Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 693 in total

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  1. Sabandar CW, Ahmat N, Jaafar FM, Sahidin I
    Phytochemistry, 2013 Jan;85:7-29.
    PMID: 23153517 DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2012.10.009
    The genus Jatropha (Euphorbiaceae) comprises of about 170 species of woody trees, shrubs, subshrubs or herbs in the seasonally dry tropics of the Old and the New World. They are used in medicinal folklore to cure various diseases of 80% of the human population in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Species from this genus have been popular to cure stomachache, toothache, swelling, inflammation, leprosy, dysentery, dyscrasia, vertigo, anemia, diabetis, as well as to treat HIV and tumor, opthalmia, ringworm, ulcers, malaria, skin diseases, bronchitis, asthma and as an aphrodisiac. They are also employed as ornamental plants and energy crops. Cyclic peptides alkaloids, diterpenes and miscellaneous compounds have been reported from this genus. Extracts and pure compounds of plants from this genus are reported for cytotoxicity, tumor-promoting, antimicrobial, antiprotozoal, anticoagulant, immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, protoscolicidal, insecticidal, molluscicidal, inhibition AChE and toxicity activities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  2. Reddy BS, Rao NR, Vijeepallam K, Pandy V
    PMID: 28480421 DOI: 10.21010/ajtcam.v14i3.11
    BACKGROUND: Tragia belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae which contains about 152 species. Interestingly, most of the earlier investigations have been done using only five Tragia species, namely, Tragia involucrata, Tragia cannabina, Tragia spathulata, Tragia plukenetii, and Tragia benthamii. The objective of the present review is to compile the phytochemical, pharmacological and biological studies of the selected five Tragia species reported in the literature.

    METHODS: The reported data/information was retrieved mainly from the online databases of PubMed (MEDLINE), EMBASE and Botanical Survey of India.

    RESULTS: The present review elaborated the phytochemical, pharmacological and biological properties of the selected five Tragia species obtained from recent literature.

    CONCLUSION: This review provides a basis for future investigation of Tragia species and, especially for those species that have not been explored for biological and pharmacological activities.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  3. Ali DM, Wong KC, Lim PK
    Fitoterapia, 2005 Jan;76(1):128-30.
    PMID: 15664477
    3,4',5-Trihydroxy-3',7-dimethoxyflavanone was isolated from the ligroin extract of the leaves of Blumea balsamifera, while the acetone extract yielded 3',4',5-trihydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone and a new biflavonoid identifed as 3-O-7''-biluteolin (1). The isolation of 1 is significant since a biflavonoid with a C-O-C linkage of the type [I-3-O-II-7] has not been previously reported from a plant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  4. Mukhtar MR, Hadi AH, Litaudon M, Awang K
    Fitoterapia, 2004 Dec;75(7-8):792-4.
    PMID: 15567268
    Five morphinoid alkaloids have been isolated from Dehaasia longipedicellata, namely (-) pallidine, a new alkaloid (+) pallidinine (1), (+)-milonine, (-) 8,14-dehydrosalutaridine and (-) sinoacutine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  5. Husain K, Jantan I, Said IM, Aimi N, Takayama H
    J Asian Nat Prod Res, 2003 Mar;5(1):63-7.
    PMID: 12608641
    Two new indole alkaloids with the methyl chanofruticosinate skeletal system viz., methyl 3-oxo-12-methoxy-N1-decarbomethoxy-14,15-didehydrochanofruticosinate (1) and methyl 3-oxo-11,12-methylenedioxy-N-decarbomethoxy-14,15-didehydrochanofruticosinate (2), together with four known compounds, methyl 12-methoxy-N1-decarbomethoxychanofruticosinate, methyl 12-methoxychanofruticosinate, methyl 11,12-dimethoxychanofruticosinate and methyl 11,12-methylenedioxy-N1-decarbomethoxychanofruticosinate, were isolated in continuing studies on the leaves of Kopsia flavida Blume. The structures of the new indole alkaloids were assigned by NMR spectral data using various 2D-techniques.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  6. Sawangjit R, Puttarak P, Saokaew S, Chaiyakunapruk N
    Phytother Res, 2017 Apr;31(4):555-567.
