Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 594 in total

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  1. Sabandar CW, Ahmat N, Jaafar FM, Sahidin I
    Phytochemistry, 2013 Jan;85:7-29.
    PMID: 23153517 DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2012.10.009
    The genus Jatropha (Euphorbiaceae) comprises of about 170 species of woody trees, shrubs, subshrubs or herbs in the seasonally dry tropics of the Old and the New World. They are used in medicinal folklore to cure various diseases of 80% of the human population in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Species from this genus have been popular to cure stomachache, toothache, swelling, inflammation, leprosy, dysentery, dyscrasia, vertigo, anemia, diabetis, as well as to treat HIV and tumor, opthalmia, ringworm, ulcers, malaria, skin diseases, bronchitis, asthma and as an aphrodisiac. They are also employed as ornamental plants and energy crops. Cyclic peptides alkaloids, diterpenes and miscellaneous compounds have been reported from this genus. Extracts and pure compounds of plants from this genus are reported for cytotoxicity, tumor-promoting, antimicrobial, antiprotozoal, anticoagulant, immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, protoscolicidal, insecticidal, molluscicidal, inhibition AChE and toxicity activities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  2. Ali DM, Wong KC, Lim PK
    Fitoterapia, 2005 Jan;76(1):128-30.
    PMID: 15664477
    3,4',5-Trihydroxy-3',7-dimethoxyflavanone was isolated from the ligroin extract of the leaves of Blumea balsamifera, while the acetone extract yielded 3',4',5-trihydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone and a new biflavonoid identifed as 3-O-7''-biluteolin (1). The isolation of 1 is significant since a biflavonoid with a C-O-C linkage of the type [I-3-O-II-7] has not been previously reported from a plant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  3. Mukhtar MR, Hadi AH, Litaudon M, Awang K
    Fitoterapia, 2004 Dec;75(7-8):792-4.
    PMID: 15567268
    Five morphinoid alkaloids have been isolated from Dehaasia longipedicellata, namely (-) pallidine, a new alkaloid (+) pallidinine (1), (+)-milonine, (-) 8,14-dehydrosalutaridine and (-) sinoacutine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  4. Husain K, Jantan I, Said IM, Aimi N, Takayama H
    J Asian Nat Prod Res, 2003 Mar;5(1):63-7.
    PMID: 12608641
    Two new indole alkaloids with the methyl chanofruticosinate skeletal system viz., methyl 3-oxo-12-methoxy-N1-decarbomethoxy-14,15-didehydrochanofruticosinate (1) and methyl 3-oxo-11,12-methylenedioxy-N-decarbomethoxy-14,15-didehydrochanofruticosinate (2), together with four known compounds, methyl 12-methoxy-N1-decarbomethoxychanofruticosinate, methyl 12-methoxychanofruticosinate, methyl 11,12-dimethoxychanofruticosinate and methyl 11,12-methylenedioxy-N1-decarbomethoxychanofruticosinate, were isolated in continuing studies on the leaves of Kopsia flavida Blume. The structures of the new indole alkaloids were assigned by NMR spectral data using various 2D-techniques.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  5. Tee LH, Yang B, Nagendra KP, Ramanan RN, Sun J, Chan ES, et al.
    Food Chem, 2014 Dec 15;165:247-55.
    PMID: 25038673 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.05.084
    Dacryodes species are evergreen, perennial trees with fleshy fruits and belong to the family Buseraseae. Many Dacryodes species are underutilized but are widely applied in traditional folk medicine to treat malaria, fever and skin diseases. The nutritional compositions, phytochemicals and biological activities of Dacryodes edulis, Dacryodes rostrata, Dacryodes buettneri, Dacryodes klaineana and Dacryodes hexandra are presented. The edible fruits of D. edulis are rich in lipids, proteins, vitamins, fatty acids and amino acids. Its extracts (leaf, fruit and resin) exhibit antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-carcinogenic and other bioactivities. D. rostrata fruit has significant nutrient content, and is rich in proteins, lipids and minerals. These fruits are also highly rich in polyphenols, anthocyanins and antioxidant activities. This comprehensive review will assist the reader in understanding the nutritional benefits of Dacryodes species and in identifying current research needs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  6. Karim AA, Azlan A
    Molecules, 2012;17(10):11931-46.
