Displaying publications 61 - 80 of 589 in total

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  1. Yaakup H, Eng TC, Shah SA
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(12):4885-91.
    PMID: 24998558
    BACKGROUND: Successful implementation of pain management procedures and guidelines in an institution depends very much on the acceptance of many levels of healthcare providers.

    AIM: The main purpose of this study was to determine the level of knowledge and attitudes regarding pain among nurses working in tertiary care in a local setting and the factors that may be associated with this.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional research study used a modified version of the Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes Survey (NKAS) regarding pain. Basic demographic data were obtained for further correlation with the level of pain knowledge.

    RESULTS: A total of 566 nurses, 34 male and 532 female, volunteered to participate in this study. The response rate (RR) was 76%, with an overall mean percentage score of 42.7±10.9 (range: 5-92.5). The majority of participants were younger nurses below 40 years of age and more than 70% had worked for less than 10 years (6.6±4.45). Up to 92% had never had any formal education in pain management in general. The total mean score of correct answers was 58.6±9.58, with oncology nursing staff scoring a higher percentage when compared with nurses from other general and critical care wards (63.52±9.27, p<0.045). Only 2.5% out of all participants obtained a score of 80% or greater. The majority of the oncology nurses achieved the expected competency level (p<0.03).

    CONCLUSIONS: The present findings give further support for the universal concern about poor knowledge and attitudes among nurses related to the optimal management of pain. The results indicated that neither number of years working nor age influenced the level of knowledge or attitudes of the practising nurses. Oncology nursing staff consistently scored better than the rest of the cohort. This reflects that clinical experience helps to improve attitudes and knowledge concerning better pain management.

  2. Goh LP, Chong ET, Chua KH, Chuah JA, Lee PC
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(17):7377-81.
    PMID: 25227845
    CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism G-1259C (rs3813867) genotype distributions vary significantly among different populations and are associated with both diseases, like cancer, and adverse drug effects. To date, there have been limited genotype distributions and allele frequencies of this polymorphism reported in the three major indigenous ethnic groups (KadazanDusun, Bajau, and Rungus) in Sabah, also known as North Borneo. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotype distributions and allele frequencies of the CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism G-1259C in these three major indigenous peoples in Sabah. A total of 640 healthy individuals from the three dominant indigenous groups were recruited for this study. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) at G-1259C polymorphic site of CYP2E1 gene was performed using the Pst I restriction enzyme. Fragments were analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis and confirmed by direct sequencing. Overall, the allele frequencies were 90.3% for c1 allele and 9.7% for c2 allele. The genotype frequencies for c1/c1, c1/c2 and c2/c2 were observed as 80.9%, 18.8%, and 0.3%, respectively. A highly statistical significant difference (p<0.001) was observed in the genotype distributions between indigenous groups in Sabah with all Asian and non-Asian populations. However, among these three indigenous groups, there was no statistical significant difference (p>0.001) in their genotype distributions. The three major indigenous ethnic groups in Sabah show unique genotype distributions when compared with other populations. This finding indicates the importance of establishing the genotype distributions of CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism in the indigenous populations.
  3. Han YW, Mohammad M, Liew SM
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(17):7287-90.
    PMID: 25227830
    BACKGROUND: Brief physician counselling has been shown to be effective in improving smokers' behaviour. If the counselling sessions can be given at the workplace, this would benefit a larger number of smokers. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a ten-minute physician counseling session at the workplace in improving smoking behaviour.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective randomised control trial was conducted on smokers in a factory. A total of 163 participants were recruited and randomised into control and intervention groups using a table of random numbers. The intervention group received a ten-minute brief physician counselling session to quit smoking. Stages of smoking behaviour were measured in both groups using a translated and validated questionnaire at baseline, one month and three months post intervention.