    PMID: 28165166 DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5783
    Cissus quadrangularis L. (Cissus) is a medicinal plant commonly used for centuries for various conditions, but lacks critical appraisal of its clinical effects. This study aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of Cissus in all conditions. Publications from 12 electronic databases were searched from inception through November 2016. A total of nine studies with 1108 patients were included. Each outcome was pooled using a random effects model. Effects of Cissus on hemorrhoid symptoms were not different from any comparators but had significant effects on bone pain. Effects of Cissus combination products on body weight reduction, low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and fasting blood sugar were superior to placebo, with weighted mean difference of -5.19 kg (-8.82, -1.55), -14.43 mg/dl (-20.06, -8.80), -37.50 mg/dl (-48.71, -26.29), -50.50 mg/dl (-70.97, -30.04), and -10.39 mg/dl (-14.60, -6.18), respectively. No serious adverse effects were reported. Quality of evidence based on Grades of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation (GRADE) indicated low (bone fractures) to high quality (hemorrhoids, body weight reduction).In conclusion, Cissus had benefit for bone fractures, but not for hemorrhoids. For obesity/overweight, only combination products are pooled and show benefit. However, high-quality studies remain needed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  7. Mohamed Mahzir KA, Abd Gani SS, Hasanah Zaidan U, Halmi MIE
    Molecules, 2018 Mar 22;23(4).
    PMID: 29565312 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23040724
    In this study, the optimal conditions for the extraction of antioxidants from the Buah Mahkota Dewa fruit (Phaleria macrocarpa) was determined by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The optimisation was applied using a Central Composite Design (CCD) to investigate the effect of three independent variables, namely extraction temperature (°C), extraction time (minutes) and extraction solvent to-feed ratio (% v/v) on four responses: free radical scavenging activity (DPPH), ferric ion reducing power assay (FRAP), total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC). The optimal conditions for the antioxidants extraction were found to be 64 °C extraction temperature, 66 min extraction time and 75% v/v solvent to-feed ratio giving the highest percentage yields of DPPH, FRAP, TPC and TFC of 86.85%, 7.47%, 292.86 mg/g and 3.22 mg/g, respectively. Moreover, the data were subjected to Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and the results showed that the polynomial equations for all models were significant, did not show lack of fit, and presented adjusted determination coefficients (R²) above 99%, proving that the yield of phenolic, flavonoid and antioxidants activities obtained experimentally were close to the predicted values and the suitability of the model employed in RSM to optimise the extraction conditions. Hence, in this study, the fruit from P. macrocarpa could be considered to have strong antioxidant ability and can be used in various cosmeceutical or medicinal applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  8. Juwita T, Melyani Puspitasari I, Levita J
    Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 2018 Jan;21(4):151-165.
    PMID: 30311471 DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2018.151.165
    In order to propose a prospective candidate for novel complementary phytopharmaceuticals, one of Zingiberaceae family plant, Etlingeraelatior or torch ginger, was being evaluated. The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive literature research focused on the botanical aspects, nutritional quality, phytoconstituents and pharmacological activities of E. elatior. Researches on this particular plant were conducted in Malaysia (55.5%), Indonesia (33.3%), Thailand (8.3%) and Singapore (2.7%). This review article has revealed that the most prominent pharmacological activities were anti-microbial, anti-oxidant and anti-tumor activities in consistent with the dominated levels of flavonoids, terpenoids and phenols. However, extended and integrated research should be converged towards intensive investigations concerning to isolated phytoconstituents and its bioactivities, pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, molecular mechanism of its specific pharmacological activities, safety and efficacy studies for further development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  9. Jahurul MH, Zaidul IS, Ghafoor K, Al-Juhaimi FY, Nyam KL, Norulaini NA, et al.
    Food Chem, 2015 Sep 15;183:173-80.
    PMID: 25863626 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.03.046
    The large amount of waste produced by the food industries causes serious environmental problems and also results in economic losses if not utilized effectively. Different research reports have revealed that food industry by-products can be good sources of potentially valuable bioactive compounds. As such, the mango juice industry uses only the edible portions of the mangoes, and a considerable amount of peels and seeds are discarded as industrial waste. These mango by-products come from the tropical or subtropical fruit processing industries. Mango by-products, especially seeds and peels, are considered to be cheap sources of valuable food and nutraceutical ingredients. The main uses of natural food ingredients derived from mango by-products are presented and discussed, and the mainstream sectors of application for these by-products, such as in the food, pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmetic industries, are highlighted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  10. Tee LH, Yang B, Nagendra KP, Ramanan RN, Sun J, Chan ES, et al.
    Food Chem, 2014 Dec 15;165:247-55.
