances were obtained under actual speech and ambient noise.
The receptor-interacting protein 140 (RIP 140) is a well known nuclear repressor and has been shown to be crucial for female reproduction and metabolism. However, the function of this repressor in developmental processes is still unknown. We conducted a study to investigate the expression patterns of RIP 140 in developing zebrafish embryos. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that RIP140 was highly expressed in the eye, swim bladder, reproductive and metabolic organs of adult zebrafish. During embryogenesis, RIP 140 mRNA was continuously expressed throughout all the developmental stages with the highest expression at 24 hours of post-fertilization (hpf). Furthermore, in situ hybridization whole-mounts revealed that the expression of this gene was mainly localized in the eyes, mid-brain, pectoral fin buds and somites. Therefore, this present study has provided a starting point for future investigations to examine the role of RIP 140 in the development of these organs.
Frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) systems with partial band interference require appropriate compounding of spread spectrum modulation, error correcting code, diversity and decoding method to receive improved transmission signal. In this paper, a fast FHSS system with regular low-density parity-check codes was employed to cater some anti-jamming competence by using good waterfall and error floor performance. The performance evalution of the previously mentioned system was conducted in the presence of partial band noise jamming. The best possible design of the system was achieved with the combination of diversity level L=2 with a probability rate of at 0.7 dB which showed the robustness of the system.
In this paper, the problem of steady laminar boundary layer flow of an incompressible viscous fluid over a moving thin needle is considered. The governing boundary layer equations were first transformed into non-dimensional forms. These non-dimensional equations were then transformed into similarity equations using the similarity variables, which were solved numerically using an implicit finite-difference scheme known as the Keller-box method. The solutions were obtained for a blunt-nosed needle. Numerical computations were carried out for various values of the dimensionless parameters of the problem which included the Prandtl number Pr and the parameter a representing the needle size. It was found that the heat transfer characteristics were significantly
influenced by these parameters. However, the Prandtl number had no effect on the flow characteristics due to the decoupled boundary layer equations.
In agricultural systems, animals play a very important multifunctional role for developing communities
throughout the world. This is reflected in the generation of value-added products like meat, milk and eggs for food security; socio-economic benefits like increased income, security and survival, and an infinite variety of services such as the supply of draught power and dung for soil fertility. However, and despite this importance, the situation is awesome since the projected total meat and milk consumption levels in 2020 are far in excess of anticipated supply, and projections of both meat and milk will have to be doubled by 2050 to meet human requirements. Strategies for productivity growth from animals are therefore urgent, and are discussed in the context of the scenario of waning agriculture, extreme poverty and hunger, food crisis, the current contributions from the components of the animal industries, prevailing constraints, opportunities and strategies for improved production. Current trends suggest that the non-ruminant pig and poultry industries will continue to contribute the major share of meat and all of egg production to meet projected human needs. With ruminants by comparison, overall meat production continues to come mainly from the slaughter of numbers. Strategic opportunities exist for maximising productivity in improved production systems. These include targeting rainfed areas, development of small farms, integrated crop-animal systems, intensive application of productivity-enhancing technologies, promoting intensive use of crop residues and expanding the R&D frontiers with interdisciplinarity and farming
systems perspectives. The issues, together with increased investments and institutional commitment, provide for expanded animal production systems and productivity which can forcefully impact on improved human welfare in Asia in the immediate tomorrow.
