METHODS: The antidiarrheal investigation was performed by using in vivo castor oil-induced diarrheal method whereas in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant investigation have been implemented by disc diffusion and DPPH scavenging method respectively. Moreover, in silico studies were followed by molecular docking analysis of several secondary metabolites that were appraised with Schrödinger-Maestro v11.1 and Biovia Discovery Studio.
RESULTS: The induction of plant extract (200 and 400 mg/kg, b.w, p.o) has minimized the castor oil mediated diarrhea by 16.96% (p
METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 725 postpartum mothers, aged 18 and above, attending a primary-care clinic. The systematic sampling method was used to recruit patients through a structured, self-administered questionnaire. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS version 23. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify the predictors of CAM use among postpartum mothers.
RESULTS: The prevalence of CAM use among postpartum mothers was 85.5%. Manipulative body therapies, including massage, reflexology, hot stone compression and body wrapping were the most widely used methods of CAM (84.1%) among postpartum mothers, followed by biological-based therapies (33.1%). More than half of the respondents (52.1%) opted to use CAM, as they had observed good results from other CAM users. However, our study showed that 57.1% of mothers who consumed herbal medicine reported neonatal jaundice in their newborn. The median of the expenditure on CAM usage was 250 Malaysian Ringgits, or USD 61.3 per month. According to multiple logistic regression analyses, being Muslim (OR = 5.258, 95% CI: 2.952-9.368), being Malay (OR = 4.414, 95% CI: 1.18-16.56), having a higher educational level (OR = 2.561, 95% CI: 1.587-4.133) and having delivered via spontaneous vaginal delivery (OR: 5.660, 95% CI: 3.454-9.276) had a significantly positive association with CAM use among postpartum mothers.
CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of CAM use was high (8 out of 10) among postpartum mothers. Postpartum mothers who are Malay, Muslim, have a higher educational level and who have had spontaneous vaginal delivery tended to use CAM more. Manipulative body therapies, including massage, reflexology, hot stone compression and body wrapping, were the most widely used forms of CAM, followed by biological-based therapies. More than half of the mothers who consumed herbal medicine reported neonatal jaundice in their newborn. Thus, education to increase awareness regarding the consumption of herbs is urgently required in this country.
METHODS: BV2 microglial cells c for 24 h, pre-treated with EPA for 24 h prior to LPS induction for another 24 h. Surface expression of CD11b and CD40 on BV2 cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. ELISA was employed to measure the production of pro-inflammatory mediators i.e. nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Western blotting technique was used to determine the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), myeloid differentiation protein 88 (MYD88), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), caspase-1, and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK).
RESULTS: Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the EPA using a validated ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method indicated the presence of phyllanthin, hypophyllanthin, niranthin, ellagic acid, corilagin, gallic acid, phyltetralin, isolintetralin and geraniin. EPA suppressed the production of NO and TNFα in LPS-activated BV2 microglial cells. Moreover, EPA attenuated the expression of MyD88, NF-κB and MAPK (p-P38, p-JNK and p-ERK1/2). It also inhibited the expression of CD11b and CD40. EPA protected against LPS-induced microglial activation via MyD88 and NF-κB signaling in BV2 microglial cells.
CONCLUSIONS: EPA demonstrated neuroprotective effects against LPS-induced microglial cells activation through the inhibition of TNFα secretion, iNOS protein expression and subsequent NO production, inhibition of NF-κB and MAPKs mediated by adapter protein MyD88 and inhibition of microglial activation markers CD11b and CD40.
METHODS: Release of interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were determined by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Immunoblot technique was executed to determine the activation of MAPKs molecules, NF-κB, PI3K-Akt and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein. Determination of pro-inflammatory cytokines and COX-2 relative gene expression levels was by performing the real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). A reversed-phase HPLC method was developed and validated to standardize the T. crispa extract and chemical profiling of its secondary metabolites was performed by LC-MS/MS.
