Displaying publications 81 - 100 of 589 in total

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  1. Othman N, Othman NH
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(5):2245-9.
    PMID: 24716964
    BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus is a well-established cause of the development of a variety of epithelial lesions in the cervix. However, as yet, incorporation of HPV testing into cervical cancer screening either as an adjunct or stand alone test is limited due to its cost. We therefore here ascertained the presence and type specificity of human papilloma virus (HPV) DNA in routine cervical scrapings.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cervical scrapings were collected from women attending clinics for routine Pap smear screening. HPV-DNA was detected by PCR using MY09/11 and GP5+/GP6+ primer sets and genotyping was accomplished by cycle-sequencing.

    RESULTS: A total of 635 women were recruited into the study with mean ± SD age of 43 ± 10.5 years. Of these 92.6% (588/635) were reported as within normal limits (WNL) on cytology. The presence of HPV infection detected by nested MY/GP+-PCR was 4.4% (28/635). The overall prevalence of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) in abnormal Pap smears was 53.8% (7/13). HPVs were also seen in 3.1% (18/588) of smears reported as WNL by cytology and 5.9% (2/34) in smears unsatisfactory for evaluation.

    CONCLUSIONS: The overall percentage of HPV positivity in routine cervical screening samples is comparable with abnormal findings in cytology. Conventional Pap smear 'missed' a few samples. Since HPV testing is expensive, our results may provide valuable information for strategising implementation of effective cervical cancer screening in a country with limited resources like Malaysia. If Pap smear coverage could be improved, HPV testing could be used as an adjunct method on cases with ambiguous diagnoses.

  2. Chan SW, Kallarakkal TG, Abraham MT
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(5):2145-52.
    PMID: 24716948
    BACKGROUND: The survival rate for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has remained generally unchanged in the past three decades, underlining the need for more biomarkers to be developed to aid prognostication and effective management. The prognostic potential of E-cadherin expression in OSCCs has been variable in previous studies while galectin-9 expression has been correlated with improved prognosis in other cancers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of galectin-9 and E-cadherin in OSCC and their potential as prognostic biomarkers.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: E-cadherin and Galectin-9 expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in 32 cases of OSCC of the buccal mucosa (13 with and 19 without lymph node metastasis), as well as 6 samples of reactive lesions and 5 of normal buccal mucosa.

    RESULTS: The expression of E-cadherin in OSCC was significantly lower than the control tissues but galectin-9 expression was conversely higher. Median E-cadherin HSCOREs between OSCCs positive and negative for nodal metastasis were not significantly different. Mean HSCOREs for galectin-9 in OSCC without lymph node metastasis (127.7 ± 81.8) was higher than OSCC with lymph node metastasis (97.9 ± 62.9) but this difference was not statistically significant.

    CONCLUSIONS: E-cadherin expression is reduced whilst galectin-9 expression is increased in OSCC. However, the present results suggest that E-cadherin and galectin-9 expression may not be useful as prognostic markers for OSCC.

  3. Baskaran P, Subramanian P, Rahman RA, Ping WL, Mohd Taib NA, Rosli R
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2013;14(12):7693-9.
    PMID: 24460355
    AIMS: A main reason for increasing incidence of cervical cancer worldwide is the lack of regular cervical cancer screening. Coverage and uptake remain major challenges and it is crucial to determine the perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer, as well as the benefits of, and barriers to, cervical cancer screening among women.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 369 women attending an outpatient centre in Malaysia and data were collected by administering a self-report questionnaire.

