A dimeric acylphenol and a potent α-glucosidase inhibitor, giganteone D (IC50 5.05μM), was isolated and characterized from the bark of Myristica cinnamomea King. The bark also yielded an acylphenol with an unprecedented skeleton for which the name cinnamomeone A (IC50 358.80μM) was proposed. Their structures were established by means of NMR and MS spectrometric analyses. The Lineweaver-Burk plot of giganteone D indicated that it was a mixed-type inhibitor. This is the first report on the α-glucosidase inhibiting potential of acylphenols.
Basal stem rot (BSR) of oil palm roots is due to the invasion of fungal mycelia of Ganoderma species which spreads to the bole of the stem. In addition to root contact, BSR can also spread by airborne basidiospores. These fungi are able to break down cell wall components including lignin. BSR not only decreases oil yield, it also causes the stands to collapse thus causing severe economic loss to the oil palm industry. The transmission and mode of action of Ganoderma, its interactions with oil palm as a hemibiotroph, and the molecular defence responses of oil palm to the infection of Ganoderma boninense in BSR are reviewed, based on the transcript profiles of infected oil palms. The knowledge gaps that need to be filled in oil palm-Ganoderma molecular interactions i.e. the associations of hypersensitive reaction (HR)-induced cell death and reactive oxygen species (ROS) kinetics to the susceptibility of oil palm to Ganoderma spp., the interactions of phytohormones (salicylate, jasmonate and ethylene) at early and late stages of BSR, and cell wall strengthening through increased production of guaiacyl (G)-type lignin, are also discussed.
Eleven indole alkaloids, comprising four corynanthean, two eburnane, one aspidofractinine, one secoleuconoxine, one andranginine, and two pauciflorine type alkaloids were isolated from the stem-bark and leaf extracts of Kopsia pauciflora. Their structures were determined using NMR and MS analyses. The catharinensine type alkaloid kopsirensine B and the secoleuconoxine alkaloid arboloscine A showed moderate to weak activity in reversing MDR in vincristine-resistant KB cells. The alkaloid content was markedly different compared to that of a sample from Malaysian Borneo.
Hispidacine, an 8,4'-oxyneolignan featuring incorporation of an unusual 2-hydroxyethylamine moiety at C-7, and hispiloscine, a phenanthroindolizidine alkaloid, were isolated from the stem-bark and leaves of the Malaysian Ficus hispida Linn. Their structures were established by spectroscopic analysis. Hispidacine induced a moderate vasorelaxant activity in rat isolated aorta, while hispiloscine showed appreciable antiproliferative activities against MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, A549, HCT-116 and MRC-5 cell lines.
Microalgae lipids and oils are potential candidates for renewable biodiesel. Many microalgae species accumulate a substantial amount of lipids and oils under environmental stresses. However, low growth rate under these adverse conditions account for the decrease in overall biomass productivity which directly influence the oil yield. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of exogenously added auxin (indole-3-acetic acid; IAA) on the oil content, fatty acid compositions, and the expression of fatty acid biosynthetic genes in Chlorella vulgaris (UMT-M1). Auxin has been shown to regulate growth and metabolite production of several microalgae. Results showed that oil accumulation was highest on days after treatment (DAT)-2 with enriched levels of palmitic (C16:0) and stearic (C18:0) acids, while the linoleic (C18:2) and α-linolenic (C18:3n3) acids levels were markedly reduced by IAA. The elevated levels of saturated fatty acids (C16:0 and C18:0) were consistent with high expression of the β-ketoacyl ACP synthase I (KAS I) gene, while low expression of omega-6 fatty acid desaturase (ω-6 FAD) gene was consistent with low production of C18:2. However, the increment of stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD) gene expression upon IAA induction did not coincide with oleic acid (C18:1) production. The expression of omega-3 fatty acid desaturase (ω-3 FAD) gene showed a positive correlation with the synthesis of PUFA and C18:3n3.
Galloylated flavonol rhamnosides identified as kaempferol-3-O-(2″,3″,4″-tri-O-galloyl)-α-l-rhamnopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-(3″,4″-di-O-galloyl)-α-l-rhamnopyranoside, and quercetin-3-O-(2″,3″,4″-tri-O-galloyl)-α-l-rhamnopyranoside, together with five known galloylated and non-galloylated flavonol rhamnosides, were isolated from leaves of Calliandra tergemina (L.) Benth. Their structures were established using spectroscopic methods and their antibacterial activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were evaluated by a microdilution method.
A total of seventeen alkaloids, comprising six macroline (including alstofolinine A, a macroline indole incorporating a butyrolactone ring-E), two ajmaline, one sarpagine, and eight akuammiline alkaloids, were isolated from the stem-bark and leaf extracts of the Malayan Alstonia macrophylla. The structure and relative configurations of these alkaloids were established using NMR, MS and in several instances, confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Six of these alkaloids were effective in reversing multidrug-resistance (MDR) in vincristine-resistant KB cells.
