Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 35 in total

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  1. Ng SF, Anuwi NA, Tengku-Ahmad TN
    AAPS PharmSciTech, 2015 Jun;16(3):656-63.
    PMID: 25511806 DOI: 10.1208/s12249-014-0248-y
    Hydrocortisone cream intended for atopic eczema often produces unwanted side effects after long-term use. These side effects are essentially due to repeated percutaneous administration of the medication for skin dermatitis, as atopic eczema is a relapsing disorder. Hence, there is a need to develop a new hydrocortisone formulation that will deliver the drug more effectively and require a reduced dosing frequency; therefore, the side effects could be minimized. In this study, a hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) lyogel system based on 80% organic and 20% aqueous solvents containing 1% hydrocortisone was formulated. The hydrocortisone lyogel physicochemical characteristics, rheological properties, stability profile, and in vitro Franz cell drug release properties, as well as the in vivo therapeutic efficacies and dermal irritancy in Balb/c mice were investigated. The HPMC lyogel appeared clear and soft and was easy to rub on the skin. The lyogel also showed a higher drug release profile compared with commercial hydrocortisone cream. Similar to the cream, HPMC lyogels exhibited pseudoplastic behavior. From the mouse model, the hydrocortisone lyogel showed higher inflammatory suppressive effects than the cream. However, it did not reduce the transepidermal water loss as effectively as the control did. The dermal irritancy testing revealed that the hydrocortisone lyogel caused minimal irritation. In conclusion, HPMC lyogel is a promising vehicle to deliver hydrocortisone topically, as it showed a higher drug release in vitro as well as enhanced therapeutic efficacy in resolving eczematous inflammatory reaction compared with commercial cream.
  2. Karupiah S, Ismail Z
    AAPS PharmSciTech, 2015 Jun;16(3):548-53.
    PMID: 25374344 DOI: 10.1208/s12249-014-0245-1
    Obesity is one of the major public health problems worldwide and it is generally associated with many diseases. Although synthetic drugs are available for the treatment of obesity, herbal remedies may provide safe, natural, and cost-effective alternative to synthetic drugs. One example of such drugs is Melastoma malabathricum var Alba Linn (MM). Although several studies have been reported for the pharmacological activities of MM, there is no report on the anti-obesity effect of MM. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the anti-obesity potential of methanolic extract of MM. The anti-obesity effect of MM on rats fed with a high-fat diet was investigated through determination of the changes in body weight, fat weight, organ weights, and blood biochemicals. The animals in this study were divided into three groups: a normal group with a standard diet (N), a control group fed with high-fat diet (C), and a MM treatment group fed with high-fat (HFD + MM) diet for 8 weeks. There was no significant difference in the amount of food intake between control and HFD + MM treatments. These results also suggest that MM does not induce a dislike for the diet due to its smell or taste. The study shows that MM significantly prevented increases in body weight, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and total lipids that resulted from the high-fat diet. MM also decreased the epididymal fat (E-fat) and retroperitoneal fat (R-fat) weights and phospholipid concentrations induced by the high-fat diet. On the basis of these findings, it was concluded that MM had anti-obesity effects by suppressing body weight gain and abdominal fat formation.
  3. Amekyeh H, Billa N, Yuen KH, Chin SL
    AAPS PharmSciTech, 2015 Aug;16(4):871-7.
    PMID: 25588365 DOI: 10.1208/s12249-014-0279-4
    The gastrointestinal (GI) transit behavior of and absorption from an amphotericin B (AmB) solid lipid nanoformulation (SLN) in rats was investigated. We aimed to estimate the gastric emptying time (GET) and cecal arrival time (CAT) of AmB SLN in rats as animal models. From these two parameters, an insight on the absorption window of AmB was ascertained. Three types of SLNs, AmB, paracetamol (PAR), and sulfasalazine (SSZ), were similarly formulated using beeswax/theobroma oil composite as the lipid matrix and characterized with regard to size, viscosity, density, migration propensity within agarose gel, in vitro drug release, morphology, gastrointestinal transit, and in vivo absorption. The GET and CAT were estimated indirectly using marker drugs: PAR and sulfapyridine (SP). All three types of SLNs exhibited identical properties with regard to z-average, viscosity, relative density, and propensity to migrate. PAR was absorbed rapidly from the small intestine following emptying of the SLNs giving the T50E (time for 50% absorption of PAR) to be 1.6 h. SP was absorbed after release and microbial degradation of SSZ from SLN in the colon with a lag time of 2 h post-administration, serving as the estimated cecal arrival time of the SLNs. AmB within SLN was favorably absorbed from the small intestine, albeit slowly.