    RESULTS: There was a significant improvement in smoking behaviour at one-month post intervention (p=0.024, intention to treat analysis; OR=2.525; CI=1.109-5.747). This was not significant at three-month post intervention (p=0.946, intention to treat analysis; OR=1.026; 95% CI=0.486-2.168).

    CONCLUSIONS: A session of brief physician counselling was effective in improving smokers' behaviour at workplace, but the effect was not sustained.

  4. Che CC, Coomarasamy JD, Suppayah B
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(17):7175-80.
    PMID: 25227810
    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Malaysia, about one in 19 women being at risk. This study aimed to investigate knowledge and practice of breast self-examination (BSE), as well as knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer amongst female adolescents in Malaysia. Subsequently, relationships between demographic characteristics and knowledge level of BSE, risk factors for breast cancer and BSE practice were assessed.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive, cross sectional survey was conducted using a sample of 500 Malaysian adolescents from the age of 15 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire was used to gather socio- demographic characteristics, knowledge of BSE, knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer and BSE practices.

    RESULTS: The findings of this study indicated that female adolescents in Malaysia demonstrated an inadequate knowledge level of BSE and risk factors for breast cancer. Only 27.8% of female adolescents performed BSE regularly. BSE practice, knowledge of BSE and knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer showed significant positive relationships.

    CONCLUSIONS: The study highlighted the importance of planning and implementing breast health education programs for female students in secondary schools in Malaysia. It will also provide the health care providers an avenue to stress on the importance of imparting breast health education to adolescents.

  5. Mohamad Ashari ZS, Sulong S, Hassan R, Husin A, Sim GA, Abdul Wahid SF
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(4):1863-9.
    PMID: 24641422
    The amplification of telomerase component (TERC) gene could play an important role in generation and treatment of haematological malignancies. This present study was aimed to investigate copy number amplification status of TERC gene in chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) patients who were being treated with imatinib mesylate (IM). Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood of CML-IM Resistant (n=63), CML-IM Respond (n=63) and healthy individuals (n=30). TERC gene copy number predicted (CNP) and copy number calculated (CNC) were determined based on Taqman® Copy Number Assay. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis was performed to confirm the normal signal pattern in C4 (calibrator) for TERC gene. Nine of CML patients showed TERC gene amplification (CNP=3), others had 2 CNP. A total of 17 CML patients expressed CNC>2.31 and the rest had 2.31>CNC>1.5. TERC gene CNP value in healthy individuals was 2 and their CNC value showed in range 1.59-2.31. The average CNC TERC gene copy number was 2.07, 1.99 and 1.94 in CML- IM Resistant patients, CML-IM Respond and healthy groups, respectively. No significant difference of TERC gene amplification observed between CML-IM Resistant and CML-IM Respond patients. Low levels of TERC gene amplification might not have a huge impact in haematological disorders especially in terms of resistance towards IM treatment.
  6. Wong YP, Shah SA, Shaari N, Mohamad Esa MS, Sagap I, Isa NM
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(4):1725-30.
    PMID: 24641399
