Displaying publications 161 - 180 of 514 in total

  1. Dahlui M, Ramli S, Bulgiba AM
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(6):1631-4.
    PMID: 22126511
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in Malaysian females. The National Cancer Registry in 2003 and 2006 reported that the age standardized incidence of breast cancer was 46.2 and 39.3 per 100,000 populations, respectively. With the cumulative risk at 5.0; a woman in Malaysia had a 1 in 20 chance of developing breast cancer in her lifetime. The incidence of cancer in general, and for breast cancer specifically was highest in the Chinese, followed by Indians and Malays. Most of the patients with breast cancers presented at late stages (stage I: 15.45%, stage II: 46.9%, stage III: 22.2% and stage IV: 15.5%). The Healthy Lifestyles Campaign which started in the early nineties had created awareness on breast cancer and after a decade the effort was enhanced with the Breast Health Awareness program to promote breast self examination (BSE) to all women, to perform annual clinical breast examination (CBE) on women above 40 and mammogram on women above 50. The National Health Morbidity Survey in 2006 showed that the prevalence rate of 70.35% by any of three methods of breast screening; 57.1% by BSE, 51.8% by CBE and 7.6% by mammogram. The current screening policy for breast cancer focuses on CBE whereby all women at the age of 20 years and above must undergo breast examination by trained health care providers every 3 years for age between 20-39 years, and annually for age 40 and above. Several breast cancer preventive programs had been developed by various ministries in Malaysia; among which are the RM50 subsidy for mammogram by the Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development and the SIPPS program (a call-recall system for women to do PAP smear and CBE) by the Ministry of Health. Measures to increase uptake of breast cancer screening and factors as to why women with breast cancer present late should be studied to assist in more development of policy on the prevention of breast cancer in Malaysia.
  2. Chang G, Chan CW, Hartman M
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(6):1635-9.
    PMID: 22126512
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in Singaporean women and the rate of increase in incidence is one of the highest in the world. In view of the significant contribution of delayed presentation to the disease burden in South East Asia, we reviewed the incidence of late presentation of breast cancer and the contributing factors in Singapore. Disease presentation was analysed using studies based on the Singapore Cancer Registry 2004-2008 and with data from women with breast cancer at the National University Hospital (NUH) in Singapore 1990-2007. Available literature from Singapore on factors contributing to delayed presentation was reviewed and presented here. The overall age-standardized 5-year relative survival for Singaporean women was 70% with only half diagnosed with localized cancer. Of all women diagnosed at NUH close to 20% presented at Stages III and IV. Given the magnitude of the problem of women presenting with more advanced stages of breast cancer, the National University of Singapore has joined a collaborative team with the University of Leeds (UK), the University of Malaya, and University of UAE to set up the UK-SEA-ME Psychosocial-Cultural Cancer Research Network to better understand late presentation.
  3. Lim JN
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(6):1627-9.
    PMID: 22126510
    Psychosocial and cultural factors influencing cancer health behaviour have not been systematically investigated outside the western culture, and qualitative research is the best approach for this type of social research. The research methods employed to study health problems in Asia predominantly are quantitative techniques. The set up of the first psychosocial cancer research network in Asia marks the beginning of a collaboration to promote and spearhead applied qualitative healthcare research in cancer in the UK, Southeast Asia and the Middle East. This paper sets out the rationale, objectives and mission for the UK-SEA-ME Psychosocial-Cultural Cancer Research Network. The UK-SEA-ME network is made up of collaborators from the University of Leeds (UK), the University of Malaya (Malaysia), the National University of Singapore (Singapore) and the University of United Arab Emirates (UAE). The network promotes applied qualitative research to investigate the psychosocial and cultural factors influencing delayed and late presentation and diagnosis for cancer (breast cancer) in partner countries, as well as advocating the use of the mixed-methods research approach. The network also offers knowledge transfer for capacity building within network universities. The mission of the network is to improve public awareness about the importance of early management and prevention of cancer through research in Asia.
  4. Yip CH, Samiei M, Cazap E, Rosenblatt E, Datta NR, Camacho R, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(4 Suppl):23-36.
    PMID: 22631594
    Survival following a diagnosis of cancer is contingent upon an interplay of factors, some non-modifiable (e.g., age, sex, genetics) and some modifiable (e.g., volitional choices) but the majority determined by circumstance (personal, social, health system context and capacity, and health policy). Accordingly, mortality and survival rates vary considerably as a function of geography, opportunity, wealth and development. Quality of life is impacted similarly, such that aspects of care related to coordination and integration of care across primary, community and specialist environments; symptom control, palliative and end-of-life care for those who will die of cancer; and survivorship challenges for those who will survive cancer, differs greatly across low, middle and high-income resource settings. Session 3 of the 4th International Cancer Control Congress (ICCC-4) focused on cancer care and treatment through three plenary presentations and five interactive workshop discussions: 1) establishing, implementing, operating and sustaining the capacity for quality cancer care; 2) the role of primary, community, and specialist care in cancer care and treatment; 3) the economics of affordable and sustainable cancer care; 4) issues around symptom control, support, and palliative/end-of-life care; and 5) issues around survivorship. A number of recommendations were proposed relating to capacity-building (standards and guidelines, protocols, new technologies and training and deployment) for safe, appropriate evidence-informed care; mapping and analysis of variations in primary, community and specialist care across countries with identification of models for effective, integrated clinical practice; the importance of considering the introduction, or expansion, of evidence-supported clinical practices from the perspectives of health economic impact, the value for health resources expended, and sustainability; capacity-building for palliative, end-of-life care and symptom control and integration of these services into national cancer control plans; the need for public education to reduce the fear and stigma associated with cancer so that patients are better able to make informed decisions regarding follow-up care and treatment; and the need to recognize the challenges and needs of survivors, their increasing number, the necessity to integrate survivorship into cancer control plans and the economic and societal value of functional survival after cancer. Discussions highlighted that coordinated care and treatment for cancer patients is both a ' systems'challenge and solution, requiring the consideration of patient and family circumstances, societal values and priorities, the functioning of the health system (access, capacity, resources, etc.) and the importance assigned to health and illness management within public policy.
  5. Mahdey HM, Ramanathan A, Ismail SM, Abraham MT, Jamaluddin M, Zain RB
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(9):2199-204.
    PMID: 22296356
    INTRODUCTION: Several molecular markers have been studied for their usefulness as prognostic markers in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). One such molecular marker is cyclin D1 which is a proto-oncogene located on 11q13 in humans.