  4. Tan SW, Billa N
    AAPS PharmSciTech, 2014 Apr;15(2):287-95.
    PMID: 24318197 DOI: 10.1208/s12249-013-0056-9
    We aimed to investigate the effects that natural lipids, theobroma oil (TO) and beeswax (BW), might have on the physical properties of formulated nanoparticles and also the degree of expulsion of encapsulated amphotericin B (AmB) from the nanoparticles during storage. Lecithin and sodium cholate were used as emulsifiers whilst oleic acid (OA) was used to study the influence of the state of orderliness/disorderliness within the matrices of the nanoparticles on the degree of AmB expulsion during storage. BW was found to effect larger z-average diameter compared with TO. Lecithin was found to augment the stability of the nanoparticles imparted by BW and TO during storage. An encapsulation efficiency (%EE) of 59% was recorded when TO was the sole lipid as against 42% from BW. In combination however, the %EE dropped to 39%. When used as sole lipid, TO or BW formed nanoparticles with comparatively higher enthalpies, 21.1 and 23.3 J/g respectively, which subsequently caused significantly higher degree of AmB expulsion, 81 and 83% respectively, whilst only 11.8% was expelled from a binary TO/BW mixture. A tertiary TO/BW/OA mixture registered the lowest enthalpy at 8.07 J/g and expelled 12.6% of AmB but encapsulated only 22% of AmB. In conclusion, nanoparticles made from equal concentrations of TO and BW produced the most desirable properties and worthy of further investigations.
  5. Meka VS, Nali SR, Songa AS, Kolapalli VR
    AAPS PharmSciTech, 2012 Dec;13(4):1451-64.
    PMID: 23090110 DOI: 10.1208/s12249-012-9873-5
    The main objective of the present study is the physicochemical characterization of naturally available Terminalia catappa gum (Badam gum [BG]) as a novel pharmaceutical excipient and its suitability in the development of gastroretentive floating drug delivery systems (GRFDDS) to retard the drug for 12 h when the dosage form is exposed to gastrointestinal fluids in the gastric environment. As BG was being explored for the first time for its pharmaceutical application, physicochemical, microbiological, rheological, and stability studies were carried out on this gum. In the present investigation, the physicochemical properties, such as micromeritic, rheological, melting point, moisture content, pH, swelling index, water absorption, and volatile acidity, were evaluated. The gum was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction studies (PXRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Gastroretentive floating tablets of BG were prepared with the model drug propranolol HCl by direct compression methods. The prepared tablets were evaluated for all their physicochemical properties, in vitro buoyancy, in vitro drug release, and rate order kinetics. PBG 04 was selected as an optimized formulation based on its 12-h drug release and good buoyancy characteristics. The optimized formulation was characterized with FTIR, DSC, and PXRD studies, and no interaction between the drug and BG was found. Thus, the study confirmed that BG might be used in the gastroretentive drug delivery system as a release-retarding polymer.
  6. Aziz HA, Tan YT, Peh KK
    AAPS PharmSciTech, 2012 Mar;13(1):35-45.