In searching for symbionts derived from bioactive natural products, six sulfureous diketopiperazines designated as lasiodiplines A-F (1-6) were characterized from the culture of Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae F2, previously residing in the apparently normal flower of Illigera rhodantha (Hernandiaceae). Identification of structures was accomplished by a combination of spectroscopic and computational approaches, in conjunction with the low-temperature (100K) single-crystal X-ray diffraction with Cu Kα radiation. Lasiodipline E (5) was demonstrated to be antibacterial against the clinical strains Streptococcus sp., Bacteroides vulgates, Peptostreptococcus sp. and Veillonella parvula, respectively, with an minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range of 0.12-0.25 μg/mL. In addition, compounds 4 and 6 exemplify two unusual architectures of natural cyclodipeptides, signifying the unique biochemical characteristics of the producing fungus.
The genus Acronychia (Rutaceae) comprise 44 species, most of which are represented by shrubs and small trees, distributed in a wide geographical area of South-Eastern Asia comprising China, India, Malaysia, Indonesia, Australia, and the islands of the western Pacific Ocean. Most of the species of the genus Acronychia have been used for centuries as natural remedies in the ethnomedical traditions of indigenous populations as anti-microbial, anti-fungal, anti-spasmodic, stomachic, anti-pyretic, and anti-haemorragic agent. Moreover fruits and aerial parts are used as food in salads and condiments, while the essential oil obtained from flowers and leaves has been employed in cosmetics production. Phytochemicals isolated from Acronychia spp. include acetophenones, quinoline and acridone alkaloids, flavonoids, cinnamic acids, lignans, coumarins, steroids, and triterpenes. The reported biological activities of the above mentioned natural compounds refer to anti-plasmodial, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal, and neuroprotective effects. The aim of this review is to examine in detail from a phytochemical and pharmacologically point of view what is reported in the current literature about the properties of phytopreparations or individual active principles obtained from plants belonging to the Acronychia genus.
Vanadium-dependent haloperoxidases belong to a class of vanadium enzymes that may have potential industrial and pharmaceutical applications due to their high stability. In this study, the 5'-flanking genomic sequence and complete reading frame encoding vanadium-dependent bromoperoxidase (GcVBPO1) was cloned from the red seaweed, Fracilaria changii, and the recombinant protein was biochemically characterized. The deduced amino acid sequence of GcVBPO1 is 1818 nucleotides in length, sharing 49% identity with the vanadium-dependent bromoperoxidases from Corralina officinalis and Cor. pilulifera, respectively. The amino acid residues associated with the binding site of vanadate cofactor were found to be conserved. The Km value of recombinant GcVBPO1 for Br(-) was 4.69 mM, while its Vmax was 10.61 μkat mg(-1) at pH 7. Substitution of Arg(379) with His(379) in the recombinant protein caused a lower affinity for Br(-), while substitution of Arg(379) with Phe(379) not only increased its affinity for Br(-) but also enabled the mutant enzyme to oxidize Cl(-). The mutant Arg(379)Phe was also found to have a lower affinity for I(-), as compared to the wild-type GcVBPO1 and mutant Arg(379)His. In addition, the Arg(379)Phe mutant has a slightly higher affinity for H2O2 compared to the wild-type GcVBPO1. Multiple cis-acting regulatory elements associated with light response, hormone signaling, and meristem expression were detected at the 5'-flanking genomic sequence of GcVBPO1. The transcript abundance of GcVBPO1 was relatively higher in seaweed samples treated with 50 parts per thousand (ppt) artificial seawater (ASW) compared to those treated in 10 and 30 ppt ASW, in support of its role in the abiotic stress response of seaweed.
Phytochemical investigation on the leaves of Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae), an important medicinal herb in Malaysia, has led to the isolation of 1-O-methyl-6-acetoxy-5-(pentadec-10Z-enyl)resorcinol (1), labisiaquinone A (2) and labisiaquinone B (3). Along with these, 16 known compounds including 1-O-methyl-6-acetoxy-5-pentadecylresorcinol (4), 5-(pentadec-10Z-enyl)resorcinol (5), 5-(pentadecyl)resorcinol (6), (-)-loliolide (7), stigmasterol (8), 4-hydroxyphenylethylamine (9), 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid (10), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (11), (+)-catechin (12), (-)-epicatechin (13), kaempferol-3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-7-O-β-glycopyranoside (14), kaempferol-4'-O-β-glycopyranoside (15), quercetin-3-O-α-rhamnopyranoside (16), kaempferol-3-O-α-rhamnopyranoside (17), (9Z,12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid (18) and stigmasterol-3-O-β-glycopyranoside (19) were also isolated. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy techniques (¹H, ¹³C, COSY, HSQC, NOESY and HMBC experiments), mass spectrometry and chemical derivatization. Among the constituents tested 1 and 4 exhibited strongest cytotoxic activity against the PC3, HCT116 and MCF-7 cell lines (IC₅₀ values ≤ 10 μM), and they showed selectivity towards the first two-cell lines relative to the last one.
