MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional study adopting the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) was conducted. All cancer patients attending Penang General Hospital between August-November 2011 were approached. Descriptive statistics were used to assess demographic and disease related characteristics of the patients. All analyses were performed using SPSS v 16.0.
RESULTS: Three hundred and ninety three cancer patients met the inclusion criteria and were enrolled in the study. The mean age was 53.9 (SD±13) years. The cohort was dominated by females (n=260, 66.2%). Nearly half (n=190, 48.3%) of the participants were of Malay ethnicity, practicing Islam as their religion (n=194, 49.4%). Two hundred and ninety six (n=296, 75.3%) had beene diagnosed with cancer within six months to 3 years previously. The most common primary cancer site was breast (n=143, 36.4%). The mean Global Health Status (GHS) score was 60.7 (SD=21.3). Females (mean GHS score of 62.3, p=0.035) with Malay ethnicity (mean GHS score of 63.8, p=0.047), practicing Islam as their religion (mean GHS score of 63.0, p=0.011) had better GHS scores. Patients having medical insurance had good scores (mean 65.6, p=0.021). Marital status was significantly associated with GHS scores (p=0.022). Bone cancer patientshad the lowest mean GHS score of 49.2 (p=0.044). Patients at very advanced stages of cancer featured a low GHS mean score of 52.2 (p<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: The present study identified many demographic and disease related factors which may contribute to the HRQoL of cancer patients, pointing to the necessity for improved management of disease symptoms and provision of psychological and financial support.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective cross sectional study looked at prostate cancer patients seen in the Urology Departments in 2 tertiary centres over the 11 year period starting from January 2000 to May 2011. Patient demographic data, levels of PSA at diagnosis, Gleason score for the biopsy core, T-staging as well as the lymph node status were recorded and analysed.
RESULTS: 258 men were included. The mean age of those 90 men (34.9%) with bone metastasis was 69.2 ± 7.3 years. Logistic regression found that PSA level (P=0.000) at diagnosis and patient's nodal-stage (P=0.02) were the only two independent variables able to predict the probability of bone metastasis among the newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients. Among those with a low PSA level less than 20 ng/ml, and less than 10 ng/ml, bone metastasis were detected in 10.3% (12 out of 117) and 9.7% (7 out of 72), respectively. However, by combining PSA level of 10 ng/ml or lower, and nodal negative as the two criteria to predict negative bone scan, a relatively high negative predictive value of 93.8% was obtained. The probability of bone metastasis in prostate cancer can be calculated with this formula: -1.069+0.007(PSA value, ng/ml) +1.021(Nodal status, 0 or 1)=x Probability of bone metastasis=2.718 x/1+2.718 x.
CONCLUSION: Newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients with a PSA level of 10 ng/ml or lower and negative nodes have a very low risk of bone metastasis (negative predictive value 93.8%) and therefore bone scans may not be necessary.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 6 equal groups with 12 rats in each group. For cancer induction two intraperitoneal injections of azoxymethane (AOM) were given at 15 mg/kg bodyweight over a 2-weeks period. During the post initiation phase, two different concentrations of PA, 0.2% (w/v) and 0.5% (w/v) were administered in the diet.
RESULTS: Results of β-catenin, COX-2 expressions and cell proliferation of Ki-67 showed a significant contribution in colonic cancer progression. For β-catenin and COX-2 expression, there was a significant difference between groups at p<0.05. With Ki-67, there was a statistically significant lowering the proliferating index as compared to AOM alone (p<0.05). A significant positive correlation (p=0.01) was noted between COX-2 expression and proliferation. Total β-catenin also demonstrated a significant positive linear relationship with total COX-2 (p=0.044).
CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated potential value of PA extracted from rice bran in reducing colonic cancer risk in rats.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 53 paired tissue samples from breast cancer patients were frozen-sectioned to characterize the tumour and normal tissues. Only tissues with 80% tumour cells were used in this study. For confirmation, Q-PCR was used to determine the HER-2/neu DNA amplification.