RESULTS: Qualitative and quantitative analyses of chromatographic data indicated that syringin and magnoflorine were found as the major components of the extract. T. crispa-treatment prompted activation of NF-κB by enhancing IKKα/β and NF-κB (p65) phosphorylation, and degradation of IκBα. The extract upregulated COX-2 protein expression, release of pro-inflammatory mediators and MAPKs (ERK, p38 and JNK) phosphorylation as well as Akt dose-dependently. T. crispa extract also upregulated the upstream signaling adaptor molecules, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and MyD88. T. crispa-treatment also upregulated the pro-inflammatory markers mRNA expression.
CONCLUSION: The results suggested that T. crispa extract stimulated the MyD88-dependent signaling pathways by upregulating the various immune inflammatory related parameters.
METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among undergraduate pharmacy students in a public university in Malaysia using a validated and pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. The study was conducted in November and December 2019. The data was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistical tests.
RESULTS: Of the 318 female undergraduate students invited, 219 completed the questionnaire (response rate: 68.9%) with 52% aged between 21 and 23 years. The prevalence of dysmenorrhea was 72.1%, and the prevalence of ever-use and current use of CATs was 70.3 and 54.4%, respectively. Bed rest (71.5%), hot compress/heating pad (47.5%) and massage (43.0%) were the most common CATs used by the respondents. The most common reasons for using CAT were to reduce the need for analgesics (61.4%), efficacy (37.3%) and recommendation by others (32.9%). About 23 and 9% of the respondents believed that CATs were equally "effective" and "more effective" than analgesics, respectively. Reducing the need for analgesics (AOR: 4.066, 95% CI: 2.136-7.739) and those who agreed that CATs are effective (AOR: 2.701, 95% CI: 1.337-5.457) were independently associated with the current use CATs for the treatment of menstrual pain.
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of ever-use and current use of CATs is high among female undergraduate pharmacy students. Bed rest and heat applications are the most common CATs used. Reducing the need for analgesics and efficacy are the factors associated with the current use of CATs. Students should be educated about the safe and effective use of CATs to reduce adverse effects and improve their quality of life.
METHODS: This is a multi-centre cross-sectional study involving patients undergoing haemodialysis treatment in Malaysia. A validated face-to-face questionnaire-based interview was conducted. Sociodemographic and clinical profiles of the patients, factors associated with TCM use, perceptions, sources of information, and disclosures to treating doctors were obtained. Data were analysed using SPSS software.
RESULTS: A total of n = 329 participants were recruited. The mean age of the participants was 54.9 ± 12.5 years. The majority were Malays (72%) and females (54.7%). A total of 64.7% (n = 213) reported TCM use; n = 132 used TCM before the initiation of dialysis, while n = 81 used TCM after initiation. In the post-hoc analysis, patients who had never used TCM had a higher mean age (56.7 ± 12.3 years) than the patients who used TCM (51.1 ± 13.1) (p = 0.015) and were likely to have received primary education (p = 0.011). Unemployment was more likely to be associated with non-TCM use; with odds ratio 1.85 (95% CI: 1.15, 2.98). Biologically based therapy was found to be the most popular (97.2%) type of TCM, including herbal medicine (67.6%) and supplements (58.0%). Most respondents did not disclose their TCM use to their doctors (72.3%), and 41.8% had the perception that they felt better.
CONCLUSIONS: TCM is widely used among chronic haemodialysis patients in Malaysia, mainly herbal medicine and supplements. Non-disclosure to healthcare professionals and a poor monitoring and regulation of its use in ESKD patients could be detrimental. Awareness needs to be raised among healthcare professionals and the general population.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Ethics Committee for Research, University Putra Malaysia (13th March 2019). Reference: UPM/TNCPI/RMC/220.127.116.11 ( JKEUPM ).
