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  1. Rabeta Mohd Salleh, Suzana Shahar, Fatimah Arshad, Ahmad Rohi Ghazali, Normah Haron, Nor Fadilah Rajab
    MyJurnal
    Kajian kes-kawalan ini dijalankan untuk mengkaji hubungan adipositi dan komposisi tubuh terhadap risiko kanser payudara di kalangan 70 orang wanita yang baru didiagnos kanser payudara dan 138 orang kawalan. Parameter antropometri yang merangkumi tinggi, berat, ukuran pinggang dan ukuran pinggul dan aras glukosa darah berpuasa serta tekanan darah diukur di kalangan subjek. Komposisi tubuh ditentukan menggunakan analisis bioimpedans (Maltron 906). Hasil kajian menunjukkan Indeks Jisim Tubuh (?T) kumpulan kes adalah 26.0 ± 4.8 kg/m2 dan 25.3 ± 4.5 kg/m2 bagi kumpulan kawalan (p > 0.05). Seramai 71% subjek dari kumpulan kes dan 40% subjek kumpulan kawalan mengalami obesiti abdominal (ukurlilit pinggang 80 cm) [OR = 3.4 (95% CI =1.7-6.9] (p < 0.05). Wanita pra menopaus berisiko sebanyak empat kali untuk mendapat kanser payudara dengan [Adjusted OR = 4.3 (95% CI = 1.8-10.3)]. Peratus lemak tubuh adalah tinggi di kalangan kes (36.4 ± 4.7%) berbanding kawalan 35.3 ± 4.4% tetapi perbezaan ini adalah tidak signifikan. Jisim Tubuh Tanpa Lemak ?TTL) menunjukkan nilai min 38.8 ± 5.7 kg bagi kawalan dan 38.9 ± 5.5 kg pada kes. Korelasi positif yang lemah ditunjukkan di antara umur dan IJT (r = 0.179, p = 0.010), ukuran pinggang (r = 0.218, p = 0.002), nisbah pinggang-pinggul (NPR) (r = 0.233, p = 0.001) dan peratus lemak tubuh (r = 0.330, p = 0.000). Kesimpulannya, obesiti abdominal meningkatkan risiko kanser payudara, terutama di kalangan wanita pra menopaus. Obesiti jenis ini dan peratus lemak tubuh adalah meningkat dengan pertambahan usia. Adalah penting bagi wanita untuk mengekalkan ukuran pinggang yang sihat melalui gaya hidup sihat bagi mengurangkan risiko kanser payudara.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts
  2. Ameer OZ, Salman IM, Asmawi MZ, Ibraheem ZO, Yam MF
    J Med Food, 2012 Aug;15(8):678-90.
    PMID: 22846075 DOI: 10.1089/jmf.2011.1973
    Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. (Lambiaceae) is an important plant in traditional folk medicine. This review is a comprehensive summary of the currently available chemical, pharmacological, and toxicological investigations as well as the traditional and therapeutic uses of this plant. Different in vitro and in vivo models have been addressed along with a survey of all phytochemicals identified in this plant, including flavonoids, terpenoids, and essential oils. Previous studies revealed that O. stamineus possesses several pharmacological activities, which are attributed to its phytochemical content. It was found that O. stamineus exhibits diuretic, hypouricemic, renal protective, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, antimicrobial, and anorexic activities. In conclusion, O. stamineus has wide traditional and pharmacological uses in various pathophysiological conditions. Therefore, it is an attractive subject for further experimental and clinical investigations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/adverse effects; Plant Extracts/analysis*; Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  3. Farah Fauzi, Arimi Fitri Mat Ludin, Mahadir Ahmad, Kamarul Zaman Maidin
    MyJurnal
    Aktiviti fizikal yang kerap seperti senaman mempunyai implikasi yang baik terhadap kehidupan seharian kita terutamanya dalam aspek kesihatan dan pengurusan stres. Kajian ini adalah bertujuan untuk mengkaji kesan program senaman aerobik dengan protokol yang ditetapkan ke atas aras penanda tekanan terpilih di kalangan pelajar universiti semasa musim peperiksaan akademik. Lapan belas (n=18) mahasiswa tidak terlatih, dipadankan dengan umur dan BMI, telah dibahagikan kepada 2 kumpulan iaitu kumpulan intervensi (n=10) dan kawalan (n=8). Kumpulan intervensi menjalani senaman jenis aerobik berintensiti sederhana (60-75% daripada kadar denyut jantung maksimum), 3 kali seminggu selama 40-50 minit untuk setiap sesi selama 6 minggu. Darah vena diambil pada sebelum program senaman bermula (M1) dan selepas program senaman berakhir (M2) iaitu dalam minggu pertama musim peperiksaan. Kecergasan kardiorespiratori dan status stres psikologi diukur sebelum kedua-dua sesi pengambilan darah. Analisis biokima dijalankan untuk melihat aras malondialdehid (MDA) plasma dan kortisol serum. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahawa program senaman selama 6 minggu ini telah merangsang penurunan aras MDA yang signifikan (F=19.58, p=0.002) semasa minggu peperiksaan berbanding aras sebelum program senaman bermula. Kumpulan intervensi juga menunjukkan aras MDA yang lebih rendah (t=-0.42, p=0.001) berbanding kumpulan kawalan semasa menduduki minggu peperiksaan. Walaubagaimanapun, tiada perbezaan yang signifikan pada aras kortisol dalam kedua-dua kumpulan walaupun terdapat penurunan yang sedikit pada kumpulan intervensi semasa minggu peperiksaan. Kajian ini mencadangkan bahawa program senaman yang dijalankan mampu dijadikan sebagai strategi yang berkesan untuk membantu pelajar menghadapi stres terutamanya sewaktu sesi akademik yang memberatkan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts
  4. Norhani Mohidin, Bakyah Lorenza Zaimuri
    MyJurnal
    Kanta sentuh merupakan alat optikal yang sepatutnya selamat digunakan untuk pembetulan ralat refraksi atau kosmetik. Namun demikian terdapat permasalahan berkaitan kesihatan mata yang timbul akibat sikap pemakai yang tidak patuh kepada garis panduan penjagaan kanta yang disaran oleh pengamal kesihatan mata. Justeru itu satu soal selidik berkaitan penjagaan kanta sentuh dilakukan di kalangan pemakai kanta sentuh di sekitar Kuala Lumpur. Ia berdasarkan 22 set soalan terfokus kepada penjagaan kanta sentuh termasuklah tatacara pembersihan dan disifeksi, rawatan enzim, penggunaan agen pembasah dan kekerapan menghadiri pemeriksaan lanjutan. Di samping itu, terdapat enam soalan yang diaju untuk meninjau pengetahuan pemakai berkaitan penjagaan kanta sentuh yang selamat. Seramai 104 pemakai kanta sentuh mengambil bahagian dalam kajian ini. Lebih kurang 86% daripada mereka adalah wanita dengan min umur 24 ± 6 tahun. Lebih setengah daripada mereka memakai kanta sentuh jenis pakai buang. Hampir kesemuanya (98%) menggunakan sistem disinfeksi kimia. Hanya 68% pemakai yang dikaji mencuci kanta mereka setiap kali sebelum memakai dan selepas menanggalkannya. Tiga puluh peratus (30%) pemakai kanta sentuh menggunakan agen pembasah dan 40% menggunakan tablet protein. Enam puluh satu peratus (61%) daripada mereka menyatakan tidak membuat temu janji untuk pemeriksaan lanjutan. Enam soalan tertumpu kepada pengetahuan pemakai mengenai penjagaan kanta yang selamat dan min jawapan yang betul ialah 61.4%. Sebahagian pemakai kanta sentuh tidak mengikut arahan penjagaan kanta sentuh seperti yang disaran oleh pengamal kesihatan mata. Ramai yang tidak faham akan garis panduan pemakaian kanta yang selamat. Kajian ini menunjukkan sebahagian daripada pemakai kanta sentuh tidak mempunyai pengetahuan yang cukup mengenai risiko dan bahaya ke atas mata mereka kerana ketidakpatuhan pada arahan yang disaran oleh pengamal kesihatan mata. Pengamal kanta sentuh perlu memikirkan semula strategi untuk memastikan pemakai patuh kepada arahan berkaitan penjagaan kanta sentuh supaya komplikasi dapat dikurangkan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts
  5. Priscilla Tang Shu Fern, Masne Kadar, Noorashikin Samin, Nor Afifi Razaob
    MyJurnal
    Kefungsian mobiliti dalam kalangan populasi warga emas merupakan elemen yang penting bagi kualiti hidup yang
    lebih bermakna. Penilaian adalah penting untuk memastikan langkah-langkah sewajarnya boleh diambil demi
    mengesan perubahan dalam kefungsian mobiliti. Terdapat pelbagai jenis penilaian mobiliti namun kebanyakan
    kajian kebolehpercayaan ulang semula alat penilaian ini adalah berdasarkan kajian luar negara. Oleh itu, kajian
