Displaying publications 61 - 80 of 532 in total

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  1. Dahlui M, Gan DE, Taib NA, Pritam R, Lim J
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(7):3443-9.
    PMID: 22994775
    INTRODUCTION: Despite health education efforts to educate women on breast cancer and breast cancer screening modalities, the incidence of breast cancer and presentation at an advanced stage are still a problem in Malaysia.

    OBJECTIVES: To determine factors associated with the uptake of breast cancer screening among women in the general population.

    METHODS: This pre-intervention survey was conducted in a suburban district. All households were approached and women aged 20 to 60 years old were interviewed with pre-tested guided questionnaires. Variables collected included socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge on breast cancer and screening practice of breast cancer. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed.

    RESULTS: 41.5% of a total of 381 respondents scored above average; the mean knowledge score on causes and risks factors of breast cancer was 3.41 out of 5 (SD1.609). 58.5% had ever practiced BSE with 32.5% performing it at regular monthly intervals. Uptake of CBE by nurses and by doctors was 40.7% and 37.3%, respectively. Mammogram uptake was 14.6%. Significant predictors of BSE were good knowledge of breast cancer (OR=2.654, 95% CI: 1.033-6.816), being married (OR=2.213, 95% CI: 1.201-4.076) and attending CBE (OR=1.729, 95% CI: 1.122-2.665). Significant predictors for CBE included being married (OR=2.161, 95% CI: 1.174-3.979), good knowledge of breast cancer (OR=2.286, 95% CI: 1.012-5.161), and social support for breast cancer screening (OR=2.312, 95% CI: 1.245-4.293). Women who had CBE were more likely to undergo mammographic screening of the breast (OR=5.744, 95% CI: 2.112-15.623), p<0.005.

    CONCLUSION: CBE attendance is a strong factor in promoting BSE and mammography, educating women on the importance of breast cancer screening and on how to conduct BSE. The currently opportunistic conduct of CBE should be extended to active calling of women for CBE.
  2. Chia SE, Wong KY, Cheng C, Lau W, Tan PH
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(7):3179-85.
    PMID: 22994730
    BACKGROUND: Most of the epidemiology studies on the effects of sun exposure and prostate cancer were conducted among the temperate countries of North America and Europe. Little is known about the influence on Asian populations. The purpose of current study was to evaluate any association of sun exposure with risk of prostate cancer in Chinese, Malays and Indians who reside in the tropics.

    METHODS: The Singapore Prostate Cancer Study is a hospital-based case-control study of 240 prostate cancer incident cases and 268 controls conducted in Singapore between April 2007 and May 2009. Detailed information on outdoor activities in the sun, skin colour, sun sensitivity and other possible risk factors were collected in personal interviews. Cases were further classified by Gleason scores and TNM staging. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for age, ethnicity, education, family history of any cancers, BMI and skin colour.

    RESULTS: We found that prostate cancer risk was increased in subjects with black/dark-brown eyes (OR 5.88, 95%CI 3.17-10.9), darker skin colour e.g. tan/dark brown/black (OR 7.62, 95%CI 3.41-17.0), frequent sunburn in lifetime (OR 4.30, 95%CI 1.7-11.2) and increased general sun exposure in adulthood per week (OR 2.03, 95%CI 1.09-3.81). The increased risk was consistent for high grade tumours and advanced stage prostate cancers.

    CONCLUSION: The findings from this study suggest that excessive sun exposure is a risk factor for prostate cancer in Asians.

  3. Phua CE, Tan BS, Tan AL, Eng KY, Ng BS, Malik RA, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(7):3287-92.
    PMID: 22994749
    PURPOSE: To study the overall treatment time (OTT) and acute toxicity of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).

    METHODS: This retrospective study covered all NPC patients who underwent radical IMRT treatment at the Penang General Hospital from June 2011 to February 2012. Patients of any age and stage of disease with histologically proven diagnosis were included. Information was collected on patient demographics, clinical stage, treatment received, including any neoadjuvant and/or concurrent chemotherapy, acute toxity and completion of IMRT within the OTT.