    RESULTS: The majority of the participants (265, 71.8%) showed good level of perception of their susceptibility to cervical cancer. Almost all responded positively to four statements about the perceived benefits of cervical cancer screening (agree, 23.1% or strongly agree, 52.5%), whereas negative responses were received from most of the participants (agree, 29.9%or strongly agree, 14.6 %) about the eleven statements on perceived barriers. Significant associations were observed between age and perceived susceptibility(x2=9.030, p=0.029); between employment status (p<0.001) as well as ethnicity and perceived benefits (p<0.05 [P=0.003]); and between education and perceived barriers to cervical cancer screening (p<0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: Perceived susceptibility, including knowledge levels and personal risk assessment, should be emphasized through education and awareness campaigns to improve uptake of cervical cancer screening in Malaysia.
  4. Yap NY, Ng KL, Ong TA, Pailoor J, Gobe GC, Ooi CC, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2013;14(12):7497-500.
    PMID: 24460324
    BACKGROUND: This study concerns clinical characteristics and survival of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients in University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), as well as the prognostic significance of presenting symptoms.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The clinical characteristics, presenting symptoms and survival of RCC patients (n=151) treated at UMMC from 2003-2012 were analysed. Symptoms evaluated were macrohaematuria, flank pain, palpable abdominal mass, fever, lethargy, loss of weight, anaemia, elevated ALP, hypoalbuminemia and thrombocytosis. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to determine the prognostic significance of these presenting symptoms. Kaplan Meier and log rank tests were employed for survival analysis.

    RESULTS: The 2002 TNM staging was a prognostic factor (p<0.001) but Fuhrman grading was not significantly correlated with survival (p=0.088). At presentation, 76.8% of the patients were symptomatic. Generally, symptomatic tumours had a worse survival prognosis compared to asymptomatic cases (p=0.009; HR 4.74). All symptoms significantly affect disease specific survival except frank haematuria and loin pain on univariate Cox regression analysis. On multivariate analysis adjusted for stage, only clinically palpable abdominal mass remained statistically significant (p=0.027). The mean tumour size of palpable abdominal masses, 9.5±4.3cm, was larger than non palpable masses, 5.3±2.7cm (p<0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report which includes survival information of RCC patients from Malaysia. Here the TNM stage and a palpable abdominal mass were independent predictors for survival. Further investigations using a multicentre cohort to analyse mortality and survival rates may aid in improving management of these patients.

  5. Mohammadi S, Sulaiman S, Koon PB, Amani R, Hosseini SM
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2013;14(12):7749-55.
    PMID: 24460363
    Nutritional status and dietary intake play a significant role in the prognosis of breast cancer and may modify the progression of disease. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of nutritional status on the quality of life of Iranian breast cancer survivors. Cross-sectional data were collected for 100 Iranian breast cancer survivors, aged 32 to 61 years, attending the oncology outpatient clinic at Golestan Hospital, Ahvaz, Iran. Nutritional status of subjects was assessed by anthropometric measurements, Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) and three non-consecutive 24-hour diet recalls. The European Organization of Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life form (EORTC QLQ-C30) was used to assess quality of life. Ninety-four percent of the survivors were well-nourished, 6% were moderately malnourished or suspected of being malnourished while none were severely malnourished. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 86%. Overall, participants had an inadequate intake of vitamin D, E, iron and magnesium according to dietary reference intake (DRI) recommendations. Survivors with better nutritional status had better functioning scales and experienced fewer clinical symptoms. It appears important to provide educational and nutritional screening programs to improve cancer survivor quality of life.
  6. Keat CH, Ghani NA
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2013;14(12):7701-6.
    PMID: 24460356
    BACKGROUND: In a prospective cohort study of antiemetic therapy conducted in Malaysia, a total of 94 patients received low emetogenic chemotherapy (LEC) with or without granisetron injections as the primary prophylaxis for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). This study is a retrospective cost analysis of two antiemetic regimens from the payer perspective.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cost evaluation refers to 2011, the year in which the observation was conducted. Direct costs incurred by hospitals including the drug acquisition, materials and time spent for clinical activities from prescribing to dispensing of home medications were evaluated (MYR 1=$0.32 USD). As reported to be significantly different between two regimens (96.1% vs 81.0%; p=0.017), the complete response rate of acute emesis which was defined as a patient successfully treated without any emesis episode within 24 hours after LEC was used as the main indicator for effectiveness.

    RESULTS: Antiemetic drug acquisition cost per patient was 40.7 times higher for the granisetron-based regimen than for the standard regimen (MYR 64.3 vs 1.58). When both the costs for materials and clinical activities were included, the total cost per patient was 8.68 times higher for the granisetron-based regimen (MYR 73.5 vs 8.47). Considering the complete response rates, the mean cost per successfully treated patient in granisetron group was 7.31 times higher (MYR 76.5 vs 10.5). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) with granisetron-based regimen, relative to the standard regimen, was MYR 430.7. It was found to be most sensitive to the change of antiemetic effects of granisetron-based regimen.

