Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 489 in total

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  1. Razavi M, Nyamathulla S, Karimian H, Moghadamtousi SZ, Noordin MI
    Molecules, 2014;19(9):13909-31.
    PMID: 25197930 DOI: 10.3390/molecules190913909
    The gastroretentive dosage form of famotidine was modified using tamarind seed powders to prolong the gastric retention time. Tamarind seeds were used in two different forms having different swelling and gelling properties: with husk (TSP) or without husk (TKP). TKP (TKP1 to TKP 6) and TSP (TSP1 to TSP 6) series were prepared using tamarind powder:xanthan in the ratios of 5:0, 4:1, 3:2, 2:3, 1:4, 0:5, respectively. The matrix tablets were prepared by the wet granulation method and evaluated for pharmacopoeial requirements. TKP2 was the optimum formulation as it had a short floating lag time (FLT<30 s) and more than 98.5% drug release in 12 h. The dissolution data were fitted to popular mathematical models to assess the mechanism of drug release, and the optimum formulation showed a predominant first order release and diffusion mechanism. It was concluded that the TKP2 prepared using tamarind kernel powder:xanthan (4:1) was the optimum formulation with shortest floating lag time and more than 90% release in the determined period of time.
  2. Nafi' A, Ling FH, Bakar J, Ghazali HM
    Molecules, 2014 Aug 15;19(8):12336-48.
    PMID: 25153861 DOI: 10.3390/molecules190812336
    Extraction of protease from a local ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale var. Bentong) was carried out. The effect of extraction pH (6.4, 6.8, 7.0, 7.2, 7.6, 8.0, 8.4, and 8.8) and stabilizers (0.2% ascorbic acid, 0.2% ascorbic acid and 5 mM EDTA, or 10 mM cysteine and 5 mM EDTA) on protease activity during extraction was examined. pH 7.0 potassium phosphate buffer and 10 mM cysteine in combination with 5 mM EDTA as stabilizer were found to be the most effective conditions. The extraction procedure yielded 0.73% of Bentong ginger protease (BGP) with a specific activity of 24.8±0.2 U/mg protein. Inhibitory tests with some protease inhibitors classified the enzyme as a cysteine protease. The protease showed optimum activity at 60 °C and pH 6-8, respectively. The enzyme was completely inhibited by heavy metal cations such as Cu2+, and Hg2+. SDS stimulated the activity of enzyme, while emulsifiers (Tween 80 and Tween 20) slightly reduced its activity. The kinetic analysis showed that the protease has Km and Vmax values of 0.21 mg mL-1 and 34.48 mg mL-1 min-1, respectively. The dried enzyme retained its activity for 22 months when stored at -20 °C.
  3. Tay PY, Tan CP, Abas F, Yim HS, Ho CW
    Molecules, 2014 Aug 14;19(8):12304-19.
    PMID: 25153858 DOI: 10.3390/molecules190812304
    The effects of ethanol concentration (0%-100%, v/v), solid-to-solvent ratio (1:10-1:60, w/v) and extraction time (30-180 min) on the extraction of polyphenols from agarwood (Aquilaria crassna) were examined. Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and total flavanol (TF) assays and HPLC-DAD were used for the determination and quantification of polyphenols, flavanol gallates (epigallocatechin gallate--EGCG and epicatechin gallate--ECG) and a benzophenone (iriflophenone 3-C-β-glucoside) from the crude polyphenol extract (CPE) of A. crassna. 2,2'-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity was used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of the CPE. Experimental results concluded that ethanol concentration and solid-to-solvent ratio had significant effects (p<0.05) on the yields of polyphenol and antioxidant capacity. Extraction time had an insignificant influence on the recovery of EGCG, ECG and iriflophenone 3-C-β-glucoside, as well as radical scavenging capacity from the CPE. The extraction parameters that exhibited maximum yields were 40% (v/v) ethanol, 1:60 (w/v) for 30 min where the TPC, TFC, TF, DPPH, EGCG, ECG and iriflophenone 3-C-β-glucoside levels achieved were 183.5 mg GAE/g DW, 249.0 mg QE/g DW, 4.9 mg CE/g DW, 93.7%, 29.1 mg EGCG/g DW, 44.3 mg ECG/g DW and 39.9 mg iriflophenone 3-C-β-glucoside/g DW respectively. The IC50 of the CPE was 24.6 mg/L.