METHOD: A total of 36 Malaysian community-dwelling older adults with MCI (60-75-year-old) were randomized into Biokesum® (n = 18) and placebo group (n = 18). Each subject consumed one capsule of Biokesum® (250 mg/capsule) or placebo (maltodextrin, 280 mg/capsule) twice daily for 6 months. Cognitive function and mood were assessed at baseline, 3rd, and 6th-month using neuropsychological tests (MMSE, Digit Span, RAVLT, Digit Symbol, and Visual Reproduction) and Profile of Mood State (POMS) questionnaire. Blood lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, and biomarkers (MDA, LPO, COX-2, iNOS, and BDNF) were measured at baseline and 6th month. By the end of the intervention, there were 30 compliers (Biokesum®: N = 15; Placebo: N = 15) and 6 dropouts. For brain activation assessment, 15 subsamples (Biokesum®: N = 8; Placebo: N = 7) completed N-back and Stroop tasks during fMRI scanning at baseline and 6th month. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's area 9 and 46) was identified as a region of interest (ROI) for brain activation analysis using SPM software.
RESULTS: Two-way mixed ANOVA analysis showed significant improvements in Visual Reproduction II (p = 0.012, partial η2 = 0.470), tension (p = 0.042, partial η2 = 0.147), anger (p = 0.010, partial η2 = 0.207), confusion (p = 0.041, partial η2 = 0.148), total negative subscales (p = 0.043, partial η2 = 0.145), BDNF (p = 0.020, partial η2 = 0.179) and triglyceride (p = 0.029, partial η2 = 0.237) following 6 months of Biokesum® supplementation. Preliminary finding also demonstrated significant improvement at 0-back task-induced right DLPFC activation (p = 0.028, partial η2 = 0.652) among subsamples in Biokesum® group. No adverse events were reported at the end of the study.
CONCLUSION: Six months Biokesum® supplementation potentially improved visual memory, negative mood, BDNF, and triglyceride levels among older adults with MCI. Significant findings on brain activation at the right DPLFC must be considered as preliminary.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: Retrospectively registered on 30th August 2019 [ ISRC TN12417552 ].
METHODS: In this work, the biochemical potential of M. buxifolia (Falc.) A. DC was explored and linked with its biological activities. Methanol and chloroform extracts from leaves and stems were investigated for total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) was used to determine secondary-metabolite composition, while high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection (HPLC-PDA) was used for polyphenolic quantification. In addition, we carried out in vitro assays to determine antioxidant potential and the enzyme-inhibitory response of M. buxifolia extracts.
RESULTS: Phenolics (91 mg gallic-acid equivalent (GAE)/g) and flavonoids (48.86 mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g) exhibited their highest concentration in the methanol extract of stems and the chloroform extract of leaves, respectively. UHPLC-MS analysis identified a number of important phytochemicals, belonging to the flavonoid, phenolic, alkaloid, and terpenoid classes of secondary metabolites. The methanol extract of leaves contained a diosgenin derivative and polygalacin D, while kaempferol and robinin were most abundant in the chloroform extract. The methanol extract of stems contained a greater peak area for diosgenin and kaempferol, whereas this was true for lucidumol A and 3-O-cis-coumaroyl maslinic acid in the chloroform extract. Rutin, epicatechin, and catechin were the main phenolics identified by HPLC-PDA analysis. The methanol extract of stems exhibited significant 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical-scavenging activities (145.18 and 279.04 mmol Trolox equivalent (TE)/g, respectively). The maximum cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) (361.4 mg TE/g), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) (247.19 mg TE/g), and total antioxidant potential (2.75 mmol TE/g) were depicted by the methanol extract of stems. The methanol extract of leaves exhibited stronger inhibition against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glucosidase, while the chloroform extract of stems was most active against butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) (4.27 mg galantamine equivalent (GALAE)/g). Similarly, the highest tyrosinase (140 mg kojic-acid equivalent (KAE)/g) and amylase (0.67 mmol acarbose equivalent (ACAE)/g) inhibition was observed for the methanol extract of stems.
CONCLUSIONS: UHPLC-MS analysis and HPLC-PDA quantification identified a number of bioactive secondary metabolites of M. buxifolia, which may be responsible for its antioxidant potential and enzyme-inhibitory response. M. buxifolia can be further explored for the isolation of its active components to be used as a drug.