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the feasibility of using cyclin D1 as a prognostic marker in tongue and cheek SCC by the fluorescent-in-situ hybridization (FISH) method.

    METHODS: Fifty paraffin-embedded samples (25 each of cheek and tongue SCCs) were obtained from the archives of the Oral Pathology Diagnostic Laboratory. Sociodemographic data, histopathologic diagnoses, lymph node status and survival data were obtained from the Malaysian Oral Cancer Database and Tissue Bank System (MOCDTBS)coordinated by the Oral Cancer Research and Coordinating Centre (OCRCC), University of Malaya. The FISH technique was used to detect the amplification of cyclin D1 using the Vysis protocol. Statistical correlations of cyclin D1 with site and lymph node status were analyzed using the Fisher exact test. Kaplan-Meier and Log Rank (Mantel-Cox) test were used to analyze cyclin D1 amplification and median survival time.

    RESULTS: Positive amplification of cyclin D1 was detected in 72% (36) of OSCCs. Detection of positive amplification for cyclin D1 was observed in 88% (22) and 56% (14) of the tongue and cheek tumors, respectively, where the difference was statistically significant (P=0.012). Lymph node metastasis of cheek SCCs showed a trend towards a significant association (P= 0.098) with cyclin D1 amplification whereas the lymph node metastasis of tongue SCC was clearly not significant (P=0.593).There was a statistically significant correlation between cyclin D1 positivity and survival rate (P=0.009) for overall SCC cases and (P<0.001) for cheek SCC cases.

    CONCLUSION: The present study found that cyclin D1 amplification may differ in different subsites of OSCC (tongue vs cheek) and its positive amplification implies an overall poor survival in OSCCs, particularly those arising in cheeks.