  4. Ho SK, Tan CP, Thoo YY, Abas F, Ho CW
    Molecules, 2014 Aug 19;19(8):12640-59.
    PMID: 25153876 DOI: 10.3390/molecules190812640
    Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) with ethanol was used to extract the compounds responsible for the antioxidant activities of Misai Kucing (Orthosiphon stamineus). Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize four independent variables: ethanol concentration (%), amplitude (%), duty cycle (W/s) and extraction time (min). Antioxidant compounds were determined by total phenolic content and total flavonoid content to be 1.4 g gallic acid equivalent/100 g DW and 45 g catechin equivalent/100 g DW, respectively. Antioxidant activities were evaluated using the 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•+) radical scavenging capacity assay and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavenging capacity assay to be 1,961.3 and 2,423.3 µmol Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC)/100 g DW, respectively. Based on the optimal conditions, experimental values were reported to be close to the predicted value by RSM modeling (p>0.05), indicating the suitability of UAE for extracting the antioxidants of Misai Kucing. Rosmarinic acid, kaempferol-rutinoside and sinesetine were identified by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
  5. Loo JL, Khoramnia A, Lai OM, Long K, Ghazali HM
    Molecules, 2014 Jun 23;19(6):8556-70.
    PMID: 24959682 DOI: 10.3390/molecules19068556
    Mycelium-bound lipase (MBL), from a locally isolated Geotrichum candidum strain, was produced and characterized as a natural immobilized lipase. A time course study of its lipolytic activity in 1 L liquid broth revealed the maximum MBL activity at 4 h for mycelium cells harvested after 54 h. The yield and specific activity of MBL were 3.87 g/L dry weight and 508.33 U/g protein, respectively, while less than 0.2 U/mL lipase activity was detected in the culture supernatant. Prolonged incubation caused release of the bound lipase into the growth medium. The growth pattern of G. candidum, and production and properties of MBL were not affected by the scale. The stability of mycelia harboring lipase (MBL), harvested and lyophilized after 54 h, studied at 4 °C depicted a loss of 4.3% and 30% in MBL activity after 1 and 8 months, while the activity of free lipase was totally lost after 14 days of storage. The MBL from G. candidum displayed high substrate selectivity for unsaturated fatty acids containing a cis-9 double bond, even in crude form. This unique specificity of MBL could be a direct, simple and inexpensive way in the fats and oil industry for the selective hydrolysis or transesterification of cis-9 fatty acid residues in natural triacylglycerols.
  6. Cheong KW, Mirhosseini H, Hamid NS, Osman A, Basri M, Tan CP
    Molecules, 2014 Jun 24;19(6):8691-706.
    PMID: 24962400 DOI: 10.3390/molecules19068691
    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of main emulsion components namely, modified starch, propylene glycol alginate (PGA), sucrose laurate and sucrose stearate on creaming index, cloudiness, average droplet size and conductivity of soursop beverage emulsions. Generally, the use of different emulsifiers or a mixture of emulsifiers has a significant (p < 0.05) effect on the response variables studied. The addition of PGA had a significant (p < 0.05) effect on the creaming index at 55 °C, while PGA-stabilized (PGA1) emulsions showed low creaming stability at both 25 °C and 55 °C. Conversely, the utilization of PGA either as a mixture or sole emulsifier, showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher cloudiness, as larger average droplet size will affect the refractive index of the oil and aqueous phases. Additionally, the cloudiness was directly proportional to the mean droplet size of the dispersed phase. The inclusion of PGA into the formulation could have disrupted the properties of the interfacial film, thus resulting in larger droplet size. While unadsorbed ionized PGA could have contributed to higher conductivity of emulsions prepared at low pH. Generally, emulsions prepared using sucrose monoesters or as a mixture with modified starch emulsions have significantly (p < 0.05) lower creaming index and conductivity values, but higher cloudiness and average droplet size.
  7. Yusof R, Abdulmalek E, Sirat K, Rahman MB
    Molecules, 2014 Jun 13;19(6):8011-26.
