Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 2270 in total

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  1. Baharuddin NS, Abdullah H, Abdul Wahab WN
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2015 Jan-Mar;7(1):15-20.
    PMID: 25709331 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.148742
    Galls of Quercus infectoria have been traditionally used to treat common ailments, including yeast infections caused by Candida species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts
  2. Rabeta Mohd Salleh, Suzana Shahar, Fatimah Arshad, Ahmad Rohi Ghazali, Normah Haron, Nor Fadilah Rajab
    MyJurnal
    Kajian kes-kawalan ini dijalankan untuk mengkaji hubungan adipositi dan komposisi tubuh terhadap risiko kanser payudara di kalangan 70 orang wanita yang baru didiagnos kanser payudara dan 138 orang kawalan. Parameter antropometri yang merangkumi tinggi, berat, ukuran pinggang dan ukuran pinggul dan aras glukosa darah berpuasa serta tekanan darah diukur di kalangan subjek. Komposisi tubuh ditentukan menggunakan analisis bioimpedans (Maltron 906). Hasil kajian menunjukkan Indeks Jisim Tubuh (?T) kumpulan kes adalah 26.0 ± 4.8 kg/m2 dan 25.3 ± 4.5 kg/m2 bagi kumpulan kawalan (p > 0.05). Seramai 71% subjek dari kumpulan kes dan 40% subjek kumpulan kawalan mengalami obesiti abdominal (ukurlilit pinggang 80 cm) [OR = 3.4 (95% CI =1.7-6.9] (p < 0.05). Wanita pra menopaus berisiko sebanyak empat kali untuk mendapat kanser payudara dengan [Adjusted OR = 4.3 (95% CI = 1.8-10.3)]. Peratus lemak tubuh adalah tinggi di kalangan kes (36.4 ± 4.7%) berbanding kawalan 35.3 ± 4.4% tetapi perbezaan ini adalah tidak signifikan. Jisim Tubuh Tanpa Lemak ?TTL) menunjukkan nilai min 38.8 ± 5.7 kg bagi kawalan dan 38.9 ± 5.5 kg pada kes. Korelasi positif yang lemah ditunjukkan di antara umur dan IJT (r = 0.179, p = 0.010), ukuran pinggang (r = 0.218, p = 0.002), nisbah pinggang-pinggul (NPR) (r = 0.233, p = 0.001) dan peratus lemak tubuh (r = 0.330, p = 0.000). Kesimpulannya, obesiti abdominal meningkatkan risiko kanser payudara, terutama di kalangan wanita pra menopaus. Obesiti jenis ini dan peratus lemak tubuh adalah meningkat dengan pertambahan usia. Adalah penting bagi wanita untuk mengekalkan ukuran pinggang yang sihat melalui gaya hidup sihat bagi mengurangkan risiko kanser payudara.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts
  3. Matsuura S, Kunii T, Iinuma M
    Yakugaku Zasshi, 1973 Nov;93(11):1517-9.
    PMID: 4798539
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/analysis
  4. Ahmad Shiekh K, Odunayo Olatunde O, Zhang B, Huda N, Benjakul S
    Food Chem, 2021 Oct 15;359:129976.
    PMID: 33957326 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129976
    Impact of pulsed electric field (PEF) assisted process on preparation of custard apple leaf extract (CALE) using ethanol (70%, v/v) was studied. Different electric field strengths (2-6 kV/cm), pulse numbers (100-300 pulses) with specific energies (45-142 kJ/kg) for 2.5 to 5 min were implemented. Cell disintegration index was higher in CALE when PEF 6 kV/cm, 300 pulses, 142 kJ/kg for 5 min was applied. Extraction yield was higher (+5.2%) than the untreated counterpart (13.28%). Chlorophyll A and B contents were negligible in PEF pre-treated CALE. PEF improved radical scavenging activities assessed by DPPH, ABTS radical scavening activities and FRAP. The antibacterial properties of CALE against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were highest. Purpureacin 2 and rutin were abundant in PEF pre-treated CALE. Therefore PEF was the potential aid in augmenting extraction yield and bioactivities of the extract from custard apple leaves.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  5. Reddy BS, Rao NR, Vijeepallam K, Pandy V
    PMID: 28480421 DOI: 10.21010/ajtcam.v14i3.11
    BACKGROUND: Tragia belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae which contains about 152 species. Interestingly, most of the earlier investigations have been done using only five Tragia species, namely, Tragia involucrata, Tragia cannabina, Tragia spathulata, Tragia plukenetii, and Tragia benthamii. The objective of the present review is to compile the phytochemical, pharmacological and biological studies of the selected five Tragia species reported in the literature.