    Management of patients with stage II colorectal carcinomas remains challenging as 20 - 30% of them will develop recurrence. It is postulated that these patients may harbour nodal micrometastases which are imperceptible by routine histopathological evaluation. The aims of our study were to evaluate (1) the feasibility of multilevel sectioning method utilizing haematoxylin and eosin stain and immunohistochemistry technique with cytokeratin AE1/AE3, in detecting micrometastases in histologically-negative lymph nodes, and (2) correlation between nodal micrometastases with clinicopathological parameters. Sixty two stage I and II cases with a total of 635 lymph nodes were reviewed. Five-level haematoxylin and eosin staining and one-level cytokeratin AE1/AE3 immunostaining were performed on all lymph nodes retrieved. The findings were correlated with clinicopathological parameters. Two (3.2%) lymph nodes in two patients (one in each) were found to harbour micrometastases detected by both methods. With cytokeratin AE1/AE3, we successfully identified four (6.5%) patients with isolated tumour cells, but none through the multilevel sectioning method. Nodal micrometastases detected by both multilevel sectioning and immunohistochemistry methods were not associated with larger tumour size, higher depth of invasion, poorer tumour grade, disease recurrence or distant metastasis. We conclude that there is no difference between the two methods in detecting nodal micrometastases. Therefore it is opined that multilevel sectioning is a feasible and yet inexpensive method that may be incorporated into routine practice to detect nodal micrometastases in centres with limited resources.
  7. Pandurangan AK, Esa NM
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(2):551-60.
    PMID: 24568457
    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common malignancy and fourth most common cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Untreated chronic inflammation in the intestine ranks among the top three high-risk conditions for colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC). Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) protein is a member of the STAT family of transcription factors often deregulated in CRC. In this review, we try to emphasize the critical role of STAT3 in CAC as well as the crosstalk of STAT3 with inflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor (NF)- κB, PI3K/Akt, Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR), Notch, Wnt/β-catenin and microRNA (MiR) pathways. STAT3 is considered as a primary drug target to treat CAC in humans and rodents. Also we updated the findings for inhibitors of STAT3 with regard to effeects on tumorigenesis. This review will hopefully provide insights on the use of STAT3 as a therapeutic target in CAC.
  8. Hooshmand S, Ghaderi A, Yusoff K, Thilakavathy K, Rosli R, Mojtahedi Z
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(7):3311-7.
    PMID: 24815488
    BACKGROUND: The consequence of Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor alpha (RhoGDIα) activity on migration and invasion of estrogen receptor positive (ER+) and negative (ER-) breast cancer cells has not been studied using the proteomic approach. Changes in expression of RhoGDIα and other proteins interacting directly or indirectly with RhoGDIα in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231, with different metastatic potentials is of particular interest.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: ER+ MCF7 and ER- MDA-MB-231 cell lines were subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and spots of interest were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of- flight/time- of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) analysis after downregulation of RhoGDIα using short interfering RNA (siRNA) and upregulated using GFP-tagged ORF clone of RhoGDIα.