    PMID: 24932572 DOI: 10.3390/molecules19068011
    Density, viscosity and ionic conductivity data sets of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) formed by tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBABr) paired with ethlyene glycol, 1,3-propanediol, 1,5-pentanediol and glycerol hydrogen bond donors (HBDs) are reported. The properties of DES were measured at temperatures between 303 K and 333 K for HBD percentages of 66.7% to 90%. The effects of HBDs under different temperature and percentages are systematically analyzed. As expected, the measured density and viscosity of the studied DESs decreased with an increase in temperature, while ionic conductivity increases with temperature. In general, DESs made of TBABr and glycerol showed the highest density and viscosity and the lowest ionic conductivity when compared to other DESs. The presence of an extra hydroxyl group on glycerol in a DES affected the properties of the DES.
  8. See I, Ee GC, Teh SS, Kadir AA, Daud S
    Molecules, 2014 Jun 04;19(6):7308-16.
    PMID: 24901833 DOI: 10.3390/molecules19067308
    A detailed chemical study on the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the stem bark of Garcinia mangostana resulted in the successful isolation of one new prenylated xanthone, mangaxanthone B (1), one new benzophenone, mangaphenone (2), and two known xanthones, mangostanin (3) and mangostenol (4). The structures of these compounds were elucidated through analysis of their spectroscopic data obtained using 1D and 2D NMR and MS techniques.
  9. Amid M, Manap Y, Zohdi NK
    Molecules, 2014 May 22;19(5):6635-50.
    PMID: 24858097 DOI: 10.3390/molecules19056635
    The purification of thermo-acidic amylase enzyme from red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) peel for the first time was investigated using a novel aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) consisting of a thermo-separating copolymer and an organic solvent. The effectiveness of different parameters such as molecular weight of the thermo-separating ethylene oxide-propylene oxide (EOPO) copolymer and type and concentration of organic solvent on the partitioning behavior of amylase was investigated. In addition, the effects of phase components, volume ratio (VR), pH and crude load of purification factor and yield of amylase were evaluated to achieve the optimum partition conditions of the enzyme. In the novel ATPS method, the enzyme was satisfactorily partitioned into the polymer-rich top phase in the system composed of 30% (w/w) EOPO 2500 and 15% (w/w) 2-propanol, at a volume ratio of 1.94 and with a crude load scale of 25% (w/w) at pH 5.0. Recovery and recycling of components was also measured in each successive step of the ATPS process. The enzyme was successfully recovered by the method with a high purification factor of 14.3 and yield of 96.6% and copolymer was also recovered and recycled at a rate above 97%, making the method was more economical than the traditional ATPS method.
  10. Rahman AA, Makpol S, Jamal R, Harun R, Mokhtar N, Ngah WZ
    Molecules, 2014 Sep 12;19(9):14528-41.
    PMID: 25221872 DOI: 10.3390/molecules190914528
    Plant bioactives [6]-gingerol (GING), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and asiaticoside (AS) and vitamin E, such as tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF), have been reported to possess anticancer activity. In this study, we investigated the apoptotic properties of these bioactive compounds alone or in combination on glioma cancer cells. TRF, GING, EGCG and AS were tested for cytotoxicity on glioma cell lines 1321N1 (Grade II), SW1783 (Grade III) and LN18 (Grade IV) in culture by the (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxy-phenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt) (MTS) assay. With the exception of AS, combinations of two compounds were tested, and the interactions of each combination were evaluated by the combination index (CI) using an isobologram. Different grades of glioma cancer cells showed different cytotoxic responses to the compounds, where in 1321N1 and LN18 cells, the combination of EGCG + GING exhibited a synergistic effect with CI = 0.77 and CI = 0.55, respectively. In contrast, all combinations tested (TRF + GING, TRF + EGCG and EGCG + GING) were found to be antagonistic on SW1783 with CI values of 1.29, 1.39 and 1.39, respectively. Combined EGCG + GING induced apoptosis in both 1321N1 and LN18 cells, as evidenced by Annexin-V FITC/PI staining and increased active caspase-3. Our current data suggests that the combination of EGCG + GING synergistically induced apoptosis and inhibits the proliferation 1321N1 and LN18 cells, but not SW1783 cells, which may be due to their different genetic profiles.