    RESULTS: A total of 26 NPC patients were treated with IMRT during the study period; 88.5% had stage III/IV disease. 45.2% received neo-adjuvant chemotherapy while 50.0% were given concurrent chemo-irradiation. All patients completed the treatment and 92.3% within the 7 weeks OTT. Xerostomia was present in all patients with 92.3% having grade 2. Severe grade III/IV acute toxicity occurred in 73.1% of patients, the commonest of which was oral mucositis (57.6%). This was followed by dysphagia which occurred in 53.8%, skin reactions in 42.3% and weight loss in 19.2%. However, haematological toxicity was mild with only one patient having leucopaenia.

    CONCLUSION: IMRT treatment for NPC is feasible in our center. More importantly, it can be delivered within the 7 weeks OTT in the majority of patients. Severe grade 3/4 toxicity is very common (73.1%) and thus maximal nutritional and analgesic support is required throughout the treatment.

  4. Al-Dubai SA, Ganasegeran K, Alabsi AM, Abdul Manaf MR, Ijaz S, Kassim S
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(4):1627-32.
    PMID: 22799379
    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Malaysia. Barriers for practicing breast self examination (BSE) await exploration.

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the practice of BSE and its correlated factors and particularly barriers amongst urban women in Malaysia.

    METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 222 Malaysian women using a self-administered questionnaire.

    RESULTS: The mean (SD) age was 28.5 (±9.2) years, 59.0% were university graduates. Of the total, 81.1% were aware of breast cancer and 55% practiced BSE. Amongst 45% of respondents who did not practice BSE, 79.8% did not know how to do it, 60.6% feared being diagnosed with breast cancer, 59.6% were worried about detecting breast cancer, 22% reported that they should not touch their bodies, 44% and 28% reported BSE is embarrassing or unpleasant, 29% time consuming, 22% thought they would never have breast cancer or it is ineffective and finally 20% perceived BSE as unimportant. Logistic regression modeling showed that respondents aged ≥45 years, being Malay, married and having a high education level were more likely to practice BSE (p<0.05).