  6. Yasin SM, Retneswari M, Moy FM, Koh D, Isahak M
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(9):2193-8.
    PMID: 22296355
    BACKGROUND: There is an unclear relationship between smoker's early motivation and success rates. Here we aimed to explore the correlates of motivation and smoking abstinence and relapse in worksite smoking cessation programmes.
    METHODS: This prospective cohort study involved employees from two major public universities in Malaysia. Participants were actively recruited into a smoking cessation programme. At the start of treatment, participants were administered a questionnaire on sociodemographic variables, smoking habits and 'stage of change'. Behaviour therapy with free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) was given as treatment for two months. A similar stage of change questionnaire was given at six months, and their smoking status was determined.
    RESULTS: There were 185 smokers from both Universities, who joined the programme. At six months, 24 smokers reported sustained abstinence while the others had relapsed. Prior to the programme, the majority of smokers were seriously planning on quitting (59.5%--preparation stage), but over a third had no plans to quit (35.5%--contemplation stage). There was no significant difference noted in changes of motivation stage among the relapsers and the non quitters. In addition, logistic regression showed that sustained abstinence was not predicted by pre-session motivation stage, but this did predict higher relapse for the participants, compared to those in the preparation stage.
    CONCLUSION: It is possible to help smokers in the lower motivation groups to quit, provided extra caution is taken to prevent relapse. Healthcare providers' recruitment strategies for cessation programmes should thus encompass smokers in all motivation stages.
  7. Sulaiman S, Shahril MR, Shaharudin SH, Emran NA, Muhammad R, Ismail F, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(9):2167-78.
    PMID: 22296351
    BACKGROUND: Fat intake has been shown to play a role in the etiology of breast cancer, but the findings have been inconsistent.

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer risk with fat and fat subtypes intake.

    METHODOLOGY: This is a population based case-control study conducted in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from January 2006 to December 2007. Food intake pattern was collected from 382 breast cancer patients and 382 control group via an interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and a broad range of potential confounders was included in analysis.

    RESULTS: This study showed that both premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer risk did not increase significantly with greater intake of total fat [quartile (Q) 4 versus Q1 OR=0.76, 95% CI, 0.23-2.45 and OR=1.36, 95% CI, 0.30-3.12], saturated fat (ORQ4 to Q1=1.43, 95% CI, 0.51-3.98 and ORQ4 to Q1=1.75, 95% CI, 0.62-3.40), monounsaturated fat (ORQ4 to Q1=0.96, 95% CI, 0.34-1.72 and ORQ4 to Q1=1.74, 95% CI, 0.22-2.79), polyunsaturated fat (ORQ4 to Q1=0.64, 95% CI, 0.23-1.73 and ORQ4 to Q1=0.74, 95% CI, 0.39-1.81), n-3 polyunsaturated fat (ORQ4 to Q1=1.10, 95% CI, 0.49-2.48 and ORQ4 to Q1=0.78, 95% CI, 0.28-2.18), n-6 polyunsaturated fat (ORQ4 to Q1=0.67, 95% CI, 0.24-1.84 and ORQ4 to Q1=0.71, 95% CI, 0.29-1.04) or energy intake (ORQ4 to Q1=1.52, 95% CI, 0.68-3.38 and ORQ4 to Q1=2.21, 95% CI, 0.93-3.36).

    CONCLUSION: Total fat and fat subtypes were not associated with pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer risk after controlling for age, other breast cancer risk factors and energy intake. Despite the lack of association, the effects of total fat and fat subtypes intake during premenopausal years towards postmenopausal breast cancer risk still warrant investigation.

  8. Al-Naggar RA, Nagi NM, Ali MM, Almuasli M
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(9):2335-41.
    PMID: 22296380
    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine the quality of life among breast cancer patients in Yemen based on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics.