    METHODS: The reported data/information was retrieved mainly from the online databases of PubMed (MEDLINE), EMBASE and Botanical Survey of India.

    RESULTS: The present review elaborated the phytochemical, pharmacological and biological properties of the selected five Tragia species obtained from recent literature.

    CONCLUSION: This review provides a basis for future investigation of Tragia species and, especially for those species that have not been explored for biological and pharmacological activities.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*; Plant Extracts/chemistry
  6. Juwita T, Melyani Puspitasari I, Levita J
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2018 Jan;21(4):151-165.
    PMID: 30311471 DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2018.151.165
    In order to propose a prospective candidate for novel complementary phytopharmaceuticals, one of Zingiberaceae family plant, Etlingeraelatior or torch ginger, was being evaluated. The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive literature research focused on the botanical aspects, nutritional quality, phytoconstituents and pharmacological activities of E. elatior. Researches on this particular plant were conducted in Malaysia (55.5%), Indonesia (33.3%), Thailand (8.3%) and Singapore (2.7%). This review article has revealed that the most prominent pharmacological activities were anti-microbial, anti-oxidant and anti-tumor activities in consistent with the dominated levels of flavonoids, terpenoids and phenols. However, extended and integrated research should be converged towards intensive investigations concerning to isolated phytoconstituents and its bioactivities, pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, molecular mechanism of its specific pharmacological activities, safety and efficacy studies for further development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*; Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  7. Hamid RA, Kee TH, Othman F
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2013 Apr;5(2):129-33.
    PMID: 23798889 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.110544
    Acanthopanax trifoliatus is a ginseng-like plant, which has been widely used to treat various diseases including inflammatory-related diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts
  8. Ameer OZ, Salman IM, Asmawi MZ, Ibraheem ZO, Yam MF
    J Med Food, 2012 Aug;15(8):678-90.
    PMID: 22846075 DOI: 10.1089/jmf.2011.1973
    Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. (Lambiaceae) is an important plant in traditional folk medicine. This review is a comprehensive summary of the currently available chemical, pharmacological, and toxicological investigations as well as the traditional and therapeutic uses of this plant. Different in vitro and in vivo models have been addressed along with a survey of all phytochemicals identified in this plant, including flavonoids, terpenoids, and essential oils. Previous studies revealed that O. stamineus possesses several pharmacological activities, which are attributed to its phytochemical content. It was found that O. stamineus exhibits diuretic, hypouricemic, renal protective, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, antimicrobial, and anorexic activities. In conclusion, O. stamineus has wide traditional and pharmacological uses in various pathophysiological conditions. Therefore, it is an attractive subject for further experimental and clinical investigations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/adverse effects; Plant Extracts/analysis*; Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  9. Norhani Mohidin, Bakyah Lorenza Zaimuri
