Curcuminoids derived from turmeric rhizome have been reported to exhibit antinociceptive, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. We evaluated the peripheral and central antinociceptive activities of 5-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxy-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)penta-2,4-dien-1-one (DHHPD), a novel synthetic curcuminoid analogue at 0.1, 0.3, 1 and 3 mg/kg (intraperitoneal), through chemical and thermal models of nociception. The effects of DHHPD on the vanilloid and glutamatergic systems were evaluated through the capsaicin- and glutamate-induced paw licking tests. Results showed that DHHPD significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated the writhing response produced by the 0.8% acetic acid injection. In addition, 1 and 3 mg/kg of DHHPD significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the licking time spent by each mouse in both phases of the 2.5% formalin test and increased the response latency of mice on the hot-plate. However, the effect produced in the latter was not reversed by naloxone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist. Despite this, DHHPD decreased the licking latency of mice in the capsaicin- and glutamate-induced paw licking tests in a dose response manner. In conclusion, DHHPD showed excellent peripheral and central antinociceptive activities possibly by attenuation of the synthesis and/or release of pro-inflammatory mediators in addition to modulation of the vanilloid and glutamatergic systems without an apparent effect on the opioidergic system.
Curcumin, derived from the rhizome Curcuma longa, has been scientifically proven to possess anti-inflammatory activity but is of limited clinical and veterinary use owing to its low bioavailability and poor solubility. Hence, analogs of curcuminoids with improved biological properties have been synthesized to overcome these limitations. This study aims to provide the pharmacological basis for the use of 5-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxy-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)penta-2,4-dien-1-one (DHHPD), a synthetic curcuminoid analog, as an anti-edematogenic and anti-granuloma agent. The carrageenan-induced paw edema and the cotton pellet-induced granuloma assays were used to assess the anti-inflammatory activity of DHHPD in mice. The effects of DHHPD on the histaminergic, serotonergic, and bradykininergic systems were determined by the histamine-, serotonin-, and bradykinin-induced paw edema tests, respectively. DHHPD (0.1, 0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) evoked significant reductions (p < 0.05) in carrageenan-induced paw edema at different time intervals and granuloma formation (p < 0.0001) by 22.08, 32.57, 37.20, and 49.25%, respectively. Furthermore, DHHPD significantly reduced paw edema (p < 0.05) induced by histamine, serotonin, and bradykinin. The present study suggests that DHHPD exerts anti-edematogenic activity, possibly by inhibiting the synthesis or release of autacoid mediators of inflammation through the histaminergic, serotonergic, and bradykininergic systems. The anti-granuloma effect may be attributed to the suppression of transudative, exudative, and proliferative activities associated with inflammation.