    RESULTS: The results showed a total of 35 proteins that were either up- or down-regulated in these cells. Here we identifed 9 and 15 proteins differentially expressed with silencing of RhoGDIα in MCF-7 and the MDA-MB-231 cells, respectively. In addition, 10 proteins were differentially expressed in the upregulation of RhoGDIα in MCF7, while only one protein was identified in the upregulation of RhoGDIα in MDA-MB-231. Based on the biological functions of these proteins, the results revealed that proteins involved in cell migration are more strongly altered with RhoGDI-α activity. Although several of these proteins have been previously indicated in tumorigenesis and invasiveness of breast cancer cells, some ohave not been previously reported to be involved in breast cancer migration. Hence, these proteins may serve as useful candidate biomarkers for tumorigenesis and invasiveness of breast cancer cells.

    CONCLUSIONS: Future studies are needed to determine the mechanisms by which these proteins regulate cell migration. The combination of RhoGDIα with other potential biomarkers may be a more promising approach in the inhibition of breast cancer cell migration.

  9. Cheah PL, Looi LM, Teoh KH, Rahman NA, Wong LX, Tan SY
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(7):3287-91.
    PMID: 24815484
    BACKGROUND: The interesting preponderance of Chinese with colorectal carcinoma (CRC) amongst the three major ethnic groups in Malaysia prompted a study to determine DNA mismatch repair (MMR) status in our CRC and attempt correlation with patient age, gender and ethnicity as well as location, grade, histological type and stage of tumour. Histologically re-confirmed CRC, diagnosed between 1st January 2005 and 31st December 2007 at the Department of Pathology, University of Malaya Medical Centre, were immunohistochemically stained with monoclonal antibodies to MMR proteins, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 on the Ventana Benchmark XT autostainer. Of the 142 CRC cases entered into the study, there were 82 males and 60 females (M:F=1.4:1). Ethnically, 81 (57.0%) were Chinese, 32 (22.5%) Malays and 29 (20.4%) Indians. The patient ages ranged between 15-87 years (mean=62.4 years) with 21 cases <50-years and 121 ≥50-years of age. 14 (9.9%) CRC showed deficient MMR (dMMR). Concurrent loss of MLH1 and PMS2 occurred in 10, MSH2 and MSH6 in 2 with isolated loss of MSH6 in 1 and PMS2 in 1. dMMR was noted less frequently amongst the Chinese (6.2%) in comparison with their combined Malay and Indian counterparts (14.8%), and was associated with right sided and poorly differentiated tumours (p<0.05). 3 of the 5 (60.0%) dMMR CRC cases amongst the Chinese and 1 of 9 cases (11.1%) amongst the combined Malay and Indian group were <50-years of age. No significant association of dMMR was noted with patient age and gender, tumour stage or mucinous type.
  10. Teh YC, Shaari NE, Taib NA, Ng CH, See MH, Tan GH, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(7):3163-7.
    PMID: 24815464
    BACKGROUND: Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) plus radiotherapy is equivalent to modified radical mastectomy (MRM) in terms of outcome. However there is wide variation in mastectomy rates dependent both on tumour and patient characteristics.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the determinants of surgery choice in Asian patients with early breast cancer in a middle-income country.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: 184 patients with early breast cancer treated between Jan 2008 and Dec 2010 were recruited to complete a questionnaire. Chi-square test was used to analyze the association between surgery choice and demographic and tumour factors, surgeon recommendation, family member and partner opinions, fear of recurrence, avoidance of second surgery, fear of disfigurement, interference with sex life, fear of radiation and loss of femininity.

    RESULTS: 85 (46%) had BCS while 99 (54%) had mastectomy. Age >60, Chinese ethnicity, lower education level, and larger tumour size were significantly associated with mastectomy. Surgeon recommendation was important in surgery choice. Although both groups did not place much importance on interference with sex life, 14.1% of the BCS group felt it was very important compared to 5.1% in the mastectomy group and this was statistically significant. There was no statistical difference between the two groups in terms of the other factors. When analyzed by ethnicity, significantly more Malay and Indian women considered partner and family member opinions very important and were more concerned about loss of femininity compared to Chinese women. There were no statistical differences between the three ethnic groups in terms of the other factors.

    CONCLUSIONS: When counseling on surgical options, the surgeon has to take into account the ethnicity, social background and education level, age and reliance on partner and family members. Decision-making is usually a collective effort rather than just between the patient and surgeon, and involving the whole family into the process early is important.

  11. Shah SA, Neoh HM, Rahim SS, Azhar ZI, Hassan MR, Safian N, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(3):1149-54.
    PMID: 24606433
    BACKGROUND: In Malaysia, data from the Malaysian Health Ministry showed colorectal cancer (CRC) to be the second most common type of cancer in 2007-2009, after breast cancer. The same was apparent after looking at males and females cases separately. In the present study, the Geographic Information System (GIS) was employed to describe the distribution of CRC cases in Kuala Lumpur (KL), Malaysia, according to socio-demographic factors (age, gender, ethnicity and district).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective review concerned data for patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer in the years 1995 to 2011 collected from the Wilayah Persekutuan Health Office, taken from the cancer notification form (NCR-2), and patient medical records from the Surgical Department, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). A total of 146 cases were analyzed. All the data collected were analysed using ArcGIS version 10.0 and SPSS version 19.0.