  11. Ng CH, Rullah K, Aluwi MF, Abas F, Lam KW, Ismail IS, et al.
    Molecules, 2014;19(8):11645-59.
    PMID: 25100256 DOI: 10.3390/molecules190811645
    The natural product molecule 2,4,6-trihydroxy-3-geranyl-acetophenone (tHGA) isolated from the medicinal plant Melicope ptelefolia was shown to exhibit potent lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitory activity. It is known that LOX plays an important role in inflammatory response as it catalyzes the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic acid to form hydroperoxides. The search for selective LOX inhibitors may provide new therapeutic approach for inflammatory diseases. Herein, we report the synthesis of tHGA analogs using simple Friedel-Craft acylation and alkylation reactions with the aim of obtaining a better insight into the structure-activity relationships of the compounds. All the synthesized analogs showed potent soybean 15-LOX inhibitory activity in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 = 10.31-27.61 μM) where compound 3e was two-fold more active than tHGA. Molecular docking was then applied to reveal the important binding interactions of compound 3e in soybean 15-LOX binding site. The findings suggest that the presence of longer acyl bearing aliphatic chain (5Cs) and aromatic groups could significantly affect the enzymatic activity.
  12. Zia-Ul-Haq M, Riaz M, De Feo V, Jaafar HZ, Moga M
    Molecules, 2014 Jul 28;19(8):10998-1029.
    PMID: 25072202 DOI: 10.3390/molecules190810998
    Rubus fruticosus L. is a shrub famous for its fruit called blackberry fruit or more commonly blackberry. The fruit has medicinal, cosmetic and nutritive value. It is a concentrated source of valuable nutrients, as well as bioactive constituents of therapeutic interest highlighting its importance as a functional food. Besides use as a fresh fruit, it is also used as ingredient in cooked dishes, salads and bakery products like jams, snacks, desserts, and fruit preserves. R. fruticosus contains vitamins, steroids and lipids in seed oil and minerals, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenes, acids and tannins in aerial parts that possess diverse pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial anti-diabetic, anti-diarrheal, and antiviral. Various agrogeoclimatological factors like cultivar, environmental conditions of the area, agronomic practices employed, harvest time, post-harvest storage and processing techniques all influence the nutritional composition of blackberry fruit. This review focuses on the nutrients and chemical constituents as well as medicinal properties of different parts of R. fruticosus. Various cultivars and their physicochemical characteristics, polyphenolic content and ascorbic acid content are also discussed. The information in the present work will serve as baseline data and may lead to new biomedical applications of R. fruticosus as functional food.
  13. Sekeli R, Abdullah JO, Namasivayam P, Muda P, Abu Bakar UK, Yeong WC, et al.
    Molecules, 2014 Jun 19;19(6):8350-62.
    PMID: 24950439 DOI: 10.3390/molecules19068350
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using RNA interference in down regulating the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene in Eksotika papaya. One-month old embryogenic calli were separately transformed with Agrobacterium strain LBA 4404 harbouring the three different RNAi pOpOff2 constructs bearing the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene. A total of 176 putative transformed lines were produced from 15,000 calli transformed, selected, then regenerated on medium supplemented with kanamycin. Integration and expression of the targeted gene in putatively transformed lines were verified by PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Confined field evaluation of a total of 31 putative transgenic lines planted showed a knockdown expression of the targeted ACO1 and ACO2 genes in 13 lines, which required more than 8 days to achieve the full yellow colour (Index 6). Fruits harvested from lines pRNAiACO2 L2-9 and pRNAiACO1 L2 exhibited about 20 and 14 days extended post-harvest shelf life to reach Index 6, respectively. The total soluble solids contents of the fruits ranged from 11 to 14° Brix, a range similar to fruits from non-transformed, wild type seed-derived plants.
  14. Aziz AN, Taha M, Ismail NH, Anouar el H, Yousuf S, Jamil W, et al.
    Molecules, 2014 Jun 19;19(6):8414-33.
