Displaying publications 21 - 28 of 28 in total

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  1. Jamail M, Andrew K, Junaidi D, Krishnan AK, Faizal M, Rahmah N
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2005 Jan;10(1):99-104.
    PMID: 15655019
    We conducted a field study of a rapid test (Brugia Rapid) for detection of Brugia malayi infection to validate its sensitivity and specificity under operational conditions. Seven districts in the state of Sarawak, Malaysia, which are endemic for brugian filariasis, were used to determine the test sensitivity. Determination of specificity was performed in another state in Malaysia (Bachok, Kelantan) which is non-endemic for filariasis but endemic for soil-transmitted helminths. In Sarawak both the rapid test and thick blood smear preparation were performed in the field. The rapid test was interpreted on site, whereas blood smears were taken to the district health centres for staining and microscopic examination. Sensitivity of Brugia Rapid dipstick as compared with microscopy of thick blood smears was 87% (20/23; 95% CI: 66.4-97.2) whereas the specificity was 100% (512/512). The lower sensitivity of the test in the field than in laboratory evaluations (> or =95%), was probably due to the small number of microfilaraemic individuals, in addition to difficulties in performing the test in remote villages by field personnel. The overall prevalence of brugian filariasis as determined by the dipstick is 9.4% (95% CI: 8.2-0.5) while that determined by microscopy is 0.90% (95% CI: 0.5-1.3) thus the dipstick detected about 10 times more cases than microscopy. Equal percentages of adults and children were found to be positive by the dipstick whereas microscopy showed that the number of infected children was seven times less than infected adults. The rapid dipstick test was useful as a diagnostic tool for mapping and certification phases of the lymphatic filariasis elimination programme in B. malayi-endemic areas.
  2. Earnshaw VA, Jin H, Wickersham J, Kamarulzaman A, John J, Altice FL
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2014 Jun;19(6):672-679.
    PMID: 24666546 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.12306
    OBJECTIVES: Stigma towards people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is strong in Malaysia. Although stigma has been understudied, it may be a barrier to treating the approximately 81 000 Malaysian PLWHA. The current study explores correlates of intentions to discriminate against PLWHA among medical and dental students, the future healthcare providers of Malaysia.
    METHODS: An online, cross-sectional survey of 1296 medical and dental students was conducted in 2012 at seven Malaysian universities; 1165 (89.9%) completed the survey and were analysed. Socio-demographic characteristics, stigma-related constructs and intentions to discriminate against PLWHA were measured. Linear mixed models were conducted, controlling for clustering by university.
    RESULTS: The final multivariate model demonstrated that students who intended to discriminate more against PLWHA were female, less advanced in their training, and studying dentistry. They further endorsed more negative attitudes towards PLWHA, internalised greater HIV-related shame, reported more HIV-related fear and disagreed more strongly that PLWHA deserve good care. The final model accounted for 38% of the variance in discrimination intent, with 10% accounted for by socio-demographic characteristics and 28% accounted for by stigma-related constructs.
    CONCLUSIONS: It is critical to reduce stigma among medical and dental students to eliminate intentions to discriminate and achieve equitable care for Malaysian PLWHA. Stigma-reduction interventions should be multipronged, addressing attitudes, internalised shame, fear and perceptions of deservingness of care.
    KEYWORDS: HIV/AIDS; Malaisie; Malasia; Malaysia; VIH/SIDA; cuidados sanitarios profesionales; discriminación; discrimination; estigma; homosexuality; professional healthcare students; stigma; stigmatisation; substance abuse; étudiants en profession de soins de santé
  3. Lewthwaite P, Shankar MV, Tio PH, Daly J, Last A, Ravikumar R, et al.
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2010 Jul;15(7):811-8.
    PMID: 20487425 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2010.02537.x
    OBJECTIVE: To compare two commercially available kits, Japanese Encephalitis-Dengue IgM Combo ELISA (Panbio Diagnostics) and JEV-CheX IgM capture ELISA (XCyton Diagnostics Limited), to a reference standard (Universiti Malaysia Sarawak - Venture Technologies VT ELISA).

    METHODS: Samples were obtained from 172/192 children presenting to a site in rural India with acute encephalitis syndrome.

    RESULTS: Using the reference VT ELISA, infection with Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) was confirmed in 44 (26%) patients, with central nervous system infection confirmed in 27 of these; seven patients were dengue seropositive. Of the 121 remaining patients, 37 (31%) were JEV negative and 84 (69%) were JEV unknown because timing of the last sample tested was <10 day of illness or unknown. For patient classification with XCyton, using cerebrospinal fluid alone (the recommended sample), sensitivity was 77.8% (59.2-89.4) with specificity of 97.3% (90.6-99.2). For Panbio ELISA, using serum alone (the recommended sample), sensitivity was 72.5% (57.2-83.9) with specificity of 97.5% (92.8-99.1). Using all available samples for patient classification, sensitivity and specificity were 63.6% (95% CI: 48.9-76.2) and 98.4% (94.5-99.6), respectively, for XCyton ELISA and 75.0% (59.3-85.4) and 97.7% (93.3-99.2) for Panbio ELISA.

    CONCLUSION: The two commercially available ELISAs had reasonable sensitivities and excellent specificities for diagnosing JEV.

  4. Jiamsakul A, Kerr SJ, Ng OT, Lee MP, Chaiwarith R, Yunihastuti E, et al.
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2016 May;21(5):662-74.
    PMID: 26950901 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.12690
    OBJECTIVES: Treatment interruptions (TIs) of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) are known to lead to unfavourable treatment outcomes but do still occur in resource-limited settings. We investigated the effects of TI associated with adverse events (AEs) and non-AE-related reasons, including their durations, on treatment failure after cART resumption in HIV-infected individuals in Asia.