    METHODOLOGY: This study was designed as a cross-sectional study. The data collected from 106 female breast cancer patients who were chosen for recruitment from the outpatient in National Oncology Centre (NOC), Sana'a, Yemen from November 2008 to June 2011. Questionnaires were distributed to the patients during their visit to the outpatient clinics in the center. The instrument of this study consists of two parts: Socio-demographic and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B) questionnaire. Regarding data analysis, means and SD of subscales were evaluated for descriptive purpose. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to compare the three groups regarding QOL subscales. Whereas, independent t-test was performed for comparing two groups regarding QOL subscales. Multiple linear regression using backward analysis was performed to obtain the final model for each domain. The final model was chosen depending on R2 and the p value of the model. A p value less than 0.05 is considered statistically significant.

    RESULTS: A total number of 106 breast cancer patients were participated in this study. The majority of them were uneducated, unemployed with normal weight and had middle income (60.4%; 95.3%; 59.4%, 46.2%; respectively). As for clinical characteristics of the study participants; the majority of them had had no family history of breast cancer, have been diagnosed at least 2 years, were diagnosed at grade 3 and size of tumor greater than 2 cm (88.7%, 66.0%, 35.8%, 73.6%; respectively). The majority of them underwent mastectomy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and tamoxifen therapy (85.8%, 63.2%, 94.3% and 62.3%; respectively). For univariate analysis, the present study has identified several factors includes family monthly income, BMI, educational status, years after diagnosis, histological grade radiotherapy and surgery that influence the QOL of breast cancer patients in Yemen. For multivariate analysis, years after diagnosis, family monthly income and radiotherapy were significantly associated with total QOL of the breast cancer patients (p=0.01, p=0.023, p=0.039; respectively).

    CONCLUSION: Family monthly income, BMI, educational status, years after diagnosis, histological grade radiotherapy and surgery were significantly influence the QOL of breast cancer patients in Yemen, in univariate analysis. For multivariate analysis, years after diagnosis, family monthly income and radiotherapy were significantly associated with total QOL of the breast cancer patients.
  9. Al-Naggar RA, Al-Naggar TH, Bobryshev YV
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(4):995-9.
    PMID: 21790240
    INTRODUCTION: Malignant melanoma in particular is one of the few remaining cancers with an increasing incidence.

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to explore the perceptions and opinions of young Malaysians towards skin cancer prevention.

    METHODOLOGY: Focus group discussions were conducted among 33 medical science students from Management and Science University (MSU), Shah Alam, Malaysia, using convenience sampling. Students were divided into 4 focus groups consisting of 8, 8, 9 and 8 students respectively. The facilitator wrote down the conversations and data obtained were classified into various categories and analyzed manually.

    RESULTS: The majority of the participants mentioned that overexposure to ultraviolet light is the commonest cause of skin cancer but also that the most benefit we get from sun ight is vitamin D synthesis. The majority mentioned that the best prevention measure for skin cancer is using a sunscreen, followed by limit exposure to the sun.

    CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated there is a lack of knowledge regarding screening methods and prevention measures of skin cancer. Therefore, there is a need to establish health education unit in all universities to educate all university students regarding various health problems including skin cancer prevention.
  10. Yusoff N, Low WY, Yip CH
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(4):915-7.
    PMID: 21790225
    The main objective of this paper is to examine the psychometric properties of the Malay Version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), tested on 67 husbands of the women who were diagnosed with breast cancer. The eligible husbands were retrieved from the Clinical Oncology Clinic at three hospitals in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data was collected at three weeks and ten weeks following surgery for breast cancer of their wives. The psychometric properties of the HADS were reported based on Cronbach' alpha, Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC), Effect Size Index (ESI), sensitivity and discriminity of the scale. Internal consistency of the scale is excellent, with Cronbach's alpha of 0.88 for Anxiety subscale and 0.79 for Depression subscale. Test-retest Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) is 0.35 and 0.42 for Anxiety and Depression Subscale, respectively. Small mean differences were observed at test-retest measurement with ESI of 0.21 for Anxiety and 0.19 for Depression. Non-significant result was revealed for the discriminant validity (mastectomy vs lumpectomy). The Malay Version of the HADS is appropriate to measure the anxiety and depression among the husbands of the women with breast cancer in Malaysia.
    Study site: Oncology clinic, University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  11. Al-Naggar RA, Chen R
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(4):1023-9.
    PMID: 21790245
    The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence and associated factors of vitamin-mineral supplements use among Management and Science University students. The cross-sectional study protocol was approved by the Ethics and Research Committee and questionnaires were distributed randomly using simple random sampling to students from all faculties and consent was obtained. The data were analyzed using the SPSS version 13. Total number of the participants in this study is 105. More than half of them were female, older than 20 years of age and Malay (58.1%, 61.9 and 61.9% respectively). The prevalence of vitamin-mineral supplement use was 43%, the main reasons being 'to maintain good health' 80%, followed by 'to ensure adequate nutrition' (10.5%). There was a significant positive association with monthly household income and BMI (P=0.039; P=0.048), with significant dependence on race and knowledge about vitamin-mineral supplements (P=0.002). There was a significant difference between medical and health sciences as compared to non-medical and health science faculties (p =0.05). The conclusion is that although the prevalence of vitamin-mineral supplement use among university students is relatively high, many of them do not have accurate information about supplements. Therefore, there is a need to provide them with education and access to scientific and unbiased information.
  12. Heah KG, Hassan MI, Huat SC
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(4):1017-22.
    PMID: 21790244
    INTRODUCTION: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has high local recurrence, partly caused by the lack of clear margin identification on surgical removal of cancerous tissues. Direct visualization by immunostaining and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) in tissue sections gives more definite information about genetic damage at margins with appropriately selected biomarkers.