METHODS: Observing anti-urolithiathic activity via in vitro nucleation and aggregation assay using a spectrophotometer followed by microscopic observation. A total of 12 methanolic extracts were tested to determine the potential extracts in anti-urolithiasis activities. Cystone was used as a positive control.
RESULTS: The results manifested an inhibition of nucleation activity (0.11 ± 2.32% to 55.39 ± 1.01%) and an aggregation activity (4.34 ± 0.68% to 58.78 ± 1.81%) at 360 min of incubation time. The highest inhibition percentage in nucleation assay was obtained by the Musa acuminate x balbiciana Colla cv "Awak Legor" methanolic pseudo-stem extract (2D) which was 55.39 ± 1.01%at 60 min of incubation time compared to the cystone at 30.87 ± 0.74%. On the other hand,the Musa acuminate x balbiciana Colla cv "Awak Legor" methanolic bagasse extract (3D) had the highest inhibition percentage in the aggregation assay incubated at 360 min which was obtained at 58.78 ± 1.8%; 5.53% higher than the cystone (53.25%).The microscopic image showed a great reduction in the calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals formation and the size of crystals in 2D and 3D extracts, respectively, as compared to negative control.
CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained from this study suggest that the extracts are potential sources of alternative medicine for kidney stones disease.
METHODS: PC-12 cells was pre-treated with HESAE for 48 h followed by 400 μM corticosterone for 24 h to induce oxidative stress. Cells in complete medium without any treatment or pre-treated with 3.125 μg/mL desipramine served as the negative and positive controls, respectively. The cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities, aconitase activity, mitochondrial membrane potentials (MMPs), intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and number of apoptotic nuclei were quantified. In addition, HESAE ethanol extract was separated into fractions by chromatographic methods prior to spectroscopic analysis.
RESULTS: We observed that PC-12 cells treated with high-dose corticosterone at 400 μM had decreased cell viability, reduced endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities, disrupted mitochondrial function, and increased oxidative stress and apoptosis. However, pre-treatment with HESAE ranging from 0.25 to 1 mg/mL had increased cell viability, decreased LDH release, enhanced endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities, restored MMP, attenuated intracellular ROS and protected from ROS-mediated apoptosis. The neuroprotective effects could be attributed to significant amounts of adenosine and herierin III isolated from HESAE.
CONCLUSIONS: HESAE demonstrated neuroprotective effects against high-dose corticosterone-induced oxidative stress in an in vitro model mimicking depression. HESAE could be a potential dietary supplement to treat depression.
METHODS: M. cochinchinensis aril from 44 different samples in Australia, Thailand and Vietnam were extracted using different solvents and tested for its anticancer potential. Anticancer activity of M. cochinchinensis aril on breast cancer (MCF7 and BT474) and melanoma (MM418C1 and D24) cells were compared to control fibroblasts (NHDF). The cytotoxicity of the cells following treatment with the aril extract was determined using CCK-8 assay. Biochemical and morphological changes were analysed using flow cytometry, confocal and transmission electron microscopy to determine the mechanism of cell death.
RESULTS: The water extract from the aril of M. cochinchinensis elicited significantly higher cytotoxicity towards breast cancer and melanoma cells than the HAE extract. The IC50 concentration for the crude water extract ranged from 0.49 to 0.73 mg/mL and induced both apoptotic and necrotic cell death in a dose- and time-dependant manner with typical biochemical and morphological characteristics. The greatest cytotoxicity was observed from Northern Vietnam samples which caused 70 and 50% melanoma and breast cancer cell death, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: The water extract of M. cochinchinensis aril caused significant apoptosis and necrosis of breast cancer and melanoma cells, with varieties from Northern Vietnam possessing superior activity. This highlights the potential of this fruit in the development of novel anticancer agents against such tumours, with specific regions on where to collect the best variety and extraction solvent for optimum activity.