    CONCLUSIONS: While providing a better efficacy in acute emesis control, the low incidence of acute emesis and high ICER makes use of granisetron as primary prophylaxis in LEC controversial.

  7. Abdul Rashid RM, Mohamed M, Hamid ZA, Dahlui M
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2013;14(10):5901-4.
    PMID: 24289597
    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of different methods of recall for repeat Pap smear among women who had normal smears in the previous screening.
    DESIGN: Prospective randomized controlled study.
    SETTING: All community clinics in Klang under the Ministry of Health Malaysia.
    PARTICIPANTS: Women of Klang who attended cervical screening and had a normal Pap smear in the previous year, and were due for a repeat smear were recruited and randomly assigned to four different methods of recall for repeat smear.
    INTERVENTION: The recall methods given to the women to remind them for a repeat smear were either by postal letter, registered letter, short message by phone (SMS) or phone call.
    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number and percentage of women who responded to the recall within 8 weeks after they had received the recall, irrespective whether they had Pap test conducted. Also the numbers of women in each recall method that came for repeat Pap smear.
    RESULTS: The rates of recall messages reaching the women when using letter, registered letter, SMS and phone calls were 79%, 87%, 66% and 68%, respectively. However, the positive responses to recall by letter, registered letter, phone messages and telephone call were 23.9%, 23.0%, 32.9% and 50.9%, respectively (p<0.05). Furthermore, more women who received recall by phone call had been screened (p<0.05) compared to those who received recall by postal letter (OR=2.38, CI=1.56-3.62).
    CONCLUSION: Both the usual way of sending letters and registered letters had higher chances of reaching patients compared to using phone either for sending messages or calling. The response to the recall method and uptake of repeat smear, however, were highest via phone call, indicating the importance of direct communication.
    Study site: Klinik Kesihatan, Kelang, Selangor, Malaysia
  8. Abdul Rashid RM, Dahlui M
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2013;14(10):5867-70.
    PMID: 24289591
    BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among Malaysian women with an ASR of 17.9 and a mortality rate of 5.6 per 100,000 population in 2008 (GLOBOCAN, 2008). The 5 year prevalence was estimated to be 14.5 per 100,000 population. As the second most common cancer affecting productive females, cervical cancer imposes an impact to the socioeconomic aspect of the country. However, the poor uptake of cervical cancer screening is a major problem in detecting early pre-cancerous lesions and thus, delay in initiating treatment for cervical cancer. Realizing the urgency to increase the uptake of PAP smear, besides enhancing the promotion of PAP smear screening for women above 35 years old, the call-recall system for pap smear screening had been piloted in one of the suburban districts which aimed to improve regular participation of women for cervical and breast cancer screening. This is of public health importance as identifying the best feasible option to increase patient's respond to participate in the screening program effectively in our setting will be helpful in implementing an organized regular population based screening program tailored to our setting. The pilot program of cervical cancer screening in Klang was an opportunity to assess different options in recalling patients for a repeat pap smear to increase their participation and adherence to the program.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a population based randomized control trial. Women aged 20-65 years in the population that matched the inclusion and exclusion criteria were re-called for a repeat smear. There are four different intervention groups; letter, registered letters, short messages services (SMS) and phone calls where 250 subjects were recruited into each group. Samples were generated randomly from the same population in Klang into four different groups. The first group received a recall letter for a repeat smear similar to the one that has been given during the first invitation. The intervention groups were either be given a registered letter, an SMS or a phone call to re-call them. The socio-demographic data of the patients who came for uptake were collected for further analysis. All the groups were followed up after 8 weeks to assess their compliance to the recall.

    CONCLUSIONS: The study will provide recommendations about the most effective methods for recall in a population based pap smear screening program on two outcomes: i) patients response; ii) uptake for repeat pap smear.