Three benzophenones, 2,6,3',5'-tetrahydroxybenzophenone (1), 3,4,5,3',5'-pentahydroxybenzophenone (3) and 3,5,3',5'-tetrahydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (4), as well as a xanthone, 1,3,6-trihydroxy-5-methoxy-7-(3'-methyl-2'-oxo-but-3'-enyl)xanthone (9), were isolated from the twigs of Garcinia cantleyana var. cantleyana. Eight known compounds, 3,4,5,3'-tetrahydroxy benzophenone (2), 1,3,5-trihydroxyxanthone (5), 1,3,8-trihydroxyxanthone (6), 2,4,7-trihydroxyxanthone (7), 1,3,5,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone (8), quercetin, glutin-5-en-3β-ol and friedelin were also isolated. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The compounds were investigated for their ability to inhibit low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and platelet aggregation in human whole blood in vitro. Most of the compounds showed strong antioxidant activity with compound 8 showing the highest inhibition with an IC₅₀ value of 0.5 μM, comparable to that of probucol. Among the compounds tested, only compound 4 exhibited strong inhibitory activity against platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid (AA), adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and collagen. Compounds 3, 5 and 8 showed selective inhibitory activity on platelet aggregation induced by ADP.
Nine bisindole alkaloids, comprising four belonging to the macroline-sarpagine group, and five belonging to the macroline-pleiocarpamine group, were isolated from the stem-bark extracts of Alstonia angustifolia (Apocynacea). Their structures were established using NMR and MS analyses.
A total of 20 alkaloids were isolated from the leaf and stem-bark extracts of Alstonia angustiloba, of which two are hitherto unknown. One is an alkaloid of the angustilobine type (angustilobine C), while the other is a bisindole alkaloid angustiphylline, derived from the union of uleine and secovallesamine moieties. The structures of these alkaloids were established using NMR and MS analysis. Angustilobine C showed moderate cytotoxicity towards KB cells.
Leucofoline and leuconoline, representing the first members of the aspidospermatan-aspidospermatan and eburnane-sarpagine subclasses of the bisindole alkaloids, respectively, were isolated from the Malayan Leuconotis griffithii. The structures of these bisindole alkaloids were established using NMR and MS analysis, and in the case of leuconoline, confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Both alkaloids showed weak cytotoxicity towards human KB cells.
Fifteen prenylated or geranylated flavanones and flavanonols were isolated from the leaf extracts of different Glycosmis species collected in Thailand and Malaysia. All structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, especially 1D and 2D NMR. Six compounds were described for the first time and two were only known so far as synthetic products. The chemotaxonomic significance of flavanoid accumulation within the genus Glycosmis is highlighted.
Four tetracyclic oxindole alkaloids, 7(R)- and 7(S)-geissoschizol oxindole (1 and 2), 7(R),16(R)- and 7(S),16(R)-19(E)-isositsirikine oxindole (3 and 4), in addition to a taberpsychine derivative, N(4)-demethyltaberpsychine (5), were isolated from the Malayan Tabernaemontana corymbosa and the structures were established using NMR and MS analysis.
During our studies on Malaysian Laurencia species, brominated metabolites, tiomanene, acetylmajapolene B, and acetylmajapolene A were isolated from an unrecorded species collected at Pulau Tioman, Pahang along with known majapolene B and majapolene A. Acetylmajapolene A was a mixture of diastereomers as in the case of majapolene A. Tiomanene may be a plausible precursor for acetylmajapolenes B and A. In addition, three known halogenated sesquiterpenes and two known halogenated C(15) acetogenins were found from other two unrecorded species collected at Pulau Karah, Terengganu and Pulau Nyireh, Terengganu, respectively. Some of these halogenated metabolites showed moderate antibacterial activity against some marine bacteria.
The bark extract of Melicope subunifoliolata (Stapf) T.G. Hartley showed competitive muscarinic receptor binding activity. Six polymethoxyflavones [melibentin (1); melisimplexin (3); 3,3',4',5,7-pentamethoxyflavone (4); meliternatin (5); 3,5,8-trimethoxy-3',4',6,7-bismethylenedioxyflavone (6); and isokanugin (7)] and one furanocoumarin [5-methoxy-8-geranyloxypsoralen (2)] were isolated from the bark extract. Compounds 2 and 6 were isolated for the first time from M. subunifoliolata. The methoxyflavones (compounds 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7) show moderate inhibition in a muscarinic receptor binding assay, while the furanocoumarin (compound 2) is inactive. The potency of the methoxyflavones to inhibit [(3)H]NMS-muscarinic receptor binding is influenced by the position and number of methoxy substitution. The results suggest these compounds are probably muscarinic modulators, agonists or partial agonists/antagonists.
Two seco-tabersonine alkaloids, jerantiphyllines A and B, in addition to a tabersonine hydroxyindolenine, jerantinine H, and a recently reported vincamine alkaloid 7, were isolated from the leaf extract of the Malayan Tabernaemontana corymbosa and the structures were established using NMR and MS analysis. Biomimetic conversion of jerantinines A and E to their respective vincamine and 16-epivincamine derivatives were also carried out.