    MyJurnal
    Kanta sentuh merupakan alat optikal yang sepatutnya selamat digunakan untuk pembetulan ralat refraksi atau kosmetik. Namun demikian terdapat permasalahan berkaitan kesihatan mata yang timbul akibat sikap pemakai yang tidak patuh kepada garis panduan penjagaan kanta yang disaran oleh pengamal kesihatan mata. Justeru itu satu soal selidik berkaitan penjagaan kanta sentuh dilakukan di kalangan pemakai kanta sentuh di sekitar Kuala Lumpur. Ia berdasarkan 22 set soalan terfokus kepada penjagaan kanta sentuh termasuklah tatacara pembersihan dan disifeksi, rawatan enzim, penggunaan agen pembasah dan kekerapan menghadiri pemeriksaan lanjutan. Di samping itu, terdapat enam soalan yang diaju untuk meninjau pengetahuan pemakai berkaitan penjagaan kanta sentuh yang selamat. Seramai 104 pemakai kanta sentuh mengambil bahagian dalam kajian ini. Lebih kurang 86% daripada mereka adalah wanita dengan min umur 24 ± 6 tahun. Lebih setengah daripada mereka memakai kanta sentuh jenis pakai buang. Hampir kesemuanya (98%) menggunakan sistem disinfeksi kimia. Hanya 68% pemakai yang dikaji mencuci kanta mereka setiap kali sebelum memakai dan selepas menanggalkannya. Tiga puluh peratus (30%) pemakai kanta sentuh menggunakan agen pembasah dan 40% menggunakan tablet protein. Enam puluh satu peratus (61%) daripada mereka menyatakan tidak membuat temu janji untuk pemeriksaan lanjutan. Enam soalan tertumpu kepada pengetahuan pemakai mengenai penjagaan kanta yang selamat dan min jawapan yang betul ialah 61.4%. Sebahagian pemakai kanta sentuh tidak mengikut arahan penjagaan kanta sentuh seperti yang disaran oleh pengamal kesihatan mata. Ramai yang tidak faham akan garis panduan pemakaian kanta yang selamat. Kajian ini menunjukkan sebahagian daripada pemakai kanta sentuh tidak mempunyai pengetahuan yang cukup mengenai risiko dan bahaya ke atas mata mereka kerana ketidakpatuhan pada arahan yang disaran oleh pengamal kesihatan mata. Pengamal kanta sentuh perlu memikirkan semula strategi untuk memastikan pemakai patuh kepada arahan berkaitan penjagaan kanta sentuh supaya komplikasi dapat dikurangkan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts
  10. Farah Fauzi, Arimi Fitri Mat Ludin, Mahadir Ahmad, Kamarul Zaman Maidin
    MyJurnal
    Aktiviti fizikal yang kerap seperti senaman mempunyai implikasi yang baik terhadap kehidupan seharian kita terutamanya dalam aspek kesihatan dan pengurusan stres. Kajian ini adalah bertujuan untuk mengkaji kesan program senaman aerobik dengan protokol yang ditetapkan ke atas aras penanda tekanan terpilih di kalangan pelajar universiti semasa musim peperiksaan akademik. Lapan belas (n=18) mahasiswa tidak terlatih, dipadankan dengan umur dan BMI, telah dibahagikan kepada 2 kumpulan iaitu kumpulan intervensi (n=10) dan kawalan (n=8). Kumpulan intervensi menjalani senaman jenis aerobik berintensiti sederhana (60-75% daripada kadar denyut jantung maksimum), 3 kali seminggu selama 40-50 minit untuk setiap sesi selama 6 minggu. Darah vena diambil pada sebelum program senaman bermula (M1) dan selepas program senaman berakhir (M2) iaitu dalam minggu pertama musim peperiksaan. Kecergasan kardiorespiratori dan status stres psikologi diukur sebelum kedua-dua sesi pengambilan darah. Analisis biokima dijalankan untuk melihat aras malondialdehid (MDA) plasma dan kortisol serum. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahawa program senaman selama 6 minggu ini telah merangsang penurunan aras MDA yang signifikan (F=19.58, p=0.002) semasa minggu peperiksaan berbanding aras sebelum program senaman bermula. Kumpulan intervensi juga menunjukkan aras MDA yang lebih rendah (t=-0.42, p=0.001) berbanding kumpulan kawalan semasa menduduki minggu peperiksaan. Walaubagaimanapun, tiada perbezaan yang signifikan pada aras kortisol dalam kedua-dua kumpulan walaupun terdapat penurunan yang sedikit pada kumpulan intervensi semasa minggu peperiksaan. Kajian ini mencadangkan bahawa program senaman yang dijalankan mampu dijadikan sebagai strategi yang berkesan untuk membantu pelajar menghadapi stres terutamanya sewaktu sesi akademik yang memberatkan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts
  11. Priscilla Tang Shu Fern, Masne Kadar, Noorashikin Samin, Nor Afifi Razaob
    MyJurnal
    Kefungsian mobiliti dalam kalangan populasi warga emas merupakan elemen yang penting bagi kualiti hidup yang
    lebih bermakna. Penilaian adalah penting untuk memastikan langkah-langkah sewajarnya boleh diambil demi
    mengesan perubahan dalam kefungsian mobiliti. Terdapat pelbagai jenis penilaian mobiliti namun kebanyakan
    kajian kebolehpercayaan ulang semula alat penilaian ini adalah berdasarkan kajian luar negara. Oleh itu, kajian
    ini adalah untuk menentukan kebolehpercayaan tiga alat penilaian status kefungsian mobiliti terutama aktiviti fizikal
    dalam kalangan warga emas. Seramai 60 orang warga emas dengan min umur 76.32 tahun dan sisihan piawai 8.66
    terlibat dalam kajian kebolehpercayaan uji-ulang semula bagi tiga jenis alat penilaian; Ujian Berjalan Enam Minit
    [Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT)], Ujian Bangun dan Berjalan [Timed Up and Go Test (TUG)], Ujian Duduk-Berdiri [Sitto-Stand
    Test (STS)]. Bacaan di ambil sebanyak dua kali dengan selang masa seminggu antara penilaian pertama dan
    kedua. Korelasi Intra-Kelas [Intraclass Correlation (ICC)], Had Keserasian [Limits of Agreement (LOA)] dan Ralat
    Pengukuran Piawai [Standard Error of Measurement (SEM)] dan diikuti kombinasi ketiga-tiga kaedah telah digunakan
    dalam analisa data. Hasil kajian menunjukkan ketiga-tiga alat penilaian menggunakan metodologi analisis statistik
    ICC, LOA, SEM dan kombinasi ketiga-tiga metodologi tersebut menunjukkan nilai kebolehpercayaan yang tinggi. Nilai
    ICC bagi kesemua alat penilaian aktiviti melebihi 0.90 (ICC=0.94-0.99). Graf LOA menunjukkan wujudnya suatu tahap
    kebolehpercayaan bagi kesemua alat penilaian aktiviti manakala peratus SEM pula merekodkan nilai kurang dari
    10% (SEM%=0.95%-9.95%). Kesimpulannya, ketiga-tiga alat penilaian mempunyai ketekalan yang tinggi dan sesuai
    digunakan sebagai salah satu alat penilaian kefungsian mobiliti bagi warga emas di Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts
  12. Kim HN, Nurul Akmal Jaafar, Lorna Jeffery Minggu, Mohammad Kassim
    Sains Malaysiana, 2018;47:1511-1516.
    Dalam kajian ini, kesan lapisan Au di atas fotokatod kuprus oksida (Cu2
    O) terhadap tindak balas fotoelektrokimia telah
    diuji. Lapisan Cu2
    O dan Au ini telah disediakan di atas subtrak kaca stanum oksida terdop fluorin (FTO) dalam konfigurasi
    yang berlainan, melalui kaedah elektroendapan. Selepas itu, fotokatod ini dicirikan dengan mikroskopi elektron imbasan
    berpancaran medan (FESEM), spektroskopi ultra lembayung dan cahaya nampak (UV-Vis) dan analisis fotoelektrokimia.