METHOD: Dichloromethane, methanol, and water extracts of the leaves and roots of M. pumilum var. alata, M. pumilum var. pumila, and M. pumilum var. lanceolata were tested using an in vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory assay. Bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation were carried out on the most active extract using chromatographic techniques. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined using spectroscopic techniques.
RESULTS: The most active dichloromethane extract of M. pumilum var. pumila leaves (IC50 = 161.6 μg/mL) yielded one new compound, 3,7-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-4,8-dimethyl-isocoumarin (1), and five known compounds, viz. ardisiaquinone A (2), maesanin (3), stigmasterol (4), tetracosane (5), and margaric acid (6). The new compound was found to be the most active xanthine oxidase inhibitor with an IC50 value of 0.66 ± 0.01 μg/mL, which was not significantly different (p > 0.05) from that of the positive control, allopurinol (IC50 = 0.24 ± 0.00 μg/mL).
CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the new compound 3,7-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-4,8-dimethyl-isocoumarin (1), which was isolated from the dichloromethane extract of M. pumilum var. pumila leaves, could be a potential xanthine oxidase inhibitor.
METHODS: Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) and Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (LCMS) coupled with multivariate data analysis were employed to characterize the metabolic variations of intracellular metabolites and the compositional changes of the corresponding culture media in rat renal proximal tubular cells (NRK-52E).
RESULTS: NMR and LCMS analysis highlighted choline, creatine, phosphocholine, valine, acetic acid, phenylalanine, leucine, glutamic acid, threonine, uridine and proline as the main metabolites which differentiated the cisplatin-induced group of NRK-52E from control cells extract. The corresponding media exhibited lactic acid, glutamine, glutamic acid and glucose-1-phosphate as the varied metabolites. The altered pathways perturbed by cisplatin nephrotoxic on NRK-52E cells included changes in amino acid metabolism, lipid metabolism and glycolysis.
CONCLUSION: The C. nutans aqueous extract (1000 μg/mL) exhibited the most potential nephroprotective effect against cisplatin toxicity on NRK-52E cell lines at 89% of viability. The protective effect could be seen through the changes of the metabolites such as choline, alanine and valine in the C. nutans pre-treated samples with those of the cisplatin-induced group.
METHODS: Ardisia crispa roots hexane extract (ACRH) was prepared from the plant roots using absolute n-hexane. ACRH was fractionated into quinone-rich fraction (QRF) and further isolated to yield benzoquinonoid compound (BQ), respectively. In vitro experiments using VEGF-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and IL-1β-induced human fibroblast-like synoviocytes for rheumatoid arthritis (HFLS-RA) were performed to evaluate the effects of these samples on VEGF-induced HUVECs proliferation and tube formation, and towards IL-1β-induced HFLS-RA proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis, respectively. Therapeutic concentrations (0.05, 0.5, and 5 μg/mL) tested in this study were predetermined based on the IC50 values obtained from the MTT assay.
RESULTS: ACRH, QRF, and BQ exerted concentration-independent antiproliferative effects on VEGF-induced HUVECs and IL-1β-induced HFLS-RA, with IC50 values at 1.09 ± 0.18, 3.85 ± 0.26, and 1.34 ± 0.16 μg/mL in HUVECs; and 3.60 ± 1.38, 4.47 ± 0.34, and 1.09 ± 0.09 μg/mL in HFLS-RA, respectively. Anti-angiogenic properties of these samples were verified via significant inhibition on VEGF-induced HUVECs tube formation, in a concentration-independent manner. The invasiveness of IL-1β-induced HFLS-RA was also significantly inhibited in a concentration-independent manner by all samples. ACRH and BQ, but not QRF, significantly enhanced the apoptosis of IL-1β-induced HFLS-RA elicited at their highest concentration (5 μg/mL) (P
METHODS: This study investigated the microbial composition and readily found bioactive compounds in water kefir fermented in Malaysia using 16S rRNA microbiome and UHPLC sequencing approaches. The toxicity effects of the kefir water administration in BALB/c mice were analysed based on the mice survival, body weight index, biochemistry profile, and histopathological changes. The antioxidant activities were evaluated using SOD, FRAP, and NO assays.