    PMID: 25038673 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.05.084
    Dacryodes species are evergreen, perennial trees with fleshy fruits and belong to the family Buseraseae. Many Dacryodes species are underutilized but are widely applied in traditional folk medicine to treat malaria, fever and skin diseases. The nutritional compositions, phytochemicals and biological activities of Dacryodes edulis, Dacryodes rostrata, Dacryodes buettneri, Dacryodes klaineana and Dacryodes hexandra are presented. The edible fruits of D. edulis are rich in lipids, proteins, vitamins, fatty acids and amino acids. Its extracts (leaf, fruit and resin) exhibit antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-carcinogenic and other bioactivities. D. rostrata fruit has significant nutrient content, and is rich in proteins, lipids and minerals. These fruits are also highly rich in polyphenols, anthocyanins and antioxidant activities. This comprehensive review will assist the reader in understanding the nutritional benefits of Dacryodes species and in identifying current research needs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  11. Karim AA, Azlan A
    Molecules, 2012 Oct 10;17(10):11931-46.
    PMID: 23052712 DOI: 10.3390/molecules171011931
    Fruit pods contain various beneficial compounds that have biological activities and can be used as a source of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products. Although pods or pericarps are usually discarded when consuming the edible parts of fruits, they contain some compounds that exhibit biological activities after extraction. Most fruit pods included in this review contain polyphenolic components that can promote antioxidant effects on human health. Additionally, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and chemopreventive effects are associated with these fruit pod extracts. Besides polyphenolics, other compounds such as xanthones, carotenoids and saponins also exhibit health effects and can be potential sources of nutraceutical and pharmaceutical components. In this review, information on fruit pods or pericarp of Garcinia mangostana, Ceratonia siliqua, Moringa oleifera, Acacia nilotica, Sapindus rarak and Prosopis cineraria is presented and discussed with regard to their biological activity of the major compounds existing in them. The fruit pods of other ethno- botanical plants have also been reviewed. It can be concluded that although fruit pods are considered as being of no practical use and are often being thrown away, they nevertheless contain compounds that might be useful sources of nutraceutical and other pharmaceutical components.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  12. Syahmi AR, Vijayarathna S, Sasidharan S, Latha LY, Kwan YP, Lau YL, et al.
    Molecules, 2010 Nov;15(11):8111-21.
    PMID: 21072022 DOI: 10.3390/molecules15118111
    Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceae) is widely used in West African traditional medicine for treating various ailments. An evaluation on the toxicity of extracts of this plant is crucial to support the therapeutic claims. The acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of a methanolic extract of this plant was tested. Oral administration of crude extract at the highest dose of 5,000 mg/kg resulted in no mortalities or evidence of adverse effects, implying that E. guineensis is nontoxic. Normal behavioral pattern, clinical signs and histology of vital organs confirm this evidence. The E. guineensis extracts screened for toxicity against brine shrimp had 50% lethal concentration (LC₅₀) values of more than 1.0 mg/mL (9.00 and 3.87 mg/mL, at 6 and 24 h, respectively), confirming that the extract was not toxic. Maximum mortalities occurred at 100 mg/mL concentration while the least mortalities happened to be at 0.195 mg/mL concentration. The results of both tests confirm that E. guineensis is nontoxic and hence safe for commercial utilization.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  13. Abd Rahman NF, Basri M, Rahman MB, Rahman RN, Salleh AB
    Bioresour. Technol., 2011 Feb;102(3):2168-76.
    PMID: 21050749 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.10.034
    Engkabang fat esters were produced via alcoholysis reaction between Engkabang fat and oleyl alcohol, catalyzed by Lipozyme RM IM. The reaction was carried out in a 500 ml Stirred tank reactor using heptane and hexane as solvents. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a four-factor-five-level Central composite design (CCD) was applied to evaluate the effects of synthesis parameters, namely temperature, substrate molar ratio (oleyl alcohol: Engkabang fat), enzyme amount and impeller speed. The optimum yields of 96.2% and 91.4% were obtained for heptane and hexane at the optimum temperature of 53.9°C, impeller speeds of 309.5 and 309.0 rpm, enzyme amounts of 4.82 and 5.65 g and substrate molar ratios of 2.94 and 3.39:1, respectively. The actual yields obtained compared well with the predicted values of 100.0% and 91.5%, respectively. Meanwhile, the properties of the esters show that they are suitable to be used as ingredient for cosmetic applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  14. Fan SP, Zakaria S, Chia CH, Jamaluddin F, Nabihah S, Liew TK, et al.
    Bioresour. Technol., 2011 Feb;102(3):3521-6.
    PMID: 21123058 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.11.046
    Solvolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) fibres using different solvents (acetone, ethylene glycol (EG), ethanol, water and toluene) were carried out using an autoclave at 275°C for 60 min. The solvent efficiency in term of conversion yield was found to be: EG>water>ethanol>acetone>toluene. The liquid products and residue obtained were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and gas chromatography/mass selectivity. The obtained results showed that the chemical properties of the oil product were significantly affected by the type of solvent used for the solvolysis process. The higher heating value (HHV) of oil products obtained using ethanol is ∼29.42 MJ/kg, which is the highest among the oil products produced using different solvents. Water, ethanol and toluene yield major phenolic compounds. While EG favors the formation of alcohol compounds and acetone yields ketone and aldehyde compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  15. Shamaun SS, Rahmani M, Hashim NM, Ismail HB, Sukari MA, Lian GE, et al.