    RESULTS: Patients aged 60 to 69 years accounted for the highest proportion of cases (34.2%) and males slightly predominated 76 (52.1%), Chinese had the highest number of registered cases at 108 (74.0%) and staging revealed most cases in the 3rd and 4th stages. Kernel density analysis showed more cases are concentrated up in the northern area of Petaling and Kuala Lumpur subdistricts. Spatial global pattern analysis by average nearest neighbour resulted in nearest neighbour ratio of 0.75, with Z-score of -5.59, p value of <0.01 and the z-score of -5.59. Spatial autocorrelation (Moran's I) showed clustering significant with p<0.01, Z score 3.14 and Moran's Index of 0.007. When mapping clusters with hotspot analysis (Getis-Ord Gi), hot and cold spots were identified. Hot spot areas fell on the northeast side of KL.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated significant spatial patterns of cancer incidence in KL. Knowledge about these spatial patterns can provide useful information to policymakers in the planning of screening of CRC in the targeted population and improvement of healthcare facilities to provide better treatment for CRC patients.

  12. Zain NM, Chelliah KK
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(3):1327-31.
    PMID: 24606460
    BACKGROUND: Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a new non-invasive, mobile screening method which does not use ionizing radiation to the human breast; allows conducting quantitative assessment of the images besides the visual interpretation. The aim of this study was to correlate the quantitative assessment and visual interpretation of breast electrical impedance tomographs and associated factors.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and fifty mammography patients above 40 years and undergoing EIT were chosen using convenient sampling. Visual interpretation of the images was carried out by a radiologist with minimum of three years experience using the breast imaging - electrical impedance (BI-EIM) classification for detection of abnormalities. A set of thirty blinded EIT images were reinterpreted to determine the intra-rater reliability using kappa. Quantitative assessment was by comparison of the breast average electric conductivity with the norm and correlations with visual interpretation of the images were determined using Chi-square. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the mean electrical conductivity between groups and t-test was used for comparisons with pre-existing Caucasians statistics. Independent t-tests were applied to compare the mean electrical conductivity of women with factors like exogenous hormone use and family history of breast cancer.

    RESULTS: The mean electrical conductivity of Malaysian women was significantly lower than that of Caucasians (p<0.05). Quantitative assessment of electrical impedance tomography was significantly related with visual interpretation of images of the breast (p<0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative assessment of electrical impedance tomography images was significantly related with visual interpretation.

  13. Norwati D, Harmy MY, Norhayati MN, Amry AR
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(6):2901-4.
    PMID: 24761922
    The incidence of colorectal cancer has been increasing in many Asian countries including Malaysia during the past few decades. A physician recommendation has been shown to be a major factor that motivates patients to undergo screening. The present study objectives were to describe the practice of colorectal cancer screening by primary care providers in Malaysia and to determine the barriers for not following recommendations. In this cross sectional study involving 132 primary care providers from 44 Primary Care clinics in West Malaysia, self-administered questionnaires which consisted of demographic data, qualification, background on the primary care clinic, practices on colorectal cancer screening and barriers to colorectal cancer screening were distributed. A total of 116 primary care providers responded making a response rate of 87.9%. About 21% recommended faecal occult blood test (FOBT) in more than 50% of their patients who were eligible. The most common barrier was "unavailability of the test". The two most common patient factors are "patient in a hurry" and "poor patient awareness". This study indicates that colorectal cancer preventive activities among primary care providers are still poor in Malaysia. This may be related to the low availability of the test in the primary care setting and poor awareness and understanding of the importance of colorectal cancer screening among patients. More awareness programmes are required for the public. In addition, primary care providers should be kept abreast with the latest recommendations and policy makers need to improve colorectal cancer screening services in health clinics.
  14. Visuvanathan S, Chong PP, Yap YY, Lim CC, Tan MK, Lye MS
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(6):2747-51.
    PMID: 24761895
    BACKGROUND: DNA repair pathways play a crucial role in maintaining the human genome. Previous studies associated DNA repair gene polymorphisms (XPD Lys751Gln, XRCC1 Arg280His and XRCC1 Arg399Gln) with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. These non-synonymous polymorphisms may alter DNA repair capacity and thus increase or decrease susceptibility. The present study aimed to determine the genotype distribution of XPD codon 751, XRCC1 codon 280 and codon 399 polymorphisms and haplotype associations among NPC cases and controls in the Malaysian population.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: We selected 157 NPC cases and 136 controls from two hospitals in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia for this study. The polymorphisms studied were genotyped by PCR-RFLP assay and allele and genotype frequencies, haplotype and linkage disequilibrium were determined using SNPstat software.