Several binary and ternary medium- and long-chain triacylglycerol (MLCT)-enriched margarine formulations were examined for their solid fat content, heating profile, polymorphism and textural properties. MLCT feedstock was produced through enzymatic esterification of capric and stearic acids with glycerol. The binary formulations were produced by mixing MLCT feedstock blend (40%–90%) and palm olein (10%–60%) with 10% increments (w/w). Solid fat profiles of commercial margarines were used as a reference to determine the suitability of the formulations for margarine production. The solid fat content of the binary formulations of MO 82 and MO 91 (M, MLCT, O, palm olein) were similar to the commercial margarines at 25°C which met the basic requirement for efficient dough consistency. Ternary formulations using reduced MLCT feedstock blend proportion (from 80%–90% to 60%–70%) were also developed. The reduction of MLCT feedstock blend was
done as it had the highest production cost (3USD/kg) in comparison to palm olein (0.77USD/kg) and palm stearin (0.7USD/kg). The proportions of 5%–15% of palm stearin were substituted with palm olein in MO 64 and MO 73 (M, MLCT; O, palm olein) formulations with 5% increment (w/w). As a result, MOS 702010 and MOS 603010 (M, MLCT; O, palm olein; S, palm stearin) margarine formulations showed similar SFC % to the commercial margarines at 25ºC. These formulations were subsequently chosen to produce margarines. The onset melting and complete melting points of MLCT-enriched margarine formulations were high (51.04ºC –57.93ºC) due to the presence of a high amount of long chain saturated fatty acids. Most of the formulations showed β΄- crystals. MOS 702010 was selected as the best formulation due to values for textural parameters comparable (P
Elevated temperature affects marine benthic algae by reducing growth and limits the transport of electron or carbon fixation which may reduce the ability of the cell to use light. This resulting excess light energy may cause photoinhibition. In this study, the photosystem II of the benthic microalgal communities from Casey, eastern Antarctic were relatively unaffected by significant changes in temperatures up to 8ºC, along with high PAR level (450 μmol photons m–2 s–1). Similarly, the community was able to photosynthesize as the temperature was reduced to –5ºC. Recovery from saturating and photoinhibiting irradiances was not significantly influenced by temperatures at both –5ºC and 8ºC. These responses were consistent with those recorded by past experiments on Antarctic benthic diatoms and temperate diatoms which showed that climate change did not have a significant impact on the ability of benthic microalgae to recover from photoinhibitory temperature stress.
The genus Streptomonospora is a group of extremely halophilic filamentous actinomycetes that form a distinct branch in the 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic tree adjacent to the genera Nocardiopsis and Thermobifida, family Norcadiopsaceae. To date, genus Streptomonospora only contain two validly described species which are Streptomonospora salina and Streptomonospora alba. During a biodiversity study on halophilic filamentous actinomycetes from 18 co-ordinates in Barrientos Island, Antarctic, numerous actinomycetes strains were isolated. To identify whether these isolates were members of the genus Streptomonospora, a genus specific primer that allow the rapid detection of the genus Streptomonospora by means of PCR amplification was used. Furthermore molecular cloning was performed to make identical and multiple copies of the target gene. In addition, morphological characteristic identification was performed to validate isolates with positive amplification during PCR.
In this multiple-subject study, intrinsic couplings between the primary motor (M1) and supplementary motor areas (SMA) were investigated. Unilateral (UNIright and UNIleft) self-paced tapping of hand fingers were performed to activate M1 and SMA. The intrinsic couplings were analysed using statistical parametric mapping, dynamic causal modeling (DCM) and Bayesian model analysis. Brain activation observed for UNIright and UNIleft showed contralateral and ipsilateral involvement of M1 and SMA. Ten full connectivity models were constructed with right and left M1 and SMA as processing centres. DCM indicated that all subjects prefer M1 as the intrinsic input for UNIright and UNIleft as indicated by a large group Bayes factor (GBF). Positive evidence ratio (PER) that showed strong evidence of Model 3 and Model 6 against other models in at least 12 out of 16 subjects, supported GBF results. The GBF and PER results were later found to be consistent with that of BMS for group studies with high expected posterior probability and exceedance probability. It was concluded that during unilateral finger tapping, the contralateral M1 would act as the input centre which in turn triggered the propagation of signals to SMA in the same hemisphere and to M1 and SMA in the opposite hemisphere.