    ini adalah untuk menentukan kebolehpercayaan tiga alat penilaian status kefungsian mobiliti terutama aktiviti fizikal
    dalam kalangan warga emas. Seramai 60 orang warga emas dengan min umur 76.32 tahun dan sisihan piawai 8.66
    terlibat dalam kajian kebolehpercayaan uji-ulang semula bagi tiga jenis alat penilaian; Ujian Berjalan Enam Minit
    [Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT)], Ujian Bangun dan Berjalan [Timed Up and Go Test (TUG)], Ujian Duduk-Berdiri [Sitto-Stand
    Test (STS)]. Bacaan di ambil sebanyak dua kali dengan selang masa seminggu antara penilaian pertama dan
    kedua. Korelasi Intra-Kelas [Intraclass Correlation (ICC)], Had Keserasian [Limits of Agreement (LOA)] dan Ralat
    Pengukuran Piawai [Standard Error of Measurement (SEM)] dan diikuti kombinasi ketiga-tiga kaedah telah digunakan
    dalam analisa data. Hasil kajian menunjukkan ketiga-tiga alat penilaian menggunakan metodologi analisis statistik
    ICC, LOA, SEM dan kombinasi ketiga-tiga metodologi tersebut menunjukkan nilai kebolehpercayaan yang tinggi. Nilai
    ICC bagi kesemua alat penilaian aktiviti melebihi 0.90 (ICC=0.94-0.99). Graf LOA menunjukkan wujudnya suatu tahap
    kebolehpercayaan bagi kesemua alat penilaian aktiviti manakala peratus SEM pula merekodkan nilai kurang dari
    10% (SEM%=0.95%-9.95%). Kesimpulannya, ketiga-tiga alat penilaian mempunyai ketekalan yang tinggi dan sesuai
    digunakan sebagai salah satu alat penilaian kefungsian mobiliti bagi warga emas di Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts
  6. Chan CH, Yusoff R, Ngoh GC, Kung FW
    J Chromatogr A, 2011 Sep 16;1218(37):6213-25.
    PMID: 21820119 DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2011.07.040
    Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) is widely employed in the analysis and the extraction of active compounds from plants. This review summarizes the research done during the last decade on the MAE of active ingredients from plants. Advances and modifications to improve the performance of MAE are presented and discussed in detail. Modified MAE such as vacuum microwave-assisted extraction (VMAE), nitrogen-protected microwave-assisted extraction (NPMAE), ultrasonic microwave-assisted extraction (UMAE), dynamic microwave-assisted extraction (DMAE) and other advancements in MAE are also detailed in this article. In addition, the microwave extraction procedures and the important parameters influencing its performance are also included, together with the advantages and the drawbacks of each MAE techniques.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/isolation & purification*
  7. Sabandar CW, Ahmat N, Jaafar FM, Sahidin I
    Phytochemistry, 2013 Jan;85:7-29.
    PMID: 23153517 DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2012.10.009
    The genus Jatropha (Euphorbiaceae) comprises of about 170 species of woody trees, shrubs, subshrubs or herbs in the seasonally dry tropics of the Old and the New World. They are used in medicinal folklore to cure various diseases of 80% of the human population in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Species from this genus have been popular to cure stomachache, toothache, swelling, inflammation, leprosy, dysentery, dyscrasia, vertigo, anemia, diabetis, as well as to treat HIV and tumor, opthalmia, ringworm, ulcers, malaria, skin diseases, bronchitis, asthma and as an aphrodisiac. They are also employed as ornamental plants and energy crops. Cyclic peptides alkaloids, diterpenes and miscellaneous compounds have been reported from this genus. Extracts and pure compounds of plants from this genus are reported for cytotoxicity, tumor-promoting, antimicrobial, antiprotozoal, anticoagulant, immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, protoscolicidal, insecticidal, molluscicidal, inhibition AChE and toxicity activities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  8. Bello I, Shehu MW, Musa M, Zaini Asmawi M, Mahmud R
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2016 Aug 02;189:253-76.
