OBJECTIVE: To explore the feasibility of using cyclin D1 as a prognostic marker in tongue and cheek SCC by the fluorescent-in-situ hybridization (FISH) method.
METHODS: Fifty paraffin-embedded samples (25 each of cheek and tongue SCCs) were obtained from the archives of the Oral Pathology Diagnostic Laboratory. Sociodemographic data, histopathologic diagnoses, lymph node status and survival data were obtained from the Malaysian Oral Cancer Database and Tissue Bank System (MOCDTBS)coordinated by the Oral Cancer Research and Coordinating Centre (OCRCC), University of Malaya. The FISH technique was used to detect the amplification of cyclin D1 using the Vysis protocol. Statistical correlations of cyclin D1 with site and lymph node status were analyzed using the Fisher exact test. Kaplan-Meier and Log Rank (Mantel-Cox) test were used to analyze cyclin D1 amplification and median survival time.
RESULTS: Positive amplification of cyclin D1 was detected in 72% (36) of OSCCs. Detection of positive amplification for cyclin D1 was observed in 88% (22) and 56% (14) of the tongue and cheek tumors, respectively, where the difference was statistically significant (P=0.012). Lymph node metastasis of cheek SCCs showed a trend towards a significant association (P= 0.098) with cyclin D1 amplification whereas the lymph node metastasis of tongue SCC was clearly not significant (P=0.593).There was a statistically significant correlation between cyclin D1 positivity and survival rate (P=0.009) for overall SCC cases and (P<0.001) for cheek SCC cases.
CONCLUSION: The present study found that cyclin D1 amplification may differ in different subsites of OSCC (tongue vs cheek) and its positive amplification implies an overall poor survival in OSCCs, particularly those arising in cheeks.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer risk with fat and fat subtypes intake.
METHODOLOGY: This is a population based case-control study conducted in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from January 2006 to December 2007. Food intake pattern was collected from 382 breast cancer patients and 382 control group via an interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and a broad range of potential confounders was included in analysis.
RESULTS: This study showed that both premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer risk did not increase significantly with greater intake of total fat [quartile (Q) 4 versus Q1 OR=0.76, 95% CI, 0.23-2.45 and OR=1.36, 95% CI, 0.30-3.12], saturated fat (ORQ4 to Q1=1.43, 95% CI, 0.51-3.98 and ORQ4 to Q1=1.75, 95% CI, 0.62-3.40), monounsaturated fat (ORQ4 to Q1=0.96, 95% CI, 0.34-1.72 and ORQ4 to Q1=1.74, 95% CI, 0.22-2.79), polyunsaturated fat (ORQ4 to Q1=0.64, 95% CI, 0.23-1.73 and ORQ4 to Q1=0.74, 95% CI, 0.39-1.81), n-3 polyunsaturated fat (ORQ4 to Q1=1.10, 95% CI, 0.49-2.48 and ORQ4 to Q1=0.78, 95% CI, 0.28-2.18), n-6 polyunsaturated fat (ORQ4 to Q1=0.67, 95% CI, 0.24-1.84 and ORQ4 to Q1=0.71, 95% CI, 0.29-1.04) or energy intake (ORQ4 to Q1=1.52, 95% CI, 0.68-3.38 and ORQ4 to Q1=2.21, 95% CI, 0.93-3.36).
CONCLUSION: Total fat and fat subtypes were not associated with pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer risk after controlling for age, other breast cancer risk factors and energy intake. Despite the lack of association, the effects of total fat and fat subtypes intake during premenopausal years towards postmenopausal breast cancer risk still warrant investigation.
AIMS: To determine the usefulness of immunohistochemical techniques and FISH of the tumour suppressor TP 53 gene to identify microinvasion in marginal tissue sections and to relate the possible correlation between protein expression and genetic aberrations in OSCC cases in Malaysia.
METHODS: Immunohistochemistry and FISH of TP 53 genes were applied on 26 OSCC formalin fixed paraffin embed (FFEP) blocks selected from two oral cancer referral centers in Malaysia.
RESULTS: For p53 protein immunohistochemistry, 96% of the 26 OSCC studied showed positive immunostaining at the excision margins. In FISH assay, 48.9±9.7% of the cancerous cells were monoploid for p53 probe signals, 41.0±9.5 % were diploid, and 10.2±7.8 % were polyploid. A correlation between p53 immunostaining and TP53 gene aberrations was noted (p< 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Immunohistochemical analysis of p53 protein expression and FISH of TP53 gene could be applied as screening tool for microinvasion of OSCC.
MATERIALS AND METHOD: A panel of 768 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with various cancers and known non-genetic risk factors for NPC were selected and analyzed for their associations with NPC in a case-control study.
RESULTS: Statistical analysis identified 40 SNPs associated with NPC risk in our population, including 5 documented previously by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and other case-control studies; the associations of the remaining 35 SNPs with NPC were novel. In addition, consistent with previous studies, exposure to occupational hazards, overconsumption of salt-cured foods, red meat, as well as low intake of fruits and vegetables were also associated with NPC risk.
CONCLUSIONS: In short, this study confirmed and/or identified genetic, environmental and dietary risk factors associated with NPC susceptibility in a Southeast Asian population.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study on adolescents aged 13-18 years old. Upon ethical clearance obtained from UMMC Medical Ethics Committee, patients with colorectal, breast or lung cancer and their adolescent children were recruited from the Clinical Oncology Unit of University of Malaya Medical Centre. Respondents who gave consent completed a demographic questionnaire and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, via the post, email, home visit or meetings at the clinics.
RESULTS: 95 adolescents from 50 families responded, giving a response rate of 88 percent. The adolescent's mean age was 16 years (ranging between 13-18 years). Adolescents with parental cancer had the lowest mean score in emotional functioning (p<0.05). Male adolescents had significantly higher quality of life overall and in physical functioning compared to female adolescents. Adolescents with a father with cancer had better school functioning compared to adolescents whose mothers had cancer. Families with household income of RM 5000 and above have significantly better quality of life compared to families with lower household income.
CONCLUSIONS: Adolescent sons and daughters of parents with a cancer diagnosis show lowered QOL, particularly with reference to emotional functioning and school performance. Addressing the needs of this young group has been slow and warrants special attention. Revisiting the risk and resilience factors of adolescents might also inform tailored programs to address the needs of this neglected adolescent population.