  9. Lachumy SJ, Oon CE, Deivanai S, Saravanan D, Vijayarathna S, Choong YS, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2013;14(10):5553-65.
    PMID: 24289545
    Plants play important roles in human life not only as suppliers of oxygen but also as a fundamental resource to sustain the human race on this earthly plane. Plants also play a major role in our nutrition by converting energy from the sun during photosynthesis. In addition, plants have been used extensively in traditional medicine since time immemorial. Information in the biomedical literature has indicated that many natural herbs have been investigated for their efficacy against lethal irradiation. Pharmacological studies by various groups of investigators have shown that natural herbs possess significant radioprotective activity. In view of the immense medicinal importance of natural product based radioprotective agents, this review aims at compiling all currently available information on radioprotective agents from medicinal plants and herbs, especially the evaluation methods and mechanisms of action. In this review we particularly emphasize on ethnomedicinal uses, botany, phytochemistry, mechanisms of action and toxicology. We also describe modern techniques for evaluating herbal samples as radioprotective agents. The usage of herbal remedies for combating lethal irradiation is a green anti- irradiation approach for the betterment of human beings without high cost, side effects and toxicity.
  10. Pandurangan AK, Esa NM
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2013;14(10):5543-52.
    PMID: 24289544
    Colorectal cancer (CRC), a complex multi-step process involving progressive disruption of homeostatic mechanisms controlling intestinal epithelial proliferation/inflammation, differentiation, and programmed cell death, is the third most common malignant neoplasm worldwide. A number of promising targets such as inducible nitric acid (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), Wnt/β-catenin, Notch and apoptotic signaling have been identified by researchers as useful targets to prevent or therapeutically inhibit colon cancer development. In this review article, we aimed to explore the current targets available to eliminate colon cancer with an update of dietary and non-nutritional compounds that could be of potential use for interaction with regulatory molecules to prevent CRC.
  11. Norlaili AA, Fatihah MA, Daliana NF, Maznah D
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2013;14(12):7161-4.
    PMID: 24460269
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women globally. This study was conducted to compare the awareness of breast cancer and the practice of breast self-examination (BSE), clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammography screening among rural females in Pahang and Perak. A cross-sectional study was carried out in five selected rural districts of Pahang and Perak. Two hundred and fifty households were randomly selected and interviewed face to face using a semi-structured questionnaire. The majority of residents from both states were Malay, aged between 50 and 60 years and had a secondary level of education. Malay women aged 40-49 years and women with a higher level of education were significantly more aware of breast cancer (p<0.05). About half of these women practiced BSE (60.7%) and CBE (56.1%), and 7% had underwent mammography screening. The results of this study suggest that women in Pahang and Perak have good awareness of breast cancer and that more than half practice BSE and CBE. The women's level of education appears to contribute to their level of knowledge and health behaviour. However, more effort is needed to encourage all women in rural areas to acquire further knowledge on breast cancer.
  12. Abdullah A, Abdullah KL, Yip CH, Teo SH, Taib NA, Ng CJ
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2013;14(12):7143-7.
    PMID: 24460266
    BACKGROUND: The survival outcomes for women presenting with early breast cancer are influenced by treatment decisions. In Malaysia, survival outcome is generally poor due to late presentation. Of those who present early, many refuse treatment for complementary therapy.
    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the decision making experiences of women with early breast cancer.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A qualitative study using individual in-depth interviews was conducted to capture the decision making process of women with early breast cancer in Malaysia. We used purposive sampling to recruit women yet to undergo surgical treatment. A total of eight participants consented and were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. These women were recruited from a period of one week after they were informed of their diagnoses. A topic guide, based on the Ottawa decision support framework (ODSF), was used to facilitate the interviews, which were audio recorded, transcribed and analysed using a thematic approach.
    RESULTS: We identified four phases in the decision-making process of women with early breast cancer: discovery (pre-diagnosis); confirmatory ('receiving bad news'); deliberation; and decision (making a decision). These phases ranged from when women first discovered abnormalities in their breasts to them making final surgical treatment decisions. Information was vital in guiding these women. Support from family members, friends, healthcare professionals as well as survivors also has an influencing role. However, the final say on treatment decision was from themselves.
    CONCLUSIONS: The treatment decision for women with early breast cancer in Malaysia is a result of information they gather on their decision making journey. This journey starts with diagnosis. The women's spouses, friends, family members and healthcare professionals play different roles as information providers and supporters at different stages of treatment decisions. However, the final treatment decision is influenced mainly by women's own experiences, knowledge and understanding.
    Study site: Breast surgical units, Klang Valley, Malaysia
  13. Hock LK, Ghazali SM, Cheong KC, Kuay LK, Li LH, Ying CY, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2013;14(11):6971-8.
    PMID: 24377635
    BACKGROUND: Smoking among adolescents has been linked to a variety of adverse and long term health consequences. "Susceptibility to smoking" or the lack of cognitive commitment to abstain from smoking is an important predictor of adolescent smoking. In 2008, we conducted a study to determine the psycho-sociological factors associated with susceptibility to smoking among secondary school students in the district of Kota Tinggi, Johor.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two thousand seven hundred students were randomly selected by proportional stratified sampling. Analyses on 1,736 non-smoking students revealed that prevalence of adolescents susceptible to smoking was 16.3%.