    PMID: 27220655 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.05.049
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Kigelia africana is a quintessential African herbal medicinal plant with a pan-African distribution and immense indigenous medicinal and non-medicinal applications. The plant is use traditionally as a remedy for numerous disease such as use wounds healing, rheumatism, psoriasis, diarrhea and stomach ailments. It is also use as an aphrodisiac and for skin care.

    AIM OF THE REVIEW: The present review aims to compile an up-to-date review of the progress made in the continuous pharmacological and phytochemistry investigation of K. africana and the corresponding commercial and pharmaceutical application of these findings with the ultimate objective of providing a guide for future research on this plant.

    METHOD: The scholarly information needed for this paper were predominantly sourced from the electronic search engines such as Google, Google scholar; publishing sites such as Elsevier, scienceDirect, BMC, PubMed; other scientific database sites for chemicals such as ChemSpider, PubChem, and also from online books.

    RESULTS: Pharmacological investigations conducted confirm the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant and anticancer activity of the extract of different parts of the plant. Bioactive constituents are found to be present in all parts of the plant. So far, approximately 150 compounds have been characterized from different part of the plant. Iridoids, naphthoquinones, flavonoids, terpenes and phenylethanoglycosides are the major class of compounds isolated. Novel compounds with potent antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer effect such as verbascoside, verminoside and pinnatal among others, have been identified. Commercial trade of K. africana has boosted in the las few decades. Its effect in the maintenance of skin has been recognized resulting in a handful of skin formulations in the market.

    CONCLUSIONS: The pharmaceutical potentials of K. africana has been recognized and have witness a surge in research interest. However, till date, many of its traditional medicinal uses has not been investigated scientifically. Further probing of the existential researches on its pharmacological activity is recommended with the end-goal of unravelling the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical relevance and possible toxicity and side effects of both the extract and the active ingredients isolated.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/isolation & purification; Plant Extracts/pharmacology*; Plant Extracts/toxicity; Plant Extracts/chemistry
  9. Zaizuhana S, Puteri J Noor MB, Noral'ashikin Y, Muhammad H, Rohana AB, Zakiah I
    Trop Biomed, 2006 Dec;23(2):214-9.
    PMID: 17322824 MyJurnal
    Kacip Fatimah also known as Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae), is a traditional herbal medicine with a long history in the Malay community. It has been used by many generations of Malay women to induce and facilitate childbirth as well as a post-partum medicine. We tested the genotoxic potential of Kacip Fatimah in bone marrow cells obtained from Sprague-Dawley rats using micronuclei formation as the toxicological endpoints. Five groups of five male rats each were administered orally for two consecutive days with doses of 100, 700 and 2000 mg/kg body weight of Kacip Fatimah extract dissolved in distilled water. Micronucleus preparation was obtained from bone marrow cells of the animals following standard protocols. No statistically significant increase in micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs) was observed at any dose level and sacrifice/harvest time point (24, 48 and 72h). However, a significant decrease in polychromatic erythrocytes/normochromatic erythrocytes (PCE:NCE) ratio was observed from the highest dose level (2000 mg/kg of body weight) at 48h harvest time point. In this study, we investigated the effect of Kacip Fatimah on mammalian bone marrow cells using micronuclei formation to assess the genotoxicity of the herb.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/toxicity*; Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  10. Cyranoski D
    Nat. Med., 2005 Sep;11(9):912.
    PMID: 16145563
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology; Plant Extracts/chemistry
  11. Zia-Ul-Haq M, Riaz M, De Feo V, Jaafar HZ, Moga M
    Molecules, 2014;19(8):10998-1029.