A preliminary study was carried out to fabricate a three electrode system based on electrochemical sensoring. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) technique was chosen to select the type of metal suitable for evaporation and to compare the results produced from the fabricated gold electrode with the conventional macro-electrode system. The methodology and apparatus used involved low cost apparatus and methodology such as soft lithography, wet-etching, thermal evaporation, direct current sputtering, polymethylmethacrylate moulding and polydimethylsiloxane coating. The experiment was conducted at a fixed scan rate of 100 mV/s by using 0.01 M K3Fe(CN)6 in 0.1M KCl and well known method using Randles-Sevcik equation, peak current ratio and voltage separation was used to analyze the characterization on the fabricated sensors. Electrodes of 6.5 mm2 and 0.26 mm2 were fabricated to prove the adsorption effect of the reactant and the influence of the electrode area on the value of the peak current. CV analysis proved that the fabricated sensor was reliable for a range of 24 h at 25ºC room temperature.
Two sequential statistical experimental designs were used to screen and investigate the dependence of the amount of biodegradation of Procion Red MX-8B (PR-MX8B) on the fermentation variables. Fourteen factors were screened using the Plackett-Burman design. Among these factors, the most significant variables which included yeast extract, corn steep solids and starch influencing PR-MX8B decolourisation were statistically elucidated for optimization. The optimum concentrations of 5.00 g/l yeast extract, 2.99 g/l starch and 1.89 g/l corn steep solids were predicted by applying the Box-Behnken design to the second order polynomial model fitted to the results obtained. The best predicted optimal conditions verified experimentally yielded 72.11% while the predicted value from the polynomial model was 79.17%. The experimental values were in good agreement with the predicted values with a 90.81% degree of accuracy.
The pursuit, initiation and establishment of multi-stakeholder partnerships, including with the private sector, is often a critical component of attaining and achieving the success and sustainability of many projects the world over. However, the soliciting and securing of socially, economically and environmentally constructive engagements between the private sector on the one hand, and the NGOs, CBOs and local communities on the other hand, is in reality much easier said than done. Notably, since most private sector corporations undoubtedly tend to leave behind various "ecological footprints", differing only in their size and depth, stemming from their respective forms and functions, and their ensuing impacts and implications. The interplay between the civil society and the private sector, especially for resource mobilization. (Copied from article).
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures resulting from excessive abnormal electrical discharges in the brain. Medicinal plants may play an invaluable role to discover the new antiepileptic drugs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anticonvulsant activity of α-terpineol isolated from Myristica fragrans Hountt. The α-terpineol showed a significant inhibition of the seizure episodes and spikes in absence seizures model of Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) rats by using electroencephalography records. It showed dose-dependent anticonvulsant activity that was comparable to the known antiepileptic drug of diazepam. It showed a rapid onset and relatively short duration of anticonvulsant effects. The present findings suggest that α-terpineol might possess antiepileptic activities against the partial seizures of human because it prevented seizures in well-established genetic absence seizure animal model of GAERS rats.
Finding a proper transition structure for the peptide bond formation process can lead to a better understanding of the role of the ribosome in catalyzing this reaction. A potential energy surface scan was performed on the ester bond dissociation of the P-site aminoacyl-tRNA and the peptide bond formation of P-site and A-site amino acids. The full fragment of initiator tRNAi met attached to both cognate (met) and non-cognate (ala) amino acids as the P-site substrate and the methionine as the A-site amino acid was used in this study. Due to the large size of tRNA, ONIOM calculations were used to reduce the computational cost. This study illustrated that the rate of peptide bond formation was reduced for misacylated tRNA without the presence of ribosomal bases. This demonstrated that there were indeed specific structural interactions involving the amino acid side chain within the tRNAi met.
Research and development trends will continue to design innovative composite foods in which muscle proteins are combined with non-conventional animal products, non-meat proteins and functional food additives, many of which have lost their original inherent properties and characteristics. Composite food are products with meat, non-meat proteins, fats, carbohydrates and functional ingredients such as pre-emulsion, probiotics, enzymes, bioactives, peptides, hormones, emulsifiers, gelatin, animal fats/oils, alcohol and visceral tissues. Traceability of halal meat raw materials should start at the point of animal breeding, production to the stage of halal slaughter, processing operations and final point of consumption. Traceability of food additives used in the food industry remains a major hurdle for the Muslim community seeking halal food. The processes and technological advancements made in raw material processing, ingredient extractions, modifications, purification and resynthesized into many food ingredients make the question of traceability and solving of the materials and processes that are halal a monumental task. Food is only halal if the entire food chain from farm to table, is processed, handled and stored in accordance with the syariah and/or halal standards or guidelines, such as in the Jabatan Kemajuan Islam Malaysia (JAKIM): General guidelines, Malaysia Standards MS 1500:2009 and Codex Alimentarius (Food Labeling). Here lies the challenge and importance of traceability to verify the ‘wholesomeness’ of the sources of halal raw materials and final meat-based food products.