    CONCLUSION: In this study sample, a significant proportion of respondents was aware of breast cancer but did not practice BSE. Knowledge, psychological, cultural, perception and environmental factors were identified as barriers. BSE practice was associated significantly with socio-demographic factors and socioeconomic status.
  5. Wen CT, Hussein SZ, Abdullah S, Karim NA, Makpol S, Mohd Yusof YA
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(4):1605-10.
    PMID: 22799375
    Gelam and Nenas monofloral honeys were investigated in this study for their chemopreventive effects against HT 29 colon cancer cells. MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H- tetrazolim) assays showed more effective inhibition of colon cancer cells proliferation by Gelam honey with IC₅₀ values of 39.0 mg/ml and 85.5 mg/ml respectively after 24 hours of treatment. Alkali comet assays revealed both honeys increased DNA damage significantly in a dose dependent manner. In addition, annexin V-FITC/PI flow cytometry demonstrated that at IC₅₀ concentrations and above, both Gelam and Nenas honeys induced apoptosis significantlyat values higher than for necrosis (p<0.05). Measurement of prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) confirmed that Gelam and Nenas honeys reduced its production in H₂O₂ inflammation-induced colon cancer cells. In conclusion, our study indicated and confirmed that both Gelam and Nenas honeys are capable of suppressing the growth of HT 29 colon cancer cells by inducing apoptosis and suppressing inflammation.
  6. Jaafar H, Sharif SE, Murtey MD
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(4):1305-10.
    PMID: 22799323
    Breast cancer cells undergo transformation when they spread into surrounding tissues. Studies have shown that cancer cells undergo surface alterations and interact with the surrounding microenvironment during the invasion process. The aim of the present study was to analyse these cancer cell surface alterations and interactions of cancer cells and stroma. Twenty 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea-induced breast cancer samples taken from five rats were fixed in McDowell-Trump fixative and then washed in 0.1 M phosphate buffer. The samples were then treated with osmium tetroxide before being washed in distilled water and subsequently dehydrated through graded ethanols. The dehydrated samples were immersed in hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS), then following removal of excess HMDS, the samples were air dried at room temperature in a dessicator. The dried samples were mounted onto specimen stubs and coated with gold coater before being viewed under a scanning electron microscope. We detected the presence of membrane ruffles on the surface of cancer cells and the formation of unique surface membrane protrusions to enhance movement and adhesion to the surrounding stroma during the process of invasion. Advancing cancer cells demonstrated formation of lamellipodia and invadopodia. The stroma at the advancing edge was desmoplastic with many collagen fibres laid down near the cancer cells. Our data suggest that all of these abnormalities could act as hallmarks of invasiveness for breast cancer.
  7. Alabsi AM, Ali R, Ali AM, Al-Dubai SA, Harun H, Abu Kasim NH, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(10):5131-6.
    PMID: 23244123
    Cancer is one of the major health problems worldwide and its current treatments have a number of undesired adverse side effects. Natural compounds may reduce these. Currently, a few plant products are being used to treat cancer. In this study, goniothalamin, a natural occurring styryl-lactone extracted from Goniothalamus macrophyllus, was investigated for cytotoxic properties against cervical cancer (HeLa), breast carcinoma (MCF-7) and colon cancer (HT29) cells as well as normal mouse fibroblast (3T3) using MTT assay. Fluorescence microscopy showed that GTN is able to induce apoptosis in HeLa cells in a time dependent manner. Flow cytometry further revealed HeLa cells treated with GTN to be arrested in the S phase. Phosphatidyl serine properties present during apoptosis enable early detection of the apoptosis in the cells. Using annexin V/PI double staining it could be shown that GTN induces early apoptosis on HeLa cells after 24, 48 and 72 h. It could be concluded that goniothalamin showing a promising cytotoxicity effect against several cancer cell lines including cervical cancer cells (HeLa) with apoptosis as the mode of cell death induced on HeLa cells by Goniothalamin was.
  8. Norsa' adah B, Nur-Zafira A, Knight A
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(6):2857-60.
    PMID: 22938473