    AIMS: To determine the usefulness of immunohistochemical techniques and FISH of the tumour suppressor TP 53 gene to identify microinvasion in marginal tissue sections and to relate the possible correlation between protein expression and genetic aberrations in OSCC cases in Malaysia.

    METHODS: Immunohistochemistry and FISH of TP 53 genes were applied on 26 OSCC formalin fixed paraffin embed (FFEP) blocks selected from two oral cancer referral centers in Malaysia.

    RESULTS: For p53 protein immunohistochemistry, 96% of the 26 OSCC studied showed positive immunostaining at the excision margins. In FISH assay, 48.9±9.7% of the cancerous cells were monoploid for p53 probe signals, 41.0±9.5 % were diploid, and 10.2±7.8 % were polyploid. A correlation between p53 immunostaining and TP53 gene aberrations was noted (p< 0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: Immunohistochemical analysis of p53 protein expression and FISH of TP53 gene could be applied as screening tool for microinvasion of OSCC.

  13. Mohd Hashim S, Tong SF, Omar K, Abdul Rashid MR, Shah SA, Sagap I
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(8):2007-11.
    PMID: 22292642
    BACKGROUND: Knowledge is believed to be a driving factor for patients' early presentation for healthcare. This study was conducted to assess knowledge of colorectal cancer among subjects presenting with rectal bleeding and to determine its association with late presentation.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 80 patients with rectal bleeding, aged 40 and above, was conducted between December 2008 and June 2009 in the endoscopy unit, University Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre. The research instruments used in this study was a self-administered questionnaire including data on duration of rectal bleeding, first medical consultation and knowledge of colorectal cancer.

    RESULTS: Sixty percent of subjects with rectal bleeding delayed seeking medical advice. Subjects were more aware of symptoms of non-colorectal cancers compared to symptoms of colorectal cancer. The majority of subjects (63.8%) correctly identified rectal bleeding as a symptom but were not aware of the best screening method to detect colorectal cancer. Half of the subjects knew increasing age and genetic background to be risk factors for colorectal carcinoma. However, knowledge of colorectal cancer was not found to be significantly associated with delay in seeking help.