    RESULTS: Male gender (aOR=2.05, 95%CI= 1.23-3.39), poor academic achievement (aOR 1.60, 95%CI 1.05-2.44), ever-smoker (aOR 2.17, 95%CI 1.37-3.44) and having a smoking friend (aOR 1.76, 95%CI 1.10-2.83) were associated with susceptibility to smoking, while having the perception that smoking prohibition in school was strictly enforced (aOR 0.55, 95%CI 0.32-0.94), and had never seen friends smoking in a school compound (aOR 0.59, 95%CI 0.37-0.96) were considered protective factors

    CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that follow-up programmes need to capitalise on the modifiable factors related to susceptibility to smoking by getting all stakeholders to be actively involved to stamp out smoking initiation among adolescents.

  14. Fouz N, Amid A, Hashim YZ
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014 Jan;14(11):6709-14.
    PMID: 24377593
    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is a leading cause of death in women. The available chemotherapy drugs have been associated with many side effects. Bromelain has novel medicinal qualities including anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, fibrinolytic and anti-cancer functions. Commercially available bromelain is obtained through tedious methods; therefore, recombinant bromelain may provide a cheaper and simpler choice with similar quality.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study aimed to assess the effects of commercial and recombinant bromelain on the cytokinetic behavior of MCF-7 breast cancer cells and their potential as therapeutic alternatives in cancer treatment. Cytotoxic activities of commercial and recombinant bromelain were determined using (sulforhodamine) SRB assay. Next, cell viability assays were conducted to determine effects of commercial and recombinant bromelain on MCF-7 cell cytokinetic behavior. Finally, the established growth kinetic data were used to modify a model that predicts the effects of commercial and recombinant bromelain on MCF-7 cells.

    RESULTS: Commercial and recombinant bromelain exerted strong effects towards decreasing the cell viability of MCF-7 cells with IC50 values of 5.13 μg/mL and 6.25 μg/mL, respectively, compared to taxol with an IC50 value of 0.063 μg/mL. The present results indicate that commercial and recombinant bromelain both have anti-proliferative activity, reduced the number of cell generations from 3.92 to 2.81 for commercial bromelain and to 2.86 for recombinant bromelain, while with taxol reduction was to 3.12. Microscopic observation of bromelain-treated MCF-7 cells demonstrated detachment. Inhibition activity was verified with growth rates decreased dynamically from 0.009 h-1 to 0.0059 h-1 for commercial bromelain and to 0.0063 h-1 for recombinant bromelain.

    CONCLUSIONS: Commercial and recombinant bromelain both affect cytokinetics of MCF-7 cells by decreasing cell viability, demonstrating similar strength to taxol.

  15. Cheah SK, Lau FN, Yusof MM, Phua VC
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014 Jan;14(11):6513-8.
    PMID: 24377559
    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the treatment outcome and major late complications of all patients with recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) in Hospital Kuala Lumpur.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted at the Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. All patients with histologically confirmed recurrent NPC in the absence of distant metastasis treated in the period 1997-2010 were included in this study. These patients were treated with ICBT alone or in combination with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Treatment outcomes measured were local recurrence free survival (LRFS), disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS).