    Pancreatic cancer is usually detected late and has a high mortality rate. Since little is known about this cancer in Malaysia, a review of all cases admitted to Universiti Sains Malaysia Hospital was conducted to identify the epidemiological distribution and assess survival. A list of pancreatic cancer patients in 2001-2008 was obtained from the Hospital Record Department. Only cases confirmed by radio-imaging or histo-pathology examination were included. We excluded those with incomplete medical records. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard approaches were used for data analysis. Only 56 cases were included with a mean (SD) age of 49.6 (16.0) years, with 60.7% males and 82.1% of Malay ethnicity. Previous history included cholelithiasis in 23.2%, diabetes mellitus in 16.1%, previous laparotomy in 10.7%, chronic pancreatitis in 7.1%, alcohol drinking in 5.4% and positive family history in 3.6%. The common presenting history included 67.9% loss of appetite, 66.1% loss of weight, 58.9% jaundice and 46.4% abdominal pain. Tumour staging was: 21.5% stage l, 17.8% stage ll, 3.6% stage lll and 57.1% stage lV. The median (95% CI) survival time was 3.4 (0.5, 6.3) months and significant prognostic factors were duration of symptoms (HR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95, 0.99; p value 0.013), ascites (HR 2.64; 95% CI: 1.28, 5.44; p value 0.008) and Whipple surgery (HR 4.20; 95% CI: 2.27, 7.76; p value <0.001). The history of presenting complaints was short and the majority presented at late stages of the disease, thus the median survival time was very poor.
  9. Cheah PL, Looi LM, Teoh KH, Mun KS, Nazarina AR
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(2):469-72.
    PMID: 22524808
    The present study was conducted to assess utility of p16(INK4a) immunopositivity as a surrogate marker for genomic integration of high-risk human papillomavirus infection (hrHPV). A total of 29 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cervical low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs), 27 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) and 53 invasive squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), histologically-diagnosed between 1st January 2006 to 31st December 2008 at the University of Malaya Medical Centre were stained for p16(INK4a) (CINtec Histology Kit (REF 9511, mtm laboratories AG, Heidelberg, Germany). Immunopositvity was defined as diffuse staining of the squamous cell cytoplasm and or nucleus (involving > 75% of the intraepithelial lesions or SCCs). Staining of basal and parabasal layers of intraepithelial lesions was pre-requisite. One (3.4%) LSIL, 24 (88.9%) HSIL and 46 (86.8%) SCC were p16(INK4a) immunopositive. All normal squamous epithelium did not express p16(INK4). p16(INK4a) expression was significantly lower (p<0.05) in LSIL compared with HSIL and SCC with no difference in expression between HSIL and SCC.The increased p16(INK4a) immunopositivity in HSIL and SCC appears in line with the integrated existence of the hrHPV and may provide more insightful information on risk of malignant transformation of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions than mere hrHPV detection.
  10. Jan S, Kimman M, Kingston D, Woodward M
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(2):407-9.
    PMID: 22524798
    The ACTION (Asean CosTs In ONcology) Study will be one of the largest observational studies of the burden of cancer ever conducted in Asia. The study will involve 10,000 newly diagnosed patients with cancer and will be carried out across eight low- and middle income countries within the ASEAN region (Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Cambodia, Myanmar, Viet Nam, Laos and the Philippines). Patients will be interviewed three times over 12 months to assess their health, use of health care services, out of pocket costs related to their illness, social and quality of life issues. The project is a collaboration between the George Institute for Global Health, the ASEAN Foundation and Roche. The aim of the study is to assess the health and socioeconomic impact of cancer on patients in ASEAN communities, and the factors that may impact on these outcomes.
  11. Natrah MS, Ezat S, Syed MA, Rizal AM, Saperi S
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(3):957-62.
    PMID: 22631679
    OBJECTIVE: Rapidly increasing colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence in Malaysia and the introduction of cutting edge new treatments, which prolong survival, mean that treatment outcome measures meed to be evaluated, including consideration of patient's quality of life (QoL) assessment. There are limited data on QoL in CRC patients, especially in Malaysia. Therefore, this study was performed focusing on cancer stages and age groups.