RESULTS: We found 20/53 (37.7%) of the tumour tissues to be positive for HER-2/neu protein overexpression using IHC. Out of these twenty, only 9/53 (17%) cases were in agreement with the Q-PCR results. The concordance rate between IHC and Q-PCR was 79.3%. Approximately 20.7% of positive IHC cases showed no HER-2/neu gene amplification using Q-PCR.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, IHC can be used as an initial screening method for detection of the HER-2/neu protein overexpression. Techniques such as Q-PCR should be employed to verify the IHC results for uncertain cases as well as determination of HER-2/neu gene amplification.
METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on all Malaysian ethnic groups aged ≥15 years old at eight strategically chosen shopping malls within a two week time period. Data were analysed using chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression. Significance level was set at α<0.05.
RESULTS: Most (84.2%) respondents had heard of oral cancer. Smoking was the most (92.4%) recognized high risk habit. Similar levels of awareness were seen for unhealed ulcers (57.3%) and red/white patches (58.0%) as signs of oral cancer. Age, gender, ethnicity, marital status, education, occupation and income were significantly associated with oral cancer awareness (p<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: There was a general lack of awareness regarding the risk habits, early signs and symptoms, and the benefits of detecting this disease at an early stage. Mass media and health campaigns were the main sources of information about oral cancer. In our Malaysian population, gender and age were significantly associated with the awareness of early signs and symptoms and prevention of oral cancer, respectively.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted over six months from November 2011 until May 2012 among the students from the Management and Science University. This study was approved by its ethical committee , the students being explained the objective and invited to participate. A consent form was signed by all study participants. Questionnaire was distributed randomly to the students of the five faculties through their lecturers in different faculty. For univariate analysis t-test and ANOVA test were performed. Multiple linear regression used for multivariate analysis using SPSS 13.0.
RESULTS: A total number of 1100 students participated with a mean age of 22.1±2.21 (SD) years. The majority were 22 years or younger (56.3%), female (54%), Malay (61.5%), single (92.3%), with family monthly income ≥5000 Ringgit Malaysia (41.2%). Regarding lifestyle, about were 31.6% smokers, 75.6% never drank alcohol and 53.7% never exercised. Multivariate analysis showed that age, sex, race, parent marital status, participant marital status, type of faculty, living status, smoking status, exercise, residency, brushing teeth, fiber intake and avoid fatty food significantly influenced the practice of drinking alcohol among university students (p=0.006, p=0.042, p<0.001, p=0.003, p=0.002, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p=0.003, p<0.001; respectively). It similarly showed that sex, race, parent marital status, participant marital status, monthly family income, exercise, residency, brushing teeth and fiber intake significantly influenced the practice of sun protection (p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p=0.017, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001; respectively) and that age, sex, parent marital status, participant marital status, type of faculty, living status, exercise, taking non- prescribed medication, brushing the teeth, coffee consumption and fiber intake were significantly influenced the practice of fruits consumption (p=0.008, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p=0.002, p<0.001, P<0.001; respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: This study showed a poor practice of healthy lifestyle among university students. Therefore universities should emphasize a healthy lifestyle in all faculties as a required subject. Socio-demographic characteristics significantly influenced practice and thus should be considered when planning preventive measures among university students. Frequent campaigns and educational seminars are to be encouraged.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the willingness to accept chemotherapy among elderly Malaysians.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, patients aged 60 and above from various clinics/wards were recruited. Those giving consent were interviewed using a questionnaire.
RESULTS: A total of 75 patients were recruited, 35 patients (47%) with a history of cancer. The median age was 73 years old. There were 29 Chinese (38.7%), 22 Indian (29.3%), 20 Malay (26.7%) and four other ethnicity patients. Some 83% and 73% of patients willing to accept strong and mild chemotherapy, respectively. Patients with cancer were more willing to accept strong and mild chemotherapy compared to the non-cancer group (88.6% vs 62.5%, P=0.005, 94% vs 80%, P=0.068). On sub-analysis, 71.4% and 42.9% of Chinese patients without a history of cancer were not willing to receive strong and mild chemotherapy, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: The majority of elderly patients in UMMC were willing to receive chemotherapy if they had cancer. Experience with previous treatment had positive influence on the willingness to undergo chemotherapy.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with haematuria and/or past history of urothelial cancer on follow-up had their voided urine tested with FISH. Patients then underwent cystoscopy/ ureteroscopy and any lesions seen were biopsied. The histopathological reports of the bladder or ureteroscopic mucosal biopsies were then compared with the FISH test results.