    PMID: 25072202 DOI: 10.3390/molecules190810998
    Rubus fruticosus L. is a shrub famous for its fruit called blackberry fruit or more commonly blackberry. The fruit has medicinal, cosmetic and nutritive value. It is a concentrated source of valuable nutrients, as well as bioactive constituents of therapeutic interest highlighting its importance as a functional food. Besides use as a fresh fruit, it is also used as ingredient in cooked dishes, salads and bakery products like jams, snacks, desserts, and fruit preserves. R. fruticosus contains vitamins, steroids and lipids in seed oil and minerals, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenes, acids and tannins in aerial parts that possess diverse pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial anti-diabetic, anti-diarrheal, and antiviral. Various agrogeoclimatological factors like cultivar, environmental conditions of the area, agronomic practices employed, harvest time, post-harvest storage and processing techniques all influence the nutritional composition of blackberry fruit. This review focuses on the nutrients and chemical constituents as well as medicinal properties of different parts of R. fruticosus. Various cultivars and their physicochemical characteristics, polyphenolic content and ascorbic acid content are also discussed. The information in the present work will serve as baseline data and may lead to new biomedical applications of R. fruticosus as functional food.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*; Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  12. Hussain AI, Rathore HA, Sattar MZ, Chatha SA, Sarker SD, Gilani AH
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2014 Aug 8;155(1):54-66.
    PMID: 24936768 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2014.06.011
    Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad is a valuable cucurbit plant, widely distributed in the desert areas of the world. Citrullus colocynthis fruits are usually recognized for its wide range of medicinal uses as well as pharmaceutical and nutraceutical potential. This review aims to appraise the published information on the ethnobotanical knowledge, phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology, nutraceutical potential and safety studies of Citrullus colocynthis (bitter apple) fruit, with critical analysis on the gaps and potential for future studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/adverse effects; Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  13. Ho LH, Bhat R
    Food Chem, 2015 Feb 1;168:80-9.
    PMID: 25172686 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.07.020
    This review focuses on providing informations on potential uses of durian, an exotic tropical fruit as a source of food, as well as a potential therapeutic agent. Apart from disseminating details on the traditional value, in this review we have focussed on the nutritional composition, presence of bioactive compounds, volatiles, antimicrobials, as well as on the toxicological effects of durian fruit consumption. Durian fruits are enjoyed for their unique taste and organoleptic qualities, but there is also a need to ensure that their potential is exploited for the international market. In addition, in the present socio-economic scenario, tapping the potential of exotic tropical fruit such as durian could benefit the health of consumers as well as support the local population who depend on farming for a livelihood. Overall, it is envisaged that identifying the nutraceutical potential of the edible and non-edible parts of durian fruits can benefit food and pharmaceutical industries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology; Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  14. Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZ
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:523120.
    PMID: 25147852 DOI: 10.1155/2014/523120
    Response surface methodology was applied to optimization of the conditions for reflux extraction of Pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.) in order to achieve a high content of total flavonoids (TF), total phenolics (TP), and high antioxidant capacity (AC) in the extracts. Central composite experimental design with three factors and three levels was employed to consider the effects of the operation parameters, including the methanol concentration (MC, 40%-80%), extraction temperature (ET, 40-70°C), and liquid-to-solid ratio (LS ratio, 20-40 mL/g) on the properties of the extracts. Response surface plots showed that increasing these operation parameters induced the responses significantly. The TF content and AC could be maximized when the extraction conditions (MC, ET, and LS ratio) were 78.8%, 69.5°C, and 32.4 mL/g, respectively, whereas the TP content was optimal when these variables were 75.1%, 70°C, and 31.8 mL/g, respectively. Under these optimum conditions, the experimental TF and TP content and AC were 1.78, 6.601 mg/g DW, and 87.38%, respectively. The optimized model was validated by a comparison of the predicted and experimental values. The experimental values were found to be in agreement with the predicted values, indicating the suitability of the model for optimizing the conditions for the reflux extraction of Pandan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology; Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  15. Hanifah AL, Awang SH, Ho TM, Abidin SZ, Omar MH
    Asian Pac J Trop Biomed, 2011 Oct;1(5):365-9.
    PMID: 23569794 DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60081-6
    To examine the acaricidal effects of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus leaf extract (lemongrass) and ethanolic Azadirachta indica leaf extract (neem) against house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae (D. farinae) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus).