    RESULTS: Thirty three patients were eligible for this study. The median age at recurrence was 56 years with a median time to initial local recurrence of 27 months. Majority of patients were staged as rT1-2 (94%) or rN0 (82%). The proportion of patients categorised as stage III-IV at first local recurrence was only 9%. Twenty one patients received a combination of ICBT and external beam radiotherapy while 12 patients were treated with ICBT alone. Median interval of recurrence post re-irradiation was 32 months (range: 4-110 months). The median LRFS, DFS and OS were 30 months, 29 months and 36 months respectively. The 5 year LRFS, DFS and OS were 44.7%, 38.8% and 28.1% respectively. The N stage at recurrence was found to be a significant prognostic factor for LRFS and DFS after multivariate analysis. Major late complications occurred in 34.9% of our patients.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows ICBT was associated with a reasonable long term outcome in salvaging recurrent NPC although major complications remained a significant problem. The N stage at recurrence was a significant prognostic factor for both LRFS and DFS.

  16. Jeganathan PD, Hairi NN, Sadat NA, Chinna K
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2013;14(11):6769-73.
    PMID: 24377603
    BACKGROUND: Few local studies have explored the process of adverse transition of smoking stages among adolescents. The present investigation aimed to identify adverse transitions prospectively from the early stages till the escalation of the stages after one year.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected in two waves from a cohort of 2,552 adolescents aged 12-13 years old studying in 15 secondary schools based in Kinta, Perak. A multistage sampling method was used to select the schools and a self-administered structured questionnaire was applied to help categorize the participants into five different smoking stages. Nonsmokers were divided into never smokers and susceptible never smokers. Ever-smokers were categorized as experimenters, current smokers or ex-smokers.

    RESULTS: Among the participants 46.8% were Malay, 33.5% Chinese and 17.1% Indians. At baseline, we had 85.3% non-smokers and 14.6% ever smokers. Incidence of adverse transition among all our participants was 24.1%, with a higher value among male participants (16.8%). A higher proportion of susceptible never smokers and experimenters progressed to current smoking stage compared to never smokers.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the changes and patterns of adverse transition among adolescents. Male adolescents, those who are susceptible to smoking and those who had already tried experimenting with cigarettes have a higher chance of escalating to a higher smoking stage.