    Daripada imej FESEM, lapisan Au telah berjaya diendapkan di atas substrak FTO dan permukaan Cu2
    O. Penyerapan
    plasmon Au pada julat cahaya nampak juga terbukti dan ia telah mempertingkatkan penggunaan cahaya nampak untuk
    tindak balas fotoelektrokimia. Oleh itu, prestasi fotoelektrokimia fotokatod Cu2
    O berplasmon telah meningkat secara
    ketara. Di bawah sinaran suria simulasi A.M 1.5, fotokatod Cu2
    O terapit Au telah menjanakan ketumpatan fotoarus
    yang tertinggi, iaitu ~4 kali ganda peningkatan berbanding prestasi fotokatod Cu2
    O tulen.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts
  13. Leong Bin Abdullah MFI, Mohamad MA, Abdul Rahman NN
    J Relig Health, 2021 Apr;60(2):841-853.
    PMID: 31069602 DOI: 10.1007/s10943-019-00830-w
    This paper aimed to summarize kratom's psychological effects on users and the Islamic views on kratom use. A literature survey of published kratom studies, teachings based on the holy Qur'an, the Sunnah, and views of several Islamic scholars based on qualitative methodology through text analysis was conducted. The results demonstrated that despite its beneficial therapeutic effects, the harm induced by kratom outweighs its benefits. We concluded that kratom use for medicinal purposes is only warranted if useful constituent mitragynine can be extracted and used on its own, and if more rigorous human studies demonstrated good safety profile and efficacy of mitragynine for therapeutic purposes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts
  14. Chan CH, Yusoff R, Ngoh GC, Kung FW
    J Chromatogr A, 2011 Sep 16;1218(37):6213-25.
    PMID: 21820119 DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2011.07.040
    Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) is widely employed in the analysis and the extraction of active compounds from plants. This review summarizes the research done during the last decade on the MAE of active ingredients from plants. Advances and modifications to improve the performance of MAE are presented and discussed in detail. Modified MAE such as vacuum microwave-assisted extraction (VMAE), nitrogen-protected microwave-assisted extraction (NPMAE), ultrasonic microwave-assisted extraction (UMAE), dynamic microwave-assisted extraction (DMAE) and other advancements in MAE are also detailed in this article. In addition, the microwave extraction procedures and the important parameters influencing its performance are also included, together with the advantages and the drawbacks of each MAE techniques.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/isolation & purification*
  15. Sabandar CW, Ahmat N, Jaafar FM, Sahidin I
    Phytochemistry, 2013 Jan;85:7-29.
    PMID: 23153517 DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2012.10.009
    The genus Jatropha (Euphorbiaceae) comprises of about 170 species of woody trees, shrubs, subshrubs or herbs in the seasonally dry tropics of the Old and the New World. They are used in medicinal folklore to cure various diseases of 80% of the human population in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Species from this genus have been popular to cure stomachache, toothache, swelling, inflammation, leprosy, dysentery, dyscrasia, vertigo, anemia, diabetis, as well as to treat HIV and tumor, opthalmia, ringworm, ulcers, malaria, skin diseases, bronchitis, asthma and as an aphrodisiac. They are also employed as ornamental plants and energy crops. Cyclic peptides alkaloids, diterpenes and miscellaneous compounds have been reported from this genus. Extracts and pure compounds of plants from this genus are reported for cytotoxicity, tumor-promoting, antimicrobial, antiprotozoal, anticoagulant, immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, protoscolicidal, insecticidal, molluscicidal, inhibition AChE and toxicity activities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  16. Bhavikatti SK, Karobari MI, Zainuddin SLA, Marya A, Nadaf SJ, Sawant VJ, et al.