    PMID: 23052712 DOI: 10.3390/molecules171011931
    Fruit pods contain various beneficial compounds that have biological activities and can be used as a source of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products. Although pods or pericarps are usually discarded when consuming the edible parts of fruits, they contain some compounds that exhibit biological activities after extraction. Most fruit pods included in this review contain polyphenolic components that can promote antioxidant effects on human health. Additionally, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and chemopreventive effects are associated with these fruit pod extracts. Besides polyphenolics, other compounds such as xanthones, carotenoids and saponins also exhibit health effects and can be potential sources of nutraceutical and pharmaceutical components. In this review, information on fruit pods or pericarp of Garcinia mangostana, Ceratonia siliqua, Moringa oleifera, Acacia nilotica, Sapindus rarak and Prosopis cineraria is presented and discussed with regard to their biological activity of the major compounds existing in them. The fruit pods of other ethno- botanical plants have also been reviewed. It can be concluded that although fruit pods are considered as being of no practical use and are often being thrown away, they nevertheless contain compounds that might be useful sources of nutraceutical and other pharmaceutical components.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  7. Jahurul MH, Zaidul IS, Ghafoor K, Al-Juhaimi FY, Nyam KL, Norulaini NA, et al.
    Food Chem, 2015 Sep 15;183:173-80.
    PMID: 25863626 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.03.046
    The large amount of waste produced by the food industries causes serious environmental problems and also results in economic losses if not utilized effectively. Different research reports have revealed that food industry by-products can be good sources of potentially valuable bioactive compounds. As such, the mango juice industry uses only the edible portions of the mangoes, and a considerable amount of peels and seeds are discarded as industrial waste. These mango by-products come from the tropical or subtropical fruit processing industries. Mango by-products, especially seeds and peels, are considered to be cheap sources of valuable food and nutraceutical ingredients. The main uses of natural food ingredients derived from mango by-products are presented and discussed, and the mainstream sectors of application for these by-products, such as in the food, pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmetic industries, are highlighted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  8. Sawangjit R, Puttarak P, Saokaew S, Chaiyakunapruk N
    Phytother Res, 2017 Apr;31(4):555-567.
    PMID: 28165166 DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5783
    Cissus quadrangularis L. (Cissus) is a medicinal plant commonly used for centuries for various conditions, but lacks critical appraisal of its clinical effects. This study aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of Cissus in all conditions. Publications from 12 electronic databases were searched from inception through November 2016. A total of nine studies with 1108 patients were included. Each outcome was pooled using a random effects model. Effects of Cissus on hemorrhoid symptoms were not different from any comparators but had significant effects on bone pain. Effects of Cissus combination products on body weight reduction, low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and fasting blood sugar were superior to placebo, with weighted mean difference of -5.19 kg (-8.82, -1.55), -14.43 mg/dl (-20.06, -8.80), -37.50 mg/dl (-48.71, -26.29), -50.50 mg/dl (-70.97, -30.04), and -10.39 mg/dl (-14.60, -6.18), respectively. No serious adverse effects were reported. Quality of evidence based on Grades of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation (GRADE) indicated low (bone fractures) to high quality (hemorrhoids, body weight reduction).In conclusion, Cissus had benefit for bone fractures, but not for hemorrhoids. For obesity/overweight, only combination products are pooled and show benefit. However, high-quality studies remain needed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  9. Mohamed Mahzir KA, Abd Gani SS, Hasanah Zaidan U, Halmi MIE
    Molecules, 2018 Mar 22;23(4).