  17. Yaacob NS, Nasir R, Norazmi MN
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2013;14(11):6761-7.
    PMID: 24377602
    The nuclear receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), is expressed in various cancer cells including breast, prostate, colorectal and cervical examples. An endogenous ligand of PPARγ, 15-deoxy-Δ12,14 prostaglandin J2 (PGJ2), is emerging as a potent anticancer agent but the exact mechanism has not been fully elucidated, especially in breast cancer. The present study compared the anticancer effects of PGJ2 on estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)-positive (MCF-7) and ERα-negative (MDA-MB-231) human breast cancer cells. Based on the reported signalling cross-talk between PPARγ and ERα, the effect of the ERα ligand, 17β-estradiol (E2) on the anticancer activities of PGJ2 in both types of cells was also explored. Here we report that PGJ2 inhibited proliferation of both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells by inducing apoptotic cell death with active involvement of mitochondria. The presence of E2 potentiated PGJ2-induced apoptosis in MCF-7, but not in MDA-MB-231 cells. The PPARγ antagonist, GW9662, failed to block PGJ2-induced activities but potentiated its effects in MCF-7 cells, instead. Interestingly, GW9662 also proved capable of inducing apoptotic cell death. It can be concluded that E2 enhances PPARγ-independent anticancer effects of PGJ2 in the presence of its receptor.
  18. Norsa'adah B, Nurhazalini-Zayani CG
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2013;14(11):6955-9.
    PMID: 24377632
    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is relatively high in Southeast Asia. Globally, HCC has a high fatality rate and short survival. The objectives of this retrospective cohort study were to review the epidemiology and survival of HCC patients at a tertiary centre in north-east of Peninsular Malaysia. Subjects were adult HCC patients diagnosed by histopathology or radio-imaging. Secondary liver carcinoma was excluded. Kaplan Meier and multiple Cox proportional hazard survival analyses were used. Only 210 HCC cases from years 1987-2008, were included in the final analysis. The number of cases was increasing annually. The mean age was 55.0 (SD 13.9) years with male:female ratio of 3.7:1. Approximately 57.6% had positive hepatitis B virus, 2.4% hepatitis C virus, 20% liver cirrhosis and 8.1% chronic liver disease. Only 2.9% had family history and 9.0% had frequently consumed alcohol. Most patients presented with abdominal pain or discomfort and had hepatomegaly, 47.9% had an elevated α-fetoprotein level of 800 IU/ml or more, 51.9% had multiple tumors and 44.8% involved multiple liver lobes. Approximately 63.3% were in stage 3 and 23.4% in stage 4, and 82.9% did not receive any treatment. The overall median survival time was 1.9 months (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.5, 2.3). The 1-month, 6-month, 1-year and 2-year survival rates were 71.8%, 23.3%, 13.0% and 7.3% respectively. Significant prognostic factors were Malay ethnicity [Adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 1.6; 95%CI: 1.0, 2.5; p=0.030], no chemotherapy [AHR 1.7; 95%CI: 1.1, 2.5; p=0.017] and Child-Pugh class C [AHR 2.6; 95%CI: 1.4, 4.9; p=0.002]. HCC in our study affected a wide age range, mostly male, in advanced stage of disease, with no treatment and very low survival rates. Primary prevention should be advocated in view of late presentation and difficulty of treatment. Vaccination of hepatitis virus and avoidance of liver toxins are to be encouraged.
  19. Abidin EZ, Hashim Z, Semple S
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2013;14(11):6845-50.
    PMID: 24377615
    BACKGROUND: This study was performed to gather data on second-hand smoke (SHS) concentrations in a range of public venues following the implementation of partial Smoke-Free Legislation in Malaysia in 2004.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: PM2.5 was measured as a marker of SHS levels in a total of 61 restaurants, entertainment centres, internet cafes and pubs in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    RESULTS: Under the current smoke-free laws smoking was prohibited in 42 of the 61 premises. Active smoking was observed in nearly one-third (n=12) of these. For premises where smoking was prohibited and no active smoking observed, the mean (standard deviation) indoor PM2.5 concentration was 33.4 (23.8) μg/m3 compared to 187.1 (135.1) μg/m3 in premises where smoking was observed The highest mean PM2.5 was observed in pubs [361.5 (199.3) μg/m3].

    CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence of high levels of SHS across a range of hospitality venues, including about one-third of those where smoking is prohibited, despite 8 years of smoke-free legislation. Compliance with the legislation appeared to be particularly poor in entertainment centres and internet cafes. Workers and non-smoking patrons continue to be exposed to high concentrations of SHS within the hospitality industry in Malaysia and there is an urgent need for increased enforcement of existing legislation and consideration of more comprehensive laws to protect health.

  20. Hee TG, Shah SA, Ann HS, Hemdan SN, Shen LC, Al-Fahmi Abdul Galib N, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2013;14(11):6327-30.
    PMID: 24377526
    Haematuria is a common presentation of bladder cancer and requires a full urologic evaluation. This study aimed to develop a scoring system capable of stratifying patients with haematuria into high or low risk groups for having bladder cancer to help clinicians decide which patients need more urgent assessment. This cross- sectional study included all adult patients referred for haematuria and subsequently undergoing full urological evaluation in the years 2001 to 2011. Risk factors with strong association with bladder cancer in the study population were used to design the scoring system. Accuracy was determined by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. A total of 325 patients with haematuria were included, out of which 70 (21.5%) were diagnosed to have bladder cancer. Significant risk factors associated with bladder cancer were male gender, a history of cigarette smoking and the presence of gross haematuria. A scoring system using 4 clinical parameters as variables was created. The scores ranged between 6 to 14, and a score of 10 and above indicated high risk for having bladder cancer. It was found to have good accuracy with an area under the ROC curve of 80.4%, while the sensitivity and specificity were 90.0% and 55.7%, respectively. The scoring system designed in this study has the potential to help clinicians stratify patients who present with haematuria into high or low risk for having bladder cancer. This will enable high-risk patients to undergo urologic assessment earlier.
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