    PMID: 34281099 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18137162
    Background-chlorhexidine (CHX) is most commonly used as a chemical plaque control agent. Nevertheless, its adverse effects, including teeth discoloration, taste alteration and calculus build-up, limit its use and divert us to medicinal herbs. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the phytochemical composition, antioxidant potential, and cytotoxic effects of Mimusops elengi Linn extract (ME) over normal human cultured adult gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). Methods-in vitro phytochemical screening, total flavonoid content, antioxidant potential by DPPH and Nitric Oxide (NO) radical scavenging activity, and cytotoxic effects of ME extracts over HGF were explored. The viability of HGF cells was determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT), neutral red uptake, and trypan blue assay after treatment with different concentrations of CHX and ME (0.3125 to 10 µg/mL). Results-ME showed some alkaloids, glycosides, saponins and flavonoids exhibited relatively moderate-to-good antioxidant potential. Increasing the concentration of CHX and ME from 0.3125 to 10 µg/mL reduced cell viability from 29.71% to 1.07% and 96.12% to 56.02%, respectively. At higher concentrations, CHX reduced the viability of cells by 52.36-fold compared to ME, revealed by MTT assay. At 10 µg/mL concentration, the mean cell viability of CHX and ME-treated cells was 2.24% and 57.45%, respectively, revealed by a neutral red assay. The viability of CHX- and ME-treated HGF cells estimated at higher concentrations (10 µg/mL) using trypan blue assay was found to be 2.18% and 47.36%, respectively. A paired t-test showed significance (p < 0.05), and one-way ANOVA difference between the mean cell viability of CHX- and ME-treated cells at different concentrations. One-way ANOVA confirmed the significant difference between the viability of CHX- and ME-treated cells. Conclusions-The cytoprotective and antioxidant effects of ME emphasize its potential benefits. Therefore, it could emerge as a herbal alternative and adjunct to conventional oral hygiene methods, that can diminish periodontal tissue destruction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/toxicity
  17. Bello I, Shehu MW, Musa M, Zaini Asmawi M, Mahmud R
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2016 Aug 02;189:253-76.
    PMID: 27220655 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.05.049
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Kigelia africana is a quintessential African herbal medicinal plant with a pan-African distribution and immense indigenous medicinal and non-medicinal applications. The plant is use traditionally as a remedy for numerous disease such as use wounds healing, rheumatism, psoriasis, diarrhea and stomach ailments. It is also use as an aphrodisiac and for skin care.

    AIM OF THE REVIEW: The present review aims to compile an up-to-date review of the progress made in the continuous pharmacological and phytochemistry investigation of K. africana and the corresponding commercial and pharmaceutical application of these findings with the ultimate objective of providing a guide for future research on this plant.

    METHOD: The scholarly information needed for this paper were predominantly sourced from the electronic search engines such as Google, Google scholar; publishing sites such as Elsevier, scienceDirect, BMC, PubMed; other scientific database sites for chemicals such as ChemSpider, PubChem, and also from online books.

    RESULTS: Pharmacological investigations conducted confirm the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant and anticancer activity of the extract of different parts of the plant. Bioactive constituents are found to be present in all parts of the plant. So far, approximately 150 compounds have been characterized from different part of the plant. Iridoids, naphthoquinones, flavonoids, terpenes and phenylethanoglycosides are the major class of compounds isolated. Novel compounds with potent antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer effect such as verbascoside, verminoside and pinnatal among others, have been identified. Commercial trade of K. africana has boosted in the las few decades. Its effect in the maintenance of skin has been recognized resulting in a handful of skin formulations in the market.

    CONCLUSIONS: The pharmaceutical potentials of K. africana has been recognized and have witness a surge in research interest. However, till date, many of its traditional medicinal uses has not been investigated scientifically. Further probing of the existential researches on its pharmacological activity is recommended with the end-goal of unravelling the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical relevance and possible toxicity and side effects of both the extract and the active ingredients isolated.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/isolation & purification; Plant Extracts/pharmacology*; Plant Extracts/toxicity; Plant Extracts/chemistry
  18. Bari MS, Khandokar L, Haque E, Romano B, Capasso R, Seidel V, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2021 May 10;271:113834.