A 'green tyre' concept has the advantage of low rolling resistance, improved wet grip and enhanced handling. It has been reported that 3% decrease in rolling resistance is equivalent to 1% fuel saving, thus giving the 'green tyre' economic benefits and customer satisfaction. In this study, epoxidised natural rubber (ENR) compounds containing various loading of silica filler were prepared. The processibility and viscoelastic properties were investigated using the rubber processing analyser and Mooney viscometer. Results showed that the properties were adversely affected by the poor dispersion of silica as supported by the bound rubber measurement. In addition, a reversion in the cure behaviour was also observed as the curing temperature was increased to 170ºC.
The human brain generates different oscillations at different frequencies during various consciousness levels. When these brain waves synchronize with exogenous rhythmic stimulation, the brain experiences strong, yet relaxing emotion that could be involved in the formation of memory. We investigated the character of rhythmic oscillatory dynamics by electroencephalography (EEG) of subjects listening to a short verse of the Holy Quran compared to resting and Arabic news listening. The mean power amplitudes of each frequency band for wavelet-based time-frequency analysis were obtained from 5000 ms of segmented EEG recordings during rest, news and Quran listening conditions. The time series analysis of power from each of three conditions in each frequency band from the grand averaged data was then subjected to autocorrelation study. The results showed significant cyclic overall trends of increasing and decreasing patterns of power in the low frequency brain wave oscillation of different head regions especially global, frontal and temporal sites. These results provided a basis for prediction of the periodicity of the power of the oscillatory brain dynamics of delta and robustly in theta regions which occurred during Quran listening. Despite several limitations, our data offered a plausible scientific basis to the emotional induction during Quran listening that mimics recognized as data from music listening studies. This offered a promising perspective for future studies in translational neurophysiological, cognitive and biofeedback on Quran listening to modify brain behaviour in health and disease.
Hydraulics simulation can be used as a supporting tool for planning and developing a framework, such as Integrated Flood Management for river management. To demonstrate this, a hydraulics model for the Sarawak River Basin was run using InfoWorks RS software by Wallingford Software, UK. InfoWorks River Simulation (RS) was chosen because its applicability has been proven and widely used to model Malaysian rivers. The extraction of computed floodwater level and flood maps for different time intervals would produce the rate of floodplain submergence from river bank level. This information could be incorporated into a logical framework to support decisions on flood management measures. Thus, hydraulics models can be used as tools to provide the necessary decision parameters for developing logical frameworks which would act as to guide the planning when it involved various stakeholders’ participation.
Cassava starch was used as feedstock for production of bioethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The cassava starch was hydrolyzed using commercial α-amylase and glucoamylase enzymes followed by a batch ethanol fermentation process using saccharified starch slurry. By using 110 g/L of reducing sugar from saccharified starch slurry, the ethanol yield was promising with maximum ethanol concentration of 20.6 g/L recorded after 55 hours of cultivation process. Three different models - the Logistic model, Luedeking-Piret-like equation and Gompertz equation - were used to characterize and explain the cell growth, reducing sugar consumption and production formation, respectively. The kinetic parameters were estimated by fitting the experimental data to the proposed models using non-linear regression analysis. The correlation coefficient r2 values for the Logistic model, Luedeking-Piret-like equation and the Gompertz equation were 0.994, 0.996 and 0.990, respectively. The high correlation coefficient values indicate that the proposed models were able to describe the ethanol fermentation process.