    PMID: 24950444 DOI: 10.3390/molecules19068414
    Schiff bases of 3,4-dimethoxybenzenamine 1-25 were synthesized and evaluated for their antioxidant activity. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by various spectroscopic techniques. In addition, the characterizations of compounds 13, 15 and 16 were supported by crystal X-ray determinations and their geometrical parameters were compared with theoretical DFT calculations at the B3LYP level of theory. Furthermore, the X-ray crystal data of two non-crystalline compounds 8 and 18 were theoretically calculated and compared with the practical values of compounds 13, 15, 16 and found a good agreement. The compounds showed good DPPH scavenging activity ranging from 10.12 to 84.34 μM where compounds 1-4 and 6 showed stronger activity than the standard n-propyl gallate. For the superoxide anion radical assay, compounds 1-3 showed better activity than the standard.
  15. Usman MG, Rafii MY, Ismail MR, Malek MA, Latif MA
    Molecules, 2014 May 21;19(5):6474-88.
    PMID: 24853712 DOI: 10.3390/molecules19056474
    Research was carried out to estimate the levels of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin that may be found in some heat tolerant chili pepper genotypes and to determine the degree of pungency as well as percentage capsaicin content of each of the analyzed peppers. A sensitive, precise, and specific ultra fast liquid chromatographic (UFLC) system was used for the separation, identification and quantitation of the capsaicinoids and the extraction solvent was acetonitrile. The method validation parameters, including linearity, precision, accuracy and recovery, yielded good results. Thus, the limit of detection was 0.045 µg/kg and 0.151 µg/kg for capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, respectively, whereas the limit of quantitation was 0.11 µg/kg and 0.368 µg/kg for capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin. The calibration graph was linear from 0.05 to 0.50 µg/g for UFLC analysis. The inter- and intra-day precisions (relative standard deviation) were <5.0% for capsaicin and <9.9% for dihydrocapsaicin while the average recoveries obtained were quantitative (89.4%-90.1% for capsaicin, 92.4%-95.2% for dihydrocapsaicin), indicating good accuracy of the UFLC method. AVPP0705, AVPP0506, AVPP0104, AVPP0002, C05573 and AVPP0805 showed the highest concentration of capsaicin (12,776, 5,828, 4,393, 4,760, 3,764 and 4,120 µg/kg) and the highest pungency level, whereas AVPP9703, AVPP0512, AVPP0307, AVPP0803 and AVPP0102 recorded no detection of capsaicin and hence were non-pungent. All chili peppers studied except AVPP9703, AVPP0512, AVPP0307, AVPP0803 and AVPP0102 could serve as potential sources of capsaicin. On the other hand, only genotypes AVPP0506, AVPP0104, AVPP0002, C05573 and AVPP0805 gave a % capsaicin content that falls within the pungency limit that could make them recommendable as potential sources of capsaicin for the pharmaceutical industry.
  16. Hajjouli S, Chateauvieux S, Teiten MH, Orlikova B, Schumacher M, Dicato M, et al.
    Molecules, 2014 Sep 16;19(9):14649-66.
    PMID: 25230121 DOI: 10.3390/molecules190914649
    Eurycomanone and eurycomanol are two quassinoids from the roots of Eurycoma longifolia Jack. The aim of this study was to assess the bioactivity of these compounds in Jurkat and K562 human leukemia cell models compared to peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors. Both eurycomanone and eurycomanol inhibited Jurkat and K562 cell viability and proliferation without affecting healthy cells. Interestingly, eurycomanone inhibited NF-κB signaling through inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation and upstream mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, but not eurycomanol. In conclusion, both quassinoids present differential toxicity towards leukemia cells, and the presence of the α,β-unsaturated ketone in eurycomanone could be prerequisite for the NF-κB inhibition.
  17. Ahmed S, Gul S, Idris F, Hussain A, Zia-Ul-Haq M, Jaafar HZ, et al.
    Molecules, 2014;19(8):11385-94.
    PMID: 25090125 DOI: 10.3390/molecules190811385
    Human plasma inhibits arachidonic acid metabolism and platelet aggregation. This helps human form a haemostatic control system that prevents the progress of certain aggregatory or inflammatory reactions. Whether this property of plasma is unique to human or extends to other species is not well known. It is speculated that this protective ability of plasma remains evolutionarily conserved in different mammals. In order to confirm this, the effect of plasma from 12 different mammalian species was investigated for its inhibitory potential against arachidonic acid metabolism and platelet aggregation. Metabolism of arachidonic acid by cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways was studies using radio-immuno assay and thin layer chromatography while platelet aggregation in the plasma of various mammals was monitored following turbedmetric method in a dual channel aggregometer. Results indicate that inhibition of AA metabolism and platelet aggregation is a common feature of plasma obtained from different mammalian species, although there exists large interspecies variation. This shows that besides human, other mammals also possess general protective mechanisms against various aggregatory and inflammatory conditions and this anti-inflammatory property of the plasma is evolutionarily conserved in mammalian species. The most likely candidates responsible for these properties of plasma include haptoglobin, albumin and lipoproteins.