    PMID: 33465439 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2021.113834
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The genus Gynura (Compositae) includes around 46 species and is native to the tropical regions of Southeast Asia, Africa and Australia. Many species within this genus are used in ethnomedicine to treat various disorders including skin diseases, injuries, ulcers, wounds, burns, sores, scalds, as well as for the management of diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, constipation, rheumatism, bronchitis and inflammation.

    AIM OF THE REVIEW: This review is an attempt to provide scientific information regarding the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacological and toxicological profiles of Gynura species along with the nomenclature, distribution, taxonomy and botanical features of the genus. A critical analysis has been undertaken to understand the current and future pharmaceutical prospects of the genus.

    MATERIALS & METHODS: Several electronic databases, including Google scholar, PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, ScienceDirect, SpringerLink, Semantic Scholar, MEDLINE and CNKI Scholar, were explored as information sources. The Plant List Index was used for taxonomical authentications. SciFinder and PubChem assisted in the verification of chemical structures.

    RESULTS: A large number of phytochemical analyses on Gynura have revealed the presence of around 342 phytoconstituents including pyrrolizidine alkaloids, phenolic compounds, chromanones, phenylpropanoid glycosides, flavonoids, flavonoid glycosides, steroids, steroidal glycosides, cerebrosides, carotenoids, triterpenes, mono- and sesquiterpenes, norisoprenoids, oligosaccharides, polysaccharides and proteins. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated the pharmacological potential of Gynura species, including antidiabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antihypertensive and anticancer activities. Although the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids within a few species has been associated with possible hepatotoxicity, most of the common species have a good safety profile.

    CONCLUSIONS: The importance of the genus Gynura both as a prominent contributor in ethnomedicinal systems as well as a source of promising bioactive molecules is evident. Only about one fourth of Gynura species have been studied so far. This review aims to provide some scientific basis for future endeavors, including in-depth biological and chemical investigations into already studied species as well as other lesser known species of Gynura.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/adverse effects; Plant Extracts/pharmacology*; Plant Extracts/therapeutic use; Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  19. Hussain AI, Rathore HA, Sattar MZ, Chatha SA, Sarker SD, Gilani AH
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2014 Aug 8;155(1):54-66.
    PMID: 24936768 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2014.06.011
    Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad is a valuable cucurbit plant, widely distributed in the desert areas of the world. Citrullus colocynthis fruits are usually recognized for its wide range of medicinal uses as well as pharmaceutical and nutraceutical potential. This review aims to appraise the published information on the ethnobotanical knowledge, phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology, nutraceutical potential and safety studies of Citrullus colocynthis (bitter apple) fruit, with critical analysis on the gaps and potential for future studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/adverse effects; Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  20. Zia-Ul-Haq M, Riaz M, De Feo V, Jaafar HZ, Moga M
    Molecules, 2014 Jul 28;19(8):10998-1029.
    PMID: 25072202 DOI: 10.3390/molecules190810998
    Rubus fruticosus L. is a shrub famous for its fruit called blackberry fruit or more commonly blackberry. The fruit has medicinal, cosmetic and nutritive value. It is a concentrated source of valuable nutrients, as well as bioactive constituents of therapeutic interest highlighting its importance as a functional food. Besides use as a fresh fruit, it is also used as ingredient in cooked dishes, salads and bakery products like jams, snacks, desserts, and fruit preserves. R. fruticosus contains vitamins, steroids and lipids in seed oil and minerals, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenes, acids and tannins in aerial parts that possess diverse pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial anti-diabetic, anti-diarrheal, and antiviral. Various agrogeoclimatological factors like cultivar, environmental conditions of the area, agronomic practices employed, harvest time, post-harvest storage and processing techniques all influence the nutritional composition of blackberry fruit. This review focuses on the nutrients and chemical constituents as well as medicinal properties of different parts of R. fruticosus. Various cultivars and their physicochemical characteristics, polyphenolic content and ascorbic acid content are also discussed. The information in the present work will serve as baseline data and may lead to new biomedical applications of R. fruticosus as functional food.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*; Plant Extracts/chemistry*
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