RESULTS: The 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing revealed the most abundant species found in the water kefir was Lactobacillus hilgardii followed by Lactobacillus harbinensis, Acetobacter lovaniensis, Lactobacillus satsumensis, Acetobacter tropicalis, Lactobacillus zeae, and Oenococcus oeni. The UHPLC screening showed flavonoid and phenolic acid derivatives as the most important bioactive compounds present in kefir water which has been responsible for its antioxidant activities. Subchronic toxicity study showed no toxicological signs, behavioural changes, or adverse effects by administrating 10 mL/kg/day and 2.5 mL/kg/day kefir water to the mice. Antioxidants assays demonstrated enhanced SOD and FRAP activities and reduced NO level, especially in the brain and kidney samples.
CONCLUSIONS: This study will help to intensify the knowledge on the water kefir microbial composition, available phytochemicals and its toxicological and antioxidant effects on BALB/c mice since there are very limited studies on the water kefir grain fermented in Malaysia.
METHODS: The extract of D. linearis leaves (CEDL; 50, 250 and 500 mg/kg) was orally administered to rats for 7 consecutive days followed by the oral administration of 3 g/kg PCM to induce liver injury. Blood was collected for liver function analysis while the liver was obtained for histopathological examination and endogenous antioxidant activity determination. The extract was also subjected to antioxidant evaluation and phytochemicals determination via phytochemical screening, HPLC and UPLC-HRMS analyses.
RESULTS: CEDL exerted significant (p
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 100 epilepsy patients, aged 18 years or older that did not have any physical or psychiatric illness. A patient-administered questionnaire was used to assess their knowledge, attitude towards, practice, and perceived effectiveness (KAPP) of CAM. Established adherence assessment tools were used to determine patient medication adherence.
RESULTS: The prevalence of CAM usage was found to be at 58%. CAM was used more frequently by males (n = 32, 60.4%) than by females (n = 26, 55.3%; p = 0.609). The most commonly used CAM included vitamins and minerals (36%), ginseng (16%), antioxidants (15%), and acupuncture (12%). A significant number of patients had low knowledge of (59%) and a positive attitude (54%) toward complementary and alternative medicine. Main reasons for using CAM were a lower price, better availability, and inadequate seizure control by AEDs. About 43% of the patients who used CAM informed their doctor. Prevalence of non-adherence to AED therapy was found to be 68%. A significant association was found between non-adherence and CAM usage (p
METHODS: Included trials were assessed using Cochrane risk of bias instrument. We performed meta-analysis with random-effects model and random errors were evaluated with TSA. We performed the search for the eligible randomized controlled trial (RCT) through Medline, Cinahl, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and also PubMed.
RESULTS: A total of 370 subjects sourced from seven eligible RCTs were entered into the analysis. The pooled results demonstrated the significant reduction with the use of qigong of the systolic blood pressure [weighted mean difference (WMD), - 10.66 mmHg (95% confidence interval (CI) = - 17.69,-3.62, p
METHODS: Forty-eight Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups of eight rats each: (A) Sham operated; control (B) Untreated (ovariectomised (OVX) with vehicle), (C) PEL 100 (OVX + 100 mg/kg body weight (bw)), (D) PEL 300 (OVX + 300 mg/kg bw), (E) PEL 500 (OVX + 500 mg/kg bw) and (F) Positive control, testosterone undecanoate (TU) (OVX+ 10 mg/kg bw). Group A and B received daily oral administrations of the vehicle, Group C-E received daily oral administration of PEL and Group F received testosterone undecanoate intramuscularly weekly. At the end of 8 weeks, serum calcium, phosphate, bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), osteocalcin, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH), oestrogen, progesterone and testosterone were measured, then the animals were sacrificed and uterus was isolated, while weight was recorded in all experimental groups.
RESULTS: Treatment of OVX rats with PEL at a dose of 500 mg/kg showed decreased serum FSH (P