  18. Fun HK, Chantrapromma S, Ong LH
    Molecules, 2014 Jul 11;19(7):10137-49.
    PMID: 25019557 DOI: 10.3390/molecules190710137
    Crystals of 1,6-hexanedioic acid (I) undergo a temperature-dependent reversible phase transition from monoclinic P21/c at a temperature higher than the critical temperature (Tc) 130 K to another monoclinic P21/c at temperature lower than Tc. The phase transition is of first order, involving a discontinuity and a tripling of the b-axis at Tc whereas the other unit cell parameters vary continuously. The transition is described by the phenomenological Landau theory. The crystal structure analyses for data collected at 297(2) K and 120.0(1) K show that there is half of a molecule of (I) in the asymmetric unit at 297(2) K whereas there are one and a half molecules of (I) in the asymmetric unit at 120.0(1) K. At both temperatures, 297(2) and 120.0(1) K, intermolecular O-H···O hydrogen bonds link the molecules of I into infinite 1D chains along [101] direction. However there are significantly more O-H···O hydrogen bonds presented in the 120.0(1) K polymorph, thereby indicating this phase transition is negotiated via hydrogen bonds. The relationship of the conformational changes and hydrogen bonding for these two polymorphs are explained in detail.
  19. Bukhari SA, Shamshari WA, Ur-Rahman M, Zia-Ul-Haq M, Jaafar HZ
    Molecules, 2014 Jul 11;19(7):10129-36.
    PMID: 25019556 DOI: 10.3390/molecules190710129
    Diabetes mellitus is a life threatening disease and scientists are doing their best to find a cost effective and permanent treatment of this malady. The recent trend is to control the disease by target base inhibiting of enzymes or proteins. Secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (SFRP4) is found to cause five times more risk of diabetes when expressed above average levels. This study was therefore designed to analyze the SFRP4 and to find its potential inhibitors. SFRP4 was analyzed by bio-informatics tools of sequence tool and structure tool. A total of three potential inhibitors of SFRP4 were found, namely cyclothiazide, clopamide and perindopril. These inhibitors showed significant interactions with SFRP4 as compared to other inhibitors as well as control (acetohexamide). The findings suggest the possible treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 by inhibiting the SFRP4 using the inhibitors cyclothiazide, clopamide and perindopril.
  20. Khor YP, Koh SP, Long K, Long S, Ahmad SZ, Tan CP
    Molecules, 2014 Jul 01;19(7):9187-202.
    PMID: 24988188 DOI: 10.3390/molecules19079187
    Food manufacturers are interested in developing emulsion-based products into nutritional foods by using beneficial oils, such as fish oil and virgin coconut oil (VCO). In this study, the physicochemical properties of a VCO oil-in-water emulsion was investigated and compared to other commercial oil-in-water emulsion products (C1, C2, C3, and C4). C3 exhibited the smallest droplet size of 3.25 µm. The pH for the emulsion samples ranged from 2.52 to 4.38 and thus were categorised as acidic. In a texture analysis, C2 was described as the most firm, very adhesive and cohesive, as well as having high compressibility properties. From a rheological viewpoint, all the emulsion samples exhibited non-Newtonian behaviour, which manifested as a shear-thinning property. The G'G'' crossover illustrated by the VCO emulsion in the amplitude sweep graph but not the other commercial samples illustrated that the VCO emulsion had a better mouthfeel. In this context, the VCO emulsion yielded the highest zeta potential (64.86 mV), which was attributed to its strong repulsive forces, leading to a good dispersion system. C2 comprised the highest percentage of fat among all emulsion samples, followed by the VCO emulsion, with 18.44% and 6.59%, respectively.
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