    CONCLUSION: Findings indicate poor awareness of colorectal cancer among the subjects. Although public education of colorectal cancer is important for early presentation on rectal bleeding, further studies are advocated to evaluate other factors influencing patients' help seeking behavior other than knowledge.
  14. Harmy MY, Norwati D, Noor NM, Amry AR
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(8):1957-60.
    PMID: 22292632
    Colorectal cancer is the commonest cancer among males and the third commonest cancer among women in Malaysia. However, almost 80% of patients sought treatment for cancer only when they were already in late stage due to lack of awareness. Hence, the objectives of this study were to determine the knowledge and attitude of colorectal cancer screening among moderate risk patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted between August 2009 till April 2010 in 44 health clinics with Family Medicine Specialists in West Malaysia. Stratified multistage random sampling was applied and a validated Malay version of the questionnaire with the Cronbach' alpha of 0.65 to 0.82 was used. Data were entered using SPSS 12.0 and analysed with STATA 8.0. A total of 1,905 (93.8%) patients responded. The mean (SD) knowledge and attitude score among moderate risk patients were 69.5 (6.11%) and 66.5 (7.07%), whereas, the percentages for good knowledge and attitude were 4.1% and 3.3% respectively. Less than 1% had undergone colorectal cancer screening and the main reasons were not bothered, busy and embarrassment. The majority of patients who had moderate risk for colorectal cancer had extremely low knowledge and attitude towards colorectal cancer screening. As a result, the majority did not undergo any form of colorectal cancer screening.
  15. Al-Naggar RA, Bobryshev YV
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(8):2045-9.
    PMID: 22292648
    OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to determine the practice of HPV vaccine among Malaysian women in the general population.
    METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 233 women during the Academic Year 2010/2011. Written consent was obtained from the participants and written information about the study was given enclosed with the questionnaire form, consisting of questions on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge about HPV and practice of HPV vaccination. The protocol was approved by the ethics committee of Management and Science University (MSU). Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 13. The T-test and ANOVA test were used to explore the relation between socio-demographic characteristics and the practice of HPV vaccine.
    RESULTS: The majority of the participants were from the age group 17-30 years old, Malay, single and having tertiary education (67.8, 62.7, 62.2, 86.3%; respectively). As for knowledge, the majority of them heard about HPV (82.4%), knew that multiple sex partners increase the risk (71.7%). Regarding the practice of HPV vaccine among respondents, slightly more than half had been vaccinated (51.5%). Regarding the factors that influenced the practice of HPV vaccine among general population; age, marital status and family monthly income were significant (p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.001; respectively).
    CONCLUSION: Age, marital status and income significantly influence the practice of HPV vaccine. Therefore promotion of HPV vaccine and inclusion in the national vaccination program is very important for primary prevention of cervical cancer among women.
  16. Voon NS, Chelliah KK
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(8):1969-72.
    PMID: 22292635
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of dietary habit on breast density, which is an important risk factor for breast cancer. This cross-sectional study was performed on 64 Malaysian women of all races between the age of 35 to 70 years. All subjects underwent mammography and the breast density was analyzed from the images using BI-RADS by two independent radiologists. A validated food-frequency questionnaire was used to evaluate the nutrient intake. The data were analyzed using Chi-square test to evaluate the association of dietary habits to breast density. Based on the results, mutton, pork, vegetables, sweets, snacks, soy bean and eggs intake showed associations with increased breast density (p < 0.05) while grains, meat, beverages, oil and fruits, did not show any association (p > 0.05). As a conclusion, this study showed diet may make changes to the breast density as a risk factor for breast cancer.
  17. Kanaga KC, Nithiya J, Shatirah MF
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(8):1965-7.
    PMID: 22292634
    Breast cancer is the most frequently occurring cancer in women globally and early detection increases the survival rate of patients. Therefore, this study was done to determine factors which influence the awareness of breast cancer and practice of screening procedures. A cross-sectional study was performed on 125 women aged 19-60 years in urban and rural areas in Malaysia using a validated questionnaire covering knowledge of breast cancer and screening practices. A total of 99.2% respondents knew that breast cancer is the leading cancer with a mean knowledge of 67.3 ± 15.3% for urban and 50.2 ± 14.7% for rural women Mann Whitney U showed rural women had significantly less awareness compared to urban women (p< 0.05). Spearman correlation test showed a significant positive relationship between education and awareness (p< 0.05). Regarding awareness of the screening methods, 92.8%, 50.4% and 47.2% of respondents correctly answered questions on capability of BSE, CBE and mammography, respectively. In conclusion, the study showed awareness of breast cancer and practice of screening procedures increases with higher education and urban living. Therefore, there is an urgent need for an intensive breast cancer awareness campaign and availablity of screening centres prioritized in rural areas.
  18. Amid A, Wan Chik WD, Jamal P, Hashim YZ
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(12):6319-25.
    PMID: 23464452
    We previously found cytotoxic effects of tomato leaf extract (TLE) on the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. The aim of this study was to ascertain the molecular mechanisms associated with the usage of TLE as an anticancer agent by microarray analysis using mRNA from MCF-7 breast cancer cells after treatment with TLE for 1 hr and 48 hrs. Approximately 991 genes out of the 30,000 genes in the human genome were significantly (p<0.05) changed after the treatment. Within this gene set, 88 were significantly changed between the TLE treated cells and the untreated MCF-7 cells (control cells) with a cut-off fold change >2.00. In order to focus on genes that were involved in cancer cell growth, only twenty-nine genes were selected, either down-regulated or up-regulated after treatment with TLE. Microarray assay results were confirmed by analyzing 10 of the most up and down regulated genes related to cancer cells progression using real-time PCR. Treatment with TLE induced significant up-regulation in the expression of the CRYAB, PIM1, BTG1, CYR61, HIF1-α and CEBP-β genes after 1 hr and 48 hrs, whereas the TXNIP and THBS1 genes were up-regulated after 1 hr of treatment but down-regulated after 48 hrs. In addition both the HMG1L1 and HIST2H3D genes were down-regulated after 1 hr and 48 hrs of treatment. These results demonstrate the potent activity of TLE as an anticancer agent.
  19. Nor Hashim NA, Ramzi NH, Velapasamy S, Alex L, Chahil JK, Lye SH, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(12):6005-10.
    PMID: 23464394
    BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is endemic in Southern Chinese and Southeast Asian populations. Geographical and ethnic clustering of the cancer is due to genetic, environmental, and lifestyle risk factors. This case-control study aimed to identify or confirm both genetic and non-genetic risk factors for NPC in one of the endemic countries, Malaysia.