    RESULTS: For the XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism, the frequency of the Lys allele was higher in cases than in controls (94.5% versus 85.0%). For the XRCC1 Arg280His polymorphism, the frequency of Arg allele was 90.0% and 89.0% in cases and controls, respectively and for XRCC1 Arg399Gln the frequency of the Arg allele was 72.0% and 72.8% in cases and controls respectively. All three polymorphisms were in linkage disequilibrium. The odds ratio from haplotype analysis for these three polymorphisms and their association with NPC was 1.93 (95%CI: 0.90-4.16) for haplotype CGC vs AGC allele combinations. The global haplotype association with NPC gave a p-value of 0.054.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides an estimate of allele and genotype frequencies of XRCC1Arg280His, XRCC1 Arg399Gln and XPD Lys751Gln polymorphisms in the Malaysian population and showed no association with nasopharyngeal cancer.

  15. Menon KC
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(6):2933-4.
    PMID: 24761928
    Involvement of a multidisciplinary team in cancer care may have added benefits over the existing system of patient management. A paradigm shift in the current patient management would allow more focus on nutritional support, in addition to clinical care. Malnutrition, a common problem in cancer patients, needs special attention from the early days of cancer care to improve quality of life and treatment outcomes. Patient management teams with trained oncology dietitians may provide quality personalized nutritional care to cancer patients.
  16. Gan GG, Subramaniam R, Bee PC, Chin EF, Abdul-Halim H, Tai MC
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(4):1703-6.
    PMID: 24641394
    BACKGROUND: The current standard treatment for patients with newly diagnosed diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is rituximab combined with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone (CHOP). A significant number of patients were not treated with recommended dose of rituximab due to limited financial resources in Malaysia. This study evaluates the efficacy of R-CHOP like chemotherapy in Malaysian patients with DLBCL.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study comprised a retrospective analysis of patients with DLBCL treated at a single centre. The outcome was compared with patients who were treated with R-CHOP like and CHOP like chemotherapy. Patients who were treated with lower dose of rituximab was subanalysed for outcome.

    RESULTS: A total of 86 patients who had CHOP-like chemotherapy were included. Only 39 (45%) patients had rituximab and only 12 (29%) patients had the recommended dose. The overall response (OR) and complete response (CR) rates were 88% and 81% respectively. There was no significant difference in OR and CR in patients who had rituximab and those without rituxmab. Those with International Prognostic Index (IPI) score of ≤ 2 had significant higher CR rate, progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (p<0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: The lack of significant improvement in CR and DFS in our patients may be due to an inadequate dose of rituximab.

  17. Ramanathan A, Mahmoud HA, Hui LP, Mei NY, Valliappan V, Zain RB
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(4):1633-7.
    PMID: 24641380
    BACKGROUND: Lymphoma is a malignant neoplasm of lymphoid tissue classified into Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's types. It mostly affects lymph nodes although a considerable proportion of Non-Hodgkin's cases occur in extranodal sites.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Selected cases diagnosed as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) during the period of 1980 to 2012 were retrieved from the archives of the Oral Pathology Diagnostic Laboratory, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya. The sections from the formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks were stained with H and E as well as with LCA, CD20, and CD3.

    RESULTS: The mean age was 41.6 years with a male: female ratio of 1.3:1. Out of the forty two cases, nineteen were Malays, eighteen were Chinese, followed by Indians (3) and Indonesians (2). The most common site of involvement was the mandible (22.2%), followed by the maxilla and palate (19.4% each). Most of the lesions presented as a painless progressive swelling. Only thirty six cases were further subdivided into B or T cell types. The majority were B-cell type (26 cases), of these 6 cases were Burkitt's lymphomas. Only ten cases were T-cell lymphoma, with three cases of NK/T-cell lymphoma.