RESULTS: Two hundred sixty patients were recruited. The sensitivity and specificity of the FISH test was 89.2% and 83.4% respectively. The positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were 47.1% and 97.9%. By excluding patients who had positive deletion of chromosome 9, the overall results of the screening test improved: sensitivity 84.6%; specificity 96.4%; PPV 75.9% and NPV 97.9%.
CONCLUSIONS: UroVysion FISH has a high specificity of detecting urothelial cancer or dysplasia when deletion of chromosome 9 is excluded. Negative UroVysion FISH-tests may allow us to conserve health resources and minimize trauma by deferring cystoscopic or ureteroscopic examination.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This paper reviews the existing literature on several cognitive theories and models associated with breast cancer screening, with an emphasis on the work that has been done in relation to Asian women. To conduct this review, a number of electronic databases were searched with context-appropriate inclusion criteria.
RESULTS: Little empirical work was found that specifically addressed the applicability of health theories in promoting adherence to the current breast cancer prevention programs Among Asian women. However, a few studies were found that addressed individual cognitive factors that are likely to encourage women's motivation to protect themselves against breast cancer in this region of the world. The findings suggest that multi-level, socio-cultural interventions that focus on cognitive factors have much promise with this issue.
CONCLUSIONS: Interventions are needed that effectively and efficiently target the personal motivation of at-risk Asian women to seek out and engage in breast cancer prevention. Concerning implications, personal motivation to seek out and engage in individual preventive actions for breast cancer prevention among Asian women is a timely, high priority target with practical implications for community development and health promotion. Further studies using qualitative, anthropologic approaches shaped for implementation in multi-ethnic Asian settings are needed to inform and guide these interventions.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This qualitative study was designed to identify the roles traditional healers play in cancer diagnosis and treatment, with an eye to alleviating the cancer burden through educational responses with four publics in mind-policy makers, Western medical personnel, traditional healers, and the general public. In-depth interviews were conducted with 14 Malay traditional healers, 13 cancer survivors who had seen both traditional healers and Western doctors, and 12 cancer medical specialists.
RESULTS: Analysis of the data from these 39 participants revealed four roles traditional healers play in cancer treatment-medicinal healer, emotional comforter, spiritual guide, and palliative caregiver.
CONCLUSIONS: Three roles (emotional, spiritual, palliative) can be seen as complementary to the allopathic system. Emotional and spiritual roles may augment the effectiveness of biomedical treatment. Cancer awareness and education programs need to position traditional healers as complementary, rather than an alternative to Western medical treatment; Validating the roles Traditional Healers can play in cancer treatment in MY through health promotion and education will contribute to alleviating the nation's cancer burden.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thos longitudinal study started in February 2011 and the subjects were 2552 form one students aged between twelve to thirteen years of from 15 government secondary schools of Kinta, Perak. Data on demographic, parental, school and peer factors were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. We examined the effects of peer, school and parental factors on the five stages of smoking; never smokers, susceptible never smokers, experimenters, current smokers and ex-smokers, at baseline.
RESULTS: In the sample, 19.3% were susceptible never smokers, 5.5% were current smokers 6% were experimenters and 3.1% were ex-smokers. Gender, ethnicity, best friends' smoking status, high peer pressure, higher number of relatives who smoked and parental monitoring were found to be associated with smoking stages. Presence of parent-teen conflict was only associated with susceptible never smokers and experimenters whereas absence of home discussion on smoking hazards was associated with susceptible never smokers and current smokers.
CONCLUSIONS: We identified variations in the factors associated with the different stages of smoking. Our results highlight that anti-smoking strategies should be tailored according to the different smoking stages.