    METHODS: The cross sectional study was conducted from June to September 2011 at three public tertiary hospitals with the EORTC QLQ C-30 questionnaire in addition to face to face interview and review of medical records of 100 respondents.

    RESULTS: The mean age was 57.3 (SD 11.9) years with 56.0% are males and 44.0% females, 62% of Malay ethnicity, 30% Chinese, 7% Indian and 1% Sikh. Majority were educated up to secondary level (42%) and 90% respondents had CRC stages III and IV. Mean global health status (GHS) score was 79.1 (SD 21.4). Mean scores for functional status (physical, emotional, role, cognitive, social) rangeds between 79.5 (SD 26.6) to 92.2 (SD 13.7). Mean symptom scores (fatigue, pain, nausea/vomiting, constipation, diarrhea, insomnia, dyspnoea, loss of appetite) ranged between 4.00 (SD 8.58) to 20.7 (SD 30.6). Respondents role function significantly deteriorates with increasing stage of the disease (p=0.044). Females had worse symptoms of pain (p=0.022), fatigue (p=0.031) and dyspnoea (p=0.031). Mean insomnia (p=0.006) and diarrhea (p=0.024) demonstrated significant differences between age groups.

    CONCLUSION: QOL in CRC patients in this study was comparable to that in other studies done in developed countries. Pain, fatigue and dyspnoea are worse among female CRC patients. Given that functions deteriorates with advanced stage of the disease at diagnosis, a systematic screening programme to detect cases as early as possible is essential nationwide.