    J Nat Med, 2010 Oct;64(4):478-81.
    PMID: 20526745 DOI: 10.1007/s11418-010-0427-4
    Six prenylated flavones, including one new compound, were isolated and identified from the stem bark extracts of Artocarpus altilis. The new prenylated flavone hydroxyartocarpin (1) was characterized as 3-(gamma,gamma-dimethylallyl)-6-isopentenyl-5,8,2',4'-tetrahydroxy-7-methoxyflavone and the known compounds were artocarpin (2), morusin (3), cycloartobiloxanthone (4), cycloartocarpin A (5) and artoindonesianin V (6). The structures of the compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods (IR, MS, (1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR) and comparison with published data for the known compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  16. Iwashina T, Matsumoto S, Kitajima J, Nakamura T, Kokubugata G, Suleiman M, et al.
    Nat Prod Commun, 2010 Jan;5(1):39-42.
    PMID: 20184017
    Two new flavone rhamnosides, apigenin 7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside and apigenin 7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside-4'-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside were isolated from the fronds of Asplenium normale D. Don, together with two known C-glycosylflavones, vicenin-2 and lucenin-2. The chemical structures of the isolated glycosides were established by UV, LC-MS, characterization of acid hydrolysates, and 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  17. Misson M, Haron R, Kamaroddin MF, Amin NA
    Bioresour. Technol., 2009 Jun;100(11):2867-73.
    PMID: 19232488 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2008.12.060
    The effect of chemical pretreatments using NaOH, H(2)O(2), and Ca(OH)(2) on Empty Palm Fruit Bunches (EPFB) to degrade EPFB lignin before pyrolysis was investigated. Spectrophotometer analysis proved consecutive addition of NaOH and H(2)O(2) decomposed almost 100% of EPFB lignin compared to 44% for the Ca(OH)(2), H(2)O(2) system while NaOH and Ca(OH)(2) used exclusively could not alter lignin much. Next, the pretreated EPFB was catalytically pyrolyzed. Experimental results indicated the phenolic yields over Al-MCM-41 and HZSM-5 catalysts were 90 wt% and 80 wt%, respectively compared to 67 wt% yield for the untreated sample under the same set of conditions. Meanwhile, the experiments with HY zeolite yielded 70 wt% phenols.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  18. Osman H, Rahim AA, Isa NM, Bakhir NM
    Molecules, 2009;14(3):970-8.
    PMID: 19305354 DOI: 10.3390/molecules14030970
    The antioxidant activity of fresh and dried plant extracts of Paederia foetida and Syzygium aqueum were studied using beta-carotene bleaching and the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation assay. The percentage of antioxidant activity for all extract samples using both assays was between 58 and 80%. The fresh samples of both plants had higher antioxidant activity than the dried samples. The results of the beta-carotene bleaching assay were correlated (R(2) = 0.9849) with those of the ABTS assay.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  19. Zaizuhana S, Puteri J Noor MB, Noral'ashikin Y, Muhammad H, Rohana AB, Zakiah I
    Trop Biomed, 2006 Dec;23(2):214-9.
    PMID: 17322824 MyJurnal
    Kacip Fatimah also known as Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae), is a traditional herbal medicine with a long history in the Malay community. It has been used by many generations of Malay women to induce and facilitate childbirth as well as a post-partum medicine. We tested the genotoxic potential of Kacip Fatimah in bone marrow cells obtained from Sprague-Dawley rats using micronuclei formation as the toxicological endpoints. Five groups of five male rats each were administered orally for two consecutive days with doses of 100, 700 and 2000 mg/kg body weight of Kacip Fatimah extract dissolved in distilled water. Micronucleus preparation was obtained from bone marrow cells of the animals following standard protocols. No statistically significant increase in micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs) was observed at any dose level and sacrifice/harvest time point (24, 48 and 72h). However, a significant decrease in polychromatic erythrocytes/normochromatic erythrocytes (PCE:NCE) ratio was observed from the highest dose level (2000 mg/kg of body weight) at 48h harvest time point. In this study, we investigated the effect of Kacip Fatimah on mammalian bone marrow cells using micronuclei formation to assess the genotoxicity of the herb.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  20. Cyranoski D
    Nat. Med., 2005 Sep;11(9):912.
    PMID: 16145563
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
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