    PMID: 29565312 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23040724
    In this study, the optimal conditions for the extraction of antioxidants from the Buah Mahkota Dewa fruit (Phaleria macrocarpa) was determined by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The optimisation was applied using a Central Composite Design (CCD) to investigate the effect of three independent variables, namely extraction temperature (°C), extraction time (minutes) and extraction solvent to-feed ratio (% v/v) on four responses: free radical scavenging activity (DPPH), ferric ion reducing power assay (FRAP), total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC). The optimal conditions for the antioxidants extraction were found to be 64 °C extraction temperature, 66 min extraction time and 75% v/v solvent to-feed ratio giving the highest percentage yields of DPPH, FRAP, TPC and TFC of 86.85%, 7.47%, 292.86 mg/g and 3.22 mg/g, respectively. Moreover, the data were subjected to Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and the results showed that the polynomial equations for all models were significant, did not show lack of fit, and presented adjusted determination coefficients (R²) above 99%, proving that the yield of phenolic, flavonoid and antioxidants activities obtained experimentally were close to the predicted values and the suitability of the model employed in RSM to optimise the extraction conditions. Hence, in this study, the fruit from P. macrocarpa could be considered to have strong antioxidant ability and can be used in various cosmeceutical or medicinal applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  10. Zaini NN, Osman R, Juahir H, Saim N
    Molecules, 2016 Apr 30;21(5).
    PMID: 27144555 DOI: 10.3390/molecules21050583
    E. longifolia is attracting interest due to its pharmacological properties and pro-vitality effects. In this study, an online SPE-LC approach using polystyrene divinyl benzene (PSDVB) and C18 columns was developed in obtaining chromatographic fingerprints of E. longifolia. E. longifolia root samples were extracted using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) technique prior to online SPE-LC. The effects of mobile phase compositions and column switching time on the chromatographic fingerprint were optimized. Validation of the developed method was studied based on eurycomanone. Linearity was in the range of 5 to 50 µg∙mL(-1) (r² = 0.997) with 3.2% relative standard deviation of peak area. The developed method was used to analyze 14 E. longifolia root samples and 10 products (capsules). Selected chemometric techniques: cluster analysis (CA), discriminant analysis (DA), and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to the fingerprint datasets of 37 selected peaks to evaluate the ability of the chromatographic fingerprint in classifying quality of E. longifolia. Three groups were obtained using CA. DA yielded 100% correlation coefficient with 19 discriminant compounds. Using PCA, E. longifolia root samples were clearly discriminated from the products. This study showed that the developed online SPE-LC method was able to provide comprehensive evaluation of E. longifolia samples for quality control purposes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  11. Anukulthanakorn K, Parhar IS, Jaroenporn S, Kitahashi T, Watanbe G, Malaivijitnond S
    Phytother Res, 2016 Jun;30(6):929-39.
    PMID: 26915634 DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5595
    We determined the neurotherapeutic effects of Pueraria mirifica extract (PME) and pure puerarin (PU) in comparison with 17β-estradiol (E2 ) in early- and late-stage cognitive impaired rats. Rats were ovariectomized (OVX), kept for 2 and 4 months to induce early- and late-stage cognitive impairment, respectively, and divided into four groups that were treated daily with (i) distilled water, (ii) 100 mg/kg of PME, (iii) 7 mg/kg of PU, and (iv) 80 µg/kg of E2 for 4 months. The estrogen deficiency symptoms of OVX rats were abrogated by treatment with E2 or PME, but not by treatment with PU. The mRNA level of genes associated with amyloid production (App and Bace1) and hyperphosphorylated Tau (Tau4) were upregulated together with the level of impaired cognition in the 2- and 4-month OVX rats. Treatment with E2 reduced the level of cognitive impairment more than that with PME and PU, and 2-month OVX rats were more responsive than 4-month OVX rats. All treatments down-regulated the Bace1 mRNA level in 2-month OVX rats, while PU and PME also decreased the App mRNA level in 2- and 4-month OVX rats, respectively. Only PU suppressed Tau4 expression in 2-month OVX rats. Thus, PME and PU elicit neurotherapeutic effects in different pathways, and earlier treatment is optimal. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  12. Yang B, Prasad KN, Jiang Y
    Carbohydr Polym, 2016 Feb 10;137:570-575.