  12. Alsaad MA, Shamsuddin K, Fadzil F
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(3):879-83.
    PMID: 22631665
    Cervical cancer is caused by HPV infection and can be prevented by early vaccination.

    OBJECTIVE: To assess Syrian women's level of knowledge and determinants of good knowledge of cervical cancer, HPV infection and its vaccines.

    METHODS: A cross sectional survey was undertaken among mothers with daughters in sixth grade classes enrolled in primary schools in Aleppo city, Syria. Samples were selected through cluster sampling and data collected using a self-administered questionnaire.

    RESULTS: Less than a third of the mothers had heard of HPV infection and vaccines against cervical cancer and levels of knowledge were generally low. Good knowledge was associated with high education level, higher family monthly income, having few--less than four children, positive history of cervical cancer screening, and working or having relatives working in the medical field. The main source of information was television and few reported health care providers as a source of knowledge on HPV infection and vaccine.

    CONCLUSION: Since knowledge of HPV infection and its connection with cervical cancer and its vaccine are low, more efforts must be made to educate Syrians prior to introduction of any HPV vaccination programme. Public health efforts must focus on educating mothers, the public as well as health care providers.

  13. Ahmadian M, Samah AA, Redzuan M, Emby Z
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(3):969-74.
    PMID: 22631681
    Mammography utilization is low in Iran compared with other countries. Here a cross-sectional survey design was used to investigate psycho-social and individual factors associated with mammography among 400 women asymptomatic of breast cancer. The study was carried out at the four outpatient clinics of Tehran during the period from July through October, 2009. We found that mammography screening was related to higher self-efficacy and women's occupation. Future tailored interventions on potential psycho-social determinants and specific demographic factors are critical in increasing mammography screening rates among Iranian women.
  14. Ezat WP, Noraziani K, Sabrizan O
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(3):1069-75.
    PMID: 22631640
    There are an almost infinite number of states of health, all with differing qualities that can be affected by many factors. Each aspect of health has many components which contribute to multidimensionality. Cancer and its' related issues surrounding the treatment plan contribute to the variety of changes of quality of life of cancer patients throughout their life. The objective of this article was to provide an overview of some of the issues that can affect their quality of life and initiatives towards successful care in Malaysia by reviewing relevant reports and articles. The current strategies can be further strengthened by prevention of cancer while improving quality of service to cancer patients.
  15. Muhamad M, Afshari M, Kazilan F
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(6):1389-97.
    PMID: 22126470
    This paper raises issues about the role of family members in providing support for breast cancer survivors. Data were collected from 400 breast cancer survivors in Peninsular Malaysia through a custom-designed questionnaire fielded at hospitals and support group meetings. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The analyses show that all family members could be supportive, especially in decision making and help with emotional issues. The spouse was the main support provider among the family members (others were children, parents, siblings and more distant relatives). The results also indicated that a significant percentage practiced collaborative decision-making. Breast cancer survivors needed their family members' support for information on survivorship strategies such as managing emotions, health, life style and dietary practice. The family members' supportive role may be linked to the Malaysian strong family relationship culture. For family members to contribute more adequately to cancer survivorship, it is suggested that appropriate educational intervention also be provided to them.
  16. Al-Naggar RA, Al-Naggar DH, Bobryshev YV, Chen R, Assabri A
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(5):1173-8.
    PMID: 21875261
    INTRODUCTION: The etiology of breast cancer is still unknown and adequate primary prevention strategies or interventions are still not possible. Therefore, early detection remains the first priority and regular practice of breast self-examination (BSE) influences treatment, quality of life, survival, and prognosis of breast cancer patients.
    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine the practices and barriers towards breast self-examination among young Malaysian women.
    METHODOLOGY: Cross-sectional study was conducted among 251 female students at the Management and Science University, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia. Questionnaires were distributed at gathering places such as the university cafeteria, the university plaza, the Islamic center, and at the library. In addition, questionnaires were distributed in the lecture halls. The proposal of this study was approved by the Ethics and Research Committee of Management and Science University. Data was analysis using SPSS version 13, t-test was used to analyze the associated factors toward the practice of BSE.
    RESULTS: A total number of 251 students participated in this study. The majority of them were older than 20 years old,of Malay racial origin, single and from urban areas (66.5%; 63.7%; 96%; 70.9% respectively). Regarding their lifestyle practices, the majority of participants do exercise, are non-smokers and do not drink alcohol (71.3%; 98.4%; 94.4% respectively). More than half of the study participants mentioned that they have practiced BSE (55.4%). Regarding the sources of information about BSE, the majority mentioned that radio and TV were their main sources of information (38.2%). Age, exercise and family history of cancer significantly influenced the practice of BSE (p = 0.045; p=0.002; p=0.017 respectively). Regarding the barriers to BSE, the majority who never practiced BSE mentioned that lack of knowledge, not having any symptoms, and being afraid of being diagnosed with breast cancer were the main barriers to practicing BSE (20.3%; 14.3%; 4.4% respectively).
    CONCLUSION: More than half of the participants practiced BSE. Age, exercise and family history of cancer significantly influenced the practice of the BSE. Lack of knowledge, not having any symptoms and being afraid of being diagnosed with breast cancer were the main barriers to practicing BSE. There is an urgent need to develop a continuous awareness campaign among university students on the importance of performing BSE.
  17. Karen-Ng LP, Marhazlinda J, Rahman ZA, Yang YH, Jalil N, Cheong SC, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(5):1161-6.
    PMID: 21875259
    Dietary isothiocyanates (ITCs) found in cruciferous vegetables (Brassica spp.) has been reported to reduce cancer risk by inducing phase II conjugating enzymes, in particular glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). This case-control study was aimed at determining associations between dietary ITCs, GSTs polymorphisms and risk habits (cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and betel-quid chewing) with oral cancer in 115 cases and 116 controls. Information on dietary ITC intake from cruciferous vegetables was collected via a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Peripheral blood lymphocytes were obtained for genotyping of GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 using PCR multiplex and PCR-RFLP. Chi-square and logistic regression were performed to determine the association of ITC and GSTs polymorphism and risk of oral cancer. When dietary ITC was categorized into high (greater than/equal to median) and low (less than median) intake, there was no significant difference between cases and control group. Logistic regression yielding odd ratios resulted in no significant association between dietary ITC intake, GSTM1, GSTT1 or GSTP1 genotypes with oral cancer risk overall. However, GSTP1 wild-type genotype was associated with later disease onset in women above 55 years of age (p= 0.017). Among the men above 45 years of age, there was clinical significant difference of 17 years in the age of onset of oral cancer between GSTP1 wild-type + low ITC intake and GSTP1 polymorphism + high ITC intake (p= 0.001). Similar conditions were also seen among men above 45 years of age with risk habits like drinking and chewing as the earlier disease onset associated with GSTP1 polymorphism and high ITC intake (p< 0.001). This study suggests that combination effects between dietary ITCs, GSTP1 polymorphism and risk habits may be associated with the risk of oral cancer and modulate the age of disease onset.
  18. Abdullah F, Aziz NA, Su TT
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(5):1347-52.
    PMID: 21875295
    INTRODUCTION: The Pap smear test has been regarded as a promising cervical screening tool since 1940s. Yet its importance has been overlooked by beneficiaries in Malaysia. This underlines the need to identify the prevalence of Pap smear practice and influencing factors towards the practice among educated working women.

    METHODS: A survey was conducted with 403 female teachers from 40 public secondary schools in Malaysia selected by cluster random sampling. Data were collected from January to March 2010 using a self-administered questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify the factors related to the Pap smear practice.

    RESULTS: The rate for participants who ever had Pap test was only 38% and poor practice of was significantly higher among: those with aged less than 35 years; those practicing hormonal contraceptive method; and individuals perceiving barriers to the Pap smear screening test. In contrast, the findings were significantly lower in women with longer duration of teaching service; higher income groups; ever pregnant; having chronic diseases; health insurance coverage; and who had perceived benefit of Pap smear screening.