    METHODS: Patients initiating cART between 2006 and 2013 were included. TI was defined as stopping cART for >1 day. Treatment failure was defined as confirmed virological, immunological or clinical failure. Time to treatment failure during cART was analysed using Cox regression, not including periods off treatment. Covariables with P < 0.10 in univariable analyses were included in multivariable analyses, where P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

    RESULTS: Of 4549 patients from 13 countries in Asia, 3176 (69.8%) were male and the median age was 34 years. A total of 111 (2.4%) had TIs due to AEs and 135 (3.0%) had TIs for other reasons. Median interruption times were 22 days for AE and 148 days for non-AE TIs. In multivariable analyses, interruptions >30 days were associated with failure (31-180 days HR = 2.66, 95%CI (1.70-4.16); 181-365 days HR = 6.22, 95%CI (3.26-11.86); and >365 days HR = 9.10, 95% CI (4.27-19.38), all P < 0.001, compared to 0-14 days). Reasons for previous TI were not statistically significant (P = 0.158).

    CONCLUSIONS: Duration of interruptions of more than 30 days was the key factor associated with large increases in subsequent risk of treatment failure. If TI is unavoidable, its duration should be minimised to reduce the risk of failure after treatment resumption.

  5. Low GKK, Kagize J, Faull KJ, Azahar A
    PMID: 31373098 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.13294
    OBJECTIVE: To review the diagnostic test accuracy and predictive value of statistical models in differentiating the severity of dengue infection.

    METHODS: Electronic searches were conducted in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE (complete), PubMed and Scopus. Eligible studies to be included in this review were cohort studies with participants confirmed by laboratory test for dengue infection and comparison among the different severity of dengue infection by using statistical models. The methodological quality of the paper was assessed by independent reviewers using QUADAS-2.

    RESULTS: Twenty-six studies published from 1994 to 2017 were included. Most diagnostic models produced an accuracy of 75% to 80% except one with 86%. Two models predicting severe dengue according to the WHO 2009 classification have 86% accuracy. Both of these logistic regression models were applied during the first three days of illness, and their sensitivity and specificity were 91-100% and 79.3-86%, respectively. Another model which evaluated the 30-day mortality of dengue infection had an accuracy of 98.5%.

    CONCLUSION: Although there are several potential predictive or diagnostic models for dengue infection, their limitations could affect their validity. It is recommended that these models be revalidated in other clinical settings and their methods be improved and standardised in future.

  6. Bandyopadhyay S, Lum LC, Kroeger A
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2006 Aug;11(8):1238-55.
    PMID: 16903887 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2006.01678.x
    BACKGROUND: The current World Health Organisation (WHO) classification of dengue includes two distinct entities: dengue fever (DF) and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF)/dengue shock syndrome; it is largely based on pediatric cases in Southeast Asia. Dengue has extended to different tropical areas and older age groups. Variations from the original description of dengue manifestations are being reported.
    OBJECTIVES: To analyse the experience of clinicians in using the dengue case classification and identify challenges in applying the criteria in routine clinical practice.
    METHOD: Systematic literature review of post-1975 English-language publications on dengue classification.
    RESULTS: Thirty-seven papers were reviewed. Several studies had strictly applied all four WHO criteria in DHF cases; however, most clinicians reported difficulties in meeting all four criteria and used a modified classification. The positive tourniquet test representing the minimum requirement of a haemorrhagic manifestation did not distinguish between DHF and DF. In cases of DHF thrombocytopenia was observed in 8.6-96%, plasma leakage in 6-95% and haemorrhagic manifestations in 22-93%. The low sensitivity of classifying DHF could be due to failure to repeat the tests or physical examinations at the appropriate time, early intravenous fluid therapy, and lack of adequate resources in an epidemic situation and perhaps a considerable overlap of clinical manifestations in the different dengue entities.
    CONCLUSION: A prospective multi-centre study across dengue endemic regions, age groups and the health care system is required which describes the clinical presentation of dengue including simple laboratory parameters in order to review and if necessary modify the current dengue classification.
  7. Ng KP, Kuan CS, Kaur H, Na SL, Atiya N, Velayuthan RD
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2015 Nov;20(11):1447-1453.
    PMID: 26216479 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.12577
    To describe a prospective laboratory-based surveillance of Candida species that were collected from different anatomical sites of patients admitted to the University of Malaya Medical Centre, Malaysia, from the year 2000 to 2013.
  8. Wong SC, Ooi MH, Abdullah AR, Wong SY, Krishnan S, Tio PH, et al.
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2008 Jan;13(1):52-5.
    PMID: 18291002 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2007.01967.x
    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is an important encephalitis virus in Asia, but there are few data on Malaysia. A hospital-based surveillance system for Japanese encephalitis (JE) has been in operation in Sarawak, Malaysia, for the last 10 years. JEV is endemic in Sarawak, with cases occurring throughout the year and a seasonal peak in the last quarter (one-way anova, P < 0.0001). Ninety-two per cent of 133 cases were children aged 12 years or younger; the introduction of JE vaccination in July 2001 reduced the number of JE cases (84 in the four seasons prior to vs. 49 in the six seasons after, McNemar's test, P = 0.0001). After implementation of the programme, the mean age of infected children increased from 6.3 to 8.0 years (Student's t-test, P = 0.0037), suggesting the need for a catch-up programme.
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