    PMID: 26686165 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.10.088
    As a health-beneficial fruit, litchi is widely accepted by people in subtropical and tropical regions. However, the critical chemicals responsible for the health benefits are not clear yet. As a large amount of polysaccharides are present in litchi, they might play an important role in the health benefits. In this work, the main water-soluble polysaccharide (LPPBa) was purified from litchi pulp. The chemical structure was characterized as arabinogalactan by gas chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR). NMR data revealed the glycosidic linkages and their locations in backbone and branches. The precise structure was putatively identified as below, and it was different to those commonly occurred arabinogalactans. The molecular weight was determined to be 2.4 × 10(6)Da by gel permeation chromatography.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  13. Zaizuhana S, Puteri J Noor MB, Noral'ashikin Y, Muhammad H, Rohana AB, Zakiah I
    Trop Biomed, 2006 Dec;23(2):214-9.
    PMID: 17322824 MyJurnal
    Kacip Fatimah also known as Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae), is a traditional herbal medicine with a long history in the Malay community. It has been used by many generations of Malay women to induce and facilitate childbirth as well as a post-partum medicine. We tested the genotoxic potential of Kacip Fatimah in bone marrow cells obtained from Sprague-Dawley rats using micronuclei formation as the toxicological endpoints. Five groups of five male rats each were administered orally for two consecutive days with doses of 100, 700 and 2000 mg/kg body weight of Kacip Fatimah extract dissolved in distilled water. Micronucleus preparation was obtained from bone marrow cells of the animals following standard protocols. No statistically significant increase in micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs) was observed at any dose level and sacrifice/harvest time point (24, 48 and 72h). However, a significant decrease in polychromatic erythrocytes/normochromatic erythrocytes (PCE:NCE) ratio was observed from the highest dose level (2000 mg/kg of body weight) at 48h harvest time point. In this study, we investigated the effect of Kacip Fatimah on mammalian bone marrow cells using micronuclei formation to assess the genotoxicity of the herb.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  14. Cyranoski D
    Nat. Med., 2005 Sep;11(9):912.
    PMID: 16145563
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  15. Shaari K, Safri S, Abas F, Lajis NH, Israf DA
    Nat. Prod. Res., 2006 May 10;20(5):415-9.
    PMID: 16644538
    The leaves of Melicope ptelefolia (Rutaceae) afforded a new acetophenone named 2,4,6-trihydroxy-3-geranylacetophenone. The structure of the compound was established by mass and NMR spectroscopy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  16. Ling SK, Takashima T, Tanaka T, Fujioka T, Mihashi K, Kouno I
    Fitoterapia, 2004 Dec;75(7-8):785-8.
    PMID: 15567266
    A new megastigmane diglycoside was isolated from the leaves of Carallia brachiata. The structure was determined by spectroscopic methods as 3-hydroxy-5,6-epoxy-beta-ionol -3-O-beta-apiofuranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-glucopyranoside (1). Additionally, 29 known compounds consisting of two megastigmanes, one 1,2-dithiolane derivative, seven aromatic compounds, five condensed tannins, 12 flavonoids, and two glyceroglycolipids were isolated and identified.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  17. Miean KH, Mohamed S