    CONCLUSIONS: In this series of 42 patients diagnosed as extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, the lesions appeared as painless swellings, mostly in men with the mandible as the most frequent site of involvement. Majority were B-cell lymphomas with Malays and Chinese being equally affected whereas lymphomas were rare in the Indian ethnicity. T-cell lymphomas were found to be common in the Chinese ethnic group.

  18. Sharifa Ezat WP, Fuad I, Hayati Y, Zafar A, Wanda Kiyah GA
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(2):695-701.
    PMID: 24568481
    The main objective of palliative treatment for cancer patients has been to maintain, if not improve, the quality of life (QoL). There is a lack of local data on satisfaction and QoL among cancer patients receiving palliative treatment in Malaysia. This study covers patients with incurable, progressive cancer disease receiving palliative treatment in a teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur, comparing the different components of QoL and correlations with patient satisfaction. A cross-sectional survey using Malay validated SF36 QoL and PSQ-18 (Short Form) tools was carried out between July 2012 -January 2013 with 120 cancer patients receiving palliative treatment, recruited into the study after informed consent using convenient sampling. Results showed that highest satisfaction were observed in Communication Aspect (50.6±9.07) and the least in General Satisfaction (26.4±5.90). The Mental Component Summary (44.9±6.84) scored higher when compared with the Physical Component Summary (42.2±7.91). In this study, we found that patient satisfaction was strongly associated with good quality of life among cancer patients from a general satisfaction aspect (r=0.232). A poor significant negative correlation was found in Physical Component (technical quality, r=-0.312). The Mental Component showed there was a poor negative correlation between time spent with doctor (r=-0.192) and accessibility, (r=-0.279). We found that feeling at peace and having a sense of meaning in life were more important to patients than being active or achieving good physical comfort. More studyis needed to investigate patients who score poorly on physical and mental component aspects to understand their needs in order to achieve better cancer care.
  19. Hamzi Abdul Raub S, Isa NM, Zailani HA, Omar B, Abdullah MF, Mohd Amin WA, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(2):651-6.
    PMID: 24568473
    BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the third commonest type of cancer among women in Malaysia. Our aim was to determine the distribution of human papilloma virus (HPV) genotypes in cervical cancer in our multi-ethnic population.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a multicentre study with a total of 280 cases of cervical cancer from 4 referral centres in Malaysia, studied using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) detection of 12 high risk-HPV genotypes.

    RESULTS: Overall HPV was detected in 92.5% of cases, in 95.9% of squamous cell carcinomas and 84.3%of adenocarcinomas. The five most prevalent high-risk HPV genotypes were HPV 16 (68.2%), 18 (40%), 58 (10.7%), 33 (10.4%) and 52 (10.4%). Multiple HPV infections were more prevalent (55.7%) than single HPV infections (36.8%). The percentage of HPV positive cases in Chinese, Malays and Indians were 95.5%, 91.9% and 80.0%, respectively. HPV 16 and 18 genotypes were the commonest in all ethnic groups. We found that the percentage of HPV 16 infection was significantly higher in Chinese (75.9%) compared to Malays (63.7%) and Indians (52.0%) (p<0.05), while HPV 18 was significantly higher in Malays (52.6%) compared to Chinese (25.0%) and Indians (28%) (p<0.05). Meanwhile, HPV 33 (17.9%) and 52 (15.2%) were also more commonly detected in the Chinese (p<0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the distribution of HPV genotype in Malaysia is similar to other Asian countries. Importantly, we found that different ethnic groups in Malaysia have different HPV genotype infection rates, which is a point to consider during the implementation of HPV vaccination.

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