    CONCLUSION: Barriers towards practicing Pap smear exist even among educated career women. Tailor-made health promotion and education on cervical cancer and the benefit of Pap smear screening are essential to change the behavior of the study population.
  19. Nargesi MM, Ismail P, Razack AH, Pasalar P, Nazemi A, Oshkoor SA, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(5):1265-8.
    PMID: 21875279
    PURPOSE: Prostate cancer differs markedly in incidence across ethnic groups. Since this disease is influenced by complex genetics, it is many genetic factors may affect the level of susceptibility to development of the disease. In this study, four Y-linked short tandem repeats (STRs), DYS388, DYS435, DYS437, and DYS439, were genotyped to compare Malaysian prostate cancer patients and normal control males.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 175 subjects comprising 84 patients and 91 healthy individuals were recruited. Multiplex PCR was optimized to co-amplify DYS388, DYS435, DYS437, and DYS439 loci. All samples were genotyped for alleles of four DYS loci using a Genetic Analysis System.

    RESULTS: Of all DYS loci, allele 10 (A) of DYS388 had a significantly lower incidence of disease in compare with other alleles of this locus, while a higher incidence of disease was found among males who had either allele 12 (C) of DYS388 or allele 14 (E) of DYS439. Moreover, a total of 47 different haplotypes comprising different alleles of four DYS loci were found among the whole study samples, of which haplotypes AABC and CAAA showed a lower and higher frequency among cases than controls, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: It is likely that Malaysian males who belong to Y-lineages with either allele 12 of DYS388, allele 14 of DYS439, or haplotype CAAA are more susceptible to develop prostate cancer, while those belonging to lineages with allele 10 of DYS388 or haplotype AABC are more resistant to the disease.

  20. Mahdey HM, Ramanathan A, Ismail SM, Abraham MT, Jamaluddin M, Zain RB
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(9):2199-204.
    PMID: 22296356
    INTRODUCTION: Several molecular markers have been studied for their usefulness as prognostic markers in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). One such molecular marker is cyclin D1 which is a proto-oncogene located on 11q13 in humans.

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the feasibility of using cyclin D1 as a prognostic marker in tongue and cheek SCC by the fluorescent-in-situ hybridization (FISH) method.

    METHODS: Fifty paraffin-embedded samples (25 each of cheek and tongue SCCs) were obtained from the archives of the Oral Pathology Diagnostic Laboratory. Sociodemographic data, histopathologic diagnoses, lymph node status and survival data were obtained from the Malaysian Oral Cancer Database and Tissue Bank System (MOCDTBS)coordinated by the Oral Cancer Research and Coordinating Centre (OCRCC), University of Malaya. The FISH technique was used to detect the amplification of cyclin D1 using the Vysis protocol. Statistical correlations of cyclin D1 with site and lymph node status were analyzed using the Fisher exact test. Kaplan-Meier and Log Rank (Mantel-Cox) test were used to analyze cyclin D1 amplification and median survival time.

    RESULTS: Positive amplification of cyclin D1 was detected in 72% (36) of OSCCs. Detection of positive amplification for cyclin D1 was observed in 88% (22) and 56% (14) of the tongue and cheek tumors, respectively, where the difference was statistically significant (P=0.012). Lymph node metastasis of cheek SCCs showed a trend towards a significant association (P= 0.098) with cyclin D1 amplification whereas the lymph node metastasis of tongue SCC was clearly not significant (P=0.593).There was a statistically significant correlation between cyclin D1 positivity and survival rate (P=0.009) for overall SCC cases and (P<0.001) for cheek SCC cases.

    CONCLUSION: The present study found that cyclin D1 amplification may differ in different subsites of OSCC (tongue vs cheek) and its positive amplification implies an overall poor survival in OSCCs, particularly those arising in cheeks.

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