    J. Agric. Food Chem., 2001 Jun;49(6):3106-12.
    PMID: 11410016
    Studies were conducted on the flavonoids (myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, and apigenin) contents of 62 edible tropical plants. The highest total flavonoids content was in onion leaves (1497.5 mg/kg quercetin, 391.0 mg/kg luteolin, and 832.0 mg/kg kaempferol), followed by Semambu leaves (2041.0 mg/kg), bird chili (1663.0 mg/kg), black tea (1491.0 mg/kg), papaya shoots (1264.0 mg/kg), and guava (1128.5 mg/kg). The major flavonoid in these plant extracts is quercetin, followed by myricetin and kaempferol. Luteolin could be detected only in broccoli (74.5 mg/kg dry weight), green chili (33.0 mg/kg), bird chili (1035.0 mg/kg), onion leaves (391.0 mg/kg), belimbi fruit (202.0 mg/kg), belimbi leaves (464.5 mg/kg), French bean (11.0 mg/kg), carrot (37.5 mg/kg), white radish (9.0 mg/kg), local celery (80.5 mg/kg), limau purut leaves (30.5 mg/kg), and dried asam gelugur (107.5 mg/kg). Apigenin was found only in Chinese cabbage (187.0 mg/kg), bell pepper (272.0 mg/kg), garlic (217.0 mg/kg), belimbi fruit (458.0 mg/kg), French peas (176.0 mg/kg), snake gourd (42.4 mg/kg), guava (579.0 mg/kg), wolfberry leaves (547.0 mg/kg), local celery (338.5 mg/kg), daun turi (39.5 mg/kg), and kadok (34.5 mg/kg). In vegetables, quercetin glycosides predominate, but glycosides of kaempferol, luteolin, and apigenin are also present. Fruits contain almost exclusively quercetin glycosides, whereas kaempferol and myricetin glycosides are found only in trace quantities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  18. Zia-Ul-Haq M, Riaz M, De Feo V, Jaafar HZ, Moga M
    Molecules, 2014;19(8):10998-1029.
    PMID: 25072202 DOI: 10.3390/molecules190810998
    Rubus fruticosus L. is a shrub famous for its fruit called blackberry fruit or more commonly blackberry. The fruit has medicinal, cosmetic and nutritive value. It is a concentrated source of valuable nutrients, as well as bioactive constituents of therapeutic interest highlighting its importance as a functional food. Besides use as a fresh fruit, it is also used as ingredient in cooked dishes, salads and bakery products like jams, snacks, desserts, and fruit preserves. R. fruticosus contains vitamins, steroids and lipids in seed oil and minerals, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenes, acids and tannins in aerial parts that possess diverse pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial anti-diabetic, anti-diarrheal, and antiviral. Various agrogeoclimatological factors like cultivar, environmental conditions of the area, agronomic practices employed, harvest time, post-harvest storage and processing techniques all influence the nutritional composition of blackberry fruit. This review focuses on the nutrients and chemical constituents as well as medicinal properties of different parts of R. fruticosus. Various cultivars and their physicochemical characteristics, polyphenolic content and ascorbic acid content are also discussed. The information in the present work will serve as baseline data and may lead to new biomedical applications of R. fruticosus as functional food.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  19. Yudthavorasit S, Wongravee K, Leepipatpiboon N
    Food Chem, 2014 Sep 1;158:101-11.
    PMID: 24731320 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.02.086
    Chromatographic fingerprints of gingers from five different ginger-producing countries (China, India, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam) were newly established to discriminate the origin of ginger. The pungent bioactive principles of ginger, gingerols and six other gingerol-related compounds were determined and identified. Their variations in HPLC profiles create the characteristic pattern of each origin by employing similarity analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). As results, the ginger profiles tended to be grouped and separated on the basis of the geographical closeness of the countries of origin. An effective mathematical model with high predictive ability was obtained and chemical markers for each origin were also identified as the characteristic active compounds to differentiate the ginger origin. The proposed method is useful for quality control of ginger in case of origin labelling and to assess food authenticity issues.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  20. Ho LH, Bhat R
    Food Chem, 2015 Feb 1;168:80-9.
    PMID: 25172686 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.07.020
    This review focuses on providing informations on potential uses of durian, an exotic tropical fruit as a source of food, as well as a potential therapeutic agent. Apart from disseminating details on the traditional value, in this review we have focussed on the nutritional composition, presence of bioactive compounds, volatiles, antimicrobials, as well as on the toxicological effects of durian fruit consumption. Durian fruits are enjoyed for their unique taste and organoleptic qualities, but there is also a need to ensure that their potential is exploited for the international market. In addition, in the present socio-economic scenario, tapping the potential of exotic tropical fruit such as durian could benefit the health of consumers as well as support the local population who depend on farming for a livelihood. Overall, it is envisaged that identifying the nutraceutical potential of the edible and non-edible parts of durian fruits can benefit food and pharmaceutical industries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
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