    MATERIALS AND METHOD: A panel of 768 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with various cancers and known non-genetic risk factors for NPC were selected and analyzed for their associations with NPC in a case-control study.

    RESULTS: Statistical analysis identified 40 SNPs associated with NPC risk in our population, including 5 documented previously by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and other case-control studies; the associations of the remaining 35 SNPs with NPC were novel. In addition, consistent with previous studies, exposure to occupational hazards, overconsumption of salt-cured foods, red meat, as well as low intake of fruits and vegetables were also associated with NPC risk.

    CONCLUSIONS: In short, this study confirmed and/or identified genetic, environmental and dietary risk factors associated with NPC susceptibility in a Southeast Asian population.

  20. Ainuddin HA, Loh SY, Low WY, Sapihis M, Roslani AC
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(12):6289-94.
    PMID: 23464447
    BACKGROUND: Research evidence suggests a debilitating impact of the diagnosis of cancer on the quality of life of the afflicted individuals, their spouses and their families. However, relatively few studies have been carried out on the impact on the QOL of adolescents living with parents diagnosed with cancer. This paper presents a sub- analysis on the impact of parental cancer (colorectal, breast and lung) on adolescents.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study on adolescents aged 13-18 years old. Upon ethical clearance obtained from UMMC Medical Ethics Committee, patients with colorectal, breast or lung cancer and their adolescent children were recruited from the Clinical Oncology Unit of University of Malaya Medical Centre. Respondents who gave consent completed a demographic questionnaire and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, via the post, email, home visit or meetings at the clinics.

    RESULTS: 95 adolescents from 50 families responded, giving a response rate of 88 percent. The adolescent's mean age was 16 years (ranging between 13-18 years). Adolescents with parental cancer had the lowest mean score in emotional functioning (p<0.05). Male adolescents had significantly higher quality of life overall and in physical functioning compared to female adolescents. Adolescents with a father with cancer had better school functioning compared to adolescents whose mothers had cancer. Families with household income of RM 5000 and above have significantly better quality of life compared to families with lower household income.

    CONCLUSIONS: Adolescent sons and daughters of parents with a cancer diagnosis show lowered QOL, particularly with reference to emotional functioning and school performance. Addressing the needs of this young group has been slow and warrants special attention. Revisiting the risk and resilience factors of adolescents might also inform tailored programs to address the needs of this neglected adolescent population.

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