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*; Plant Extracts/chemistry
  16. Ariffin F, Heong Chew S, Bhupinder K, Karim AA, Huda N
    J. Sci. Food Agric., 2011 Dec;91(15):2731-9.
    PMID: 21987075 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.4454
    C. asiatica was exposed to various fermentations: no fermentation (0 min), partial fermentation (120 min) and full fermentation (24 h). Total phenolic content (TPC) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of C. asiatica infusions were studied as a function of water temperature (60, 80 or 100 °C), the brewing stage (one, two or three) and the brewing time (1, 3, 5, 10, 15 or 20 min). The optimum brewing procedure was adopted to study the antioxidant properties and phenolic compounds in C. asiatica infusions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*; Plant Extracts/chemistry
  17. Alam N, Hossain M, Khalil MI, Moniruzzaman M, Sulaiman SA, Gan SH
    PMID: 21854608 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-11-65
    Withania somnifera is an important medicinal plant traditionally used in the treatment of many diseases. The present study was carried out to characterize the phenolic acids, flavonoids and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging activities in methanolic extracts of W. somnifera fruits, roots and leaves (WSFEt, WSREt and WSLEt).
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/analysis*; Plant Extracts/isolation & purification
  18. Khanam Z, Singh O, Singh R, Bhat IU
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2013 Nov 25;150(2):421-41.
    PMID: 24045177 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.08.064
    Safed musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum) is an eminent medicinal plant of India and considered as a 'white gold' or 'divya aushad' in Indian systems of medicine. In Ayurveda, Chlorophytum borivilianum belongs to the group of "Vajikaran Rasayana" corroborated to its rejuvenating, aphrodisiac, natural sex tonic properties and effective in alleviating sexual disorders. It is largely used as ethnic medicine by local healers of indigenous communities of India.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology; Plant Extracts/therapeutic use
  19. Epifano F, Fiorito S, Genovese S
    Phytochemistry, 2013 Nov;95:12-8.
    PMID: 23920228 DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2013.07.013
    The genus Acronychia (Rutaceae) comprise 44 species, most of which are represented by shrubs and small trees, distributed in a wide geographical area of South-Eastern Asia comprising China, India, Malaysia, Indonesia, Australia, and the islands of the western Pacific Ocean. Most of the species of the genus Acronychia have been used for centuries as natural remedies in the ethnomedical traditions of indigenous populations as anti-microbial, anti-fungal, anti-spasmodic, stomachic, anti-pyretic, and anti-haemorragic agent. Moreover fruits and aerial parts are used as food in salads and condiments, while the essential oil obtained from flowers and leaves has been employed in cosmetics production. Phytochemicals isolated from Acronychia spp. include acetophenones, quinoline and acridone alkaloids, flavonoids, cinnamic acids, lignans, coumarins, steroids, and triterpenes. The reported biological activities of the above mentioned natural compounds refer to anti-plasmodial, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal, and neuroprotective effects. The aim of this review is to examine in detail from a phytochemical and pharmacologically point of view what is reported in the current literature about the properties of phytopreparations or individual active principles obtained from plants belonging to the Acronychia genus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*; Plant Extracts/therapeutic use
  20. Syahmi AR, Vijayarathna S, Sasidharan S, Latha LY, Kwan YP, Lau YL, et al.
    Molecules, 2010 Nov;15(11):8111-21.
    PMID: 21072022 DOI: 10.3390/molecules15118111
    Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceae) is widely used in West African traditional medicine for treating various ailments. An evaluation on the toxicity of extracts of this plant is crucial to support the therapeutic claims. The acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of a methanolic extract of this plant was tested. Oral administration of crude extract at the highest dose of 5,000 mg/kg resulted in no mortalities or evidence of adverse effects, implying that E. guineensis is nontoxic. Normal behavioral pattern, clinical signs and histology of vital organs confirm this evidence. The E. guineensis extracts screened for toxicity against brine shrimp had 50% lethal concentration (LC₅₀) values of more than 1.0 mg/mL (9.00 and 3.87 mg/mL, at 6 and 24 h, respectively), confirming that the extract was not toxic. Maximum mortalities occurred at 100 mg/mL concentration while the least mortalities happened to be at 0.195 mg/mL concentration. The results of both tests confirm that E. guineensis is nontoxic and hence safe for commercial utilization.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/toxicity*; Plant Extracts/chemistry*
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