    PMID: 22101965 DOI: 10.1208/s12249-011-9707-x
    Microencapsulation of water-soluble drugs using coacervation-phase separation method is very challenging, as these drugs partitioned into the aqueous polymeric solution, resulting in poor drug entrapment. For evaluating the effect of ovalbumin on the microencapsulation of drugs with different solubility, pseudoephedrine HCl, verapamil HCl, propranolol HCl, paracetamol, and curcuminoid were used. In addition, drug mixtures comprising of paracetamol and pseudoephedrine HCl were also studied. The morphology, encapsulation efficiency, particle size, and in vitro release profile were investigated. The results showed that the solubility of the drug determined the ratio of ovalbumin to be used for successful microencapsulation. The optimum ratios of drug, ovalbumin, and gelatin for water-soluble (pseudoephedrine HCl, verapamil HCl, and propranolol HCl), sparingly water-soluble (paracetamol), and water-insoluble (curcuminoid) drugs were found to be 1:1:2, 2:3:5, and 1:3:4. As for the drug mixture, the optimum ratio of drug, ovalbumin, and gelatin was 2:3:5. Encapsulated particles prepared at the optimum ratios showed high yield, drug loading, entrapment efficiency, and sustained release profiles. The solubility of drug affected the particle size of the encapsulated particle. Highly soluble drugs resulted in smaller particle size. In conclusion, addition of ovalbumin circumvented the partitioning effect, leading to the successful microencapsulation of water-soluble drugs.
  7. Liew KB, Tan YT, Peh KK
    AAPS PharmSciTech, 2012 Mar;13(1):134-42.
    PMID: 22167416 DOI: 10.1208/s12249-011-9729-4
    The aim of this study was to develop a taste-masked oral disintegrating film (ODF) containing donepezil, with fast disintegration time and suitable mechanical strength, for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, corn starch, polyethylene glycol, lactose monohydrate and crosspovidone served as the hydrophilic polymeric bases of the ODF. The uniformity, in vitro disintegration time, drug release and the folding endurance of the ODF were examined. The in vitro results showed that 80% of donepezil hydrochloride was released within 5 minutes with mean disintegration time of 44 seconds. The result of the film flexibility test showed that the number of folding time to crack the film was 40 times, an indication of sufficient mechanical property for patient use. A single-dose, fasting, four-period, eight-treatment, double-blind study involving 16 healthy adult volunteers was performed to evaluate the in situ disintegration time and palatability of ODF. Five parameters, namely taste, aftertaste, mouthfeel, ease of handling and acceptance were evaluated. The mean in situ disintegration time of ODF was 49 seconds. ODF containing 7 mg of sucralose were more superior than saccharin and aspartame in terms of taste, aftertaste, mouthfeel and acceptance. Furthermore, the ODF was stable for at least 6 months when stored at 40°C and 75% relative humidity.
  8. Wong TW, Colombo G, Sonvico F
    AAPS PharmSciTech, 2011 Mar;12(1):201-14.
    PMID: 21194013 DOI: 10.1208/s12249-010-9564-z
    Colon cancer is the fourth most common cancer globally with 639,000 deaths reported annually. Typical chemotherapy is provided by injection route to reduce tumor growth and metastasis. Recent research investigates the oral delivery profiles of chemotherapeutic agents. In comparison to injection, oral administration of drugs in the form of a colon-specific delivery system is expected to increase drug bioavailability at target site, reduce drug dose and systemic adverse effects. Pectin is suitable for use as colon-specific drug delivery vehicle as it is selectively digested by colonic microflora to release drug with minimal degradation in upper gastrointestinal tract. The present review examines the physicochemical attributes of formulation needed to retard drug release of pectin matrix prior to its arrival at colon, and evaluate the therapeutic value of pectin matrix in association with colon cancer. The review suggests that multi-particulate calcium pectinate matrix is an ideal carrier to orally deliver drugs for site-specific treatment of colon cancer as (1) crosslinking of pectin by calcium ions in a matrix negates drug release in upper gastrointestinal tract, (2) multi-particulate carrier has a slower transit and a higher contact time for drug action in colon than single-unit dosage form, and (3) both pectin and calcium have an indication to reduce the severity of colon cancer from the implication of diet and molecular biology studies. Pectin matrix demonstrates dual advantages as drug carrier and therapeutic for use in treatment of colon cancer.
  9. Ng SF, Rouse JJ, Sanderson FD, Meidan V, Eccleston GM
    AAPS PharmSciTech, 2010 Sep;11(3):1432-41.
    PMID: 20842539 DOI: 10.1208/s12249-010-9522-9
    Over the years, in vitro Franz diffusion experiments have evolved into one of the most important methods for researching transdermal drug administration. Unfortunately, this type of testing often yields permeation data that suffer from poor reproducibility. Moreover, this feature frequently occurs when synthetic membranes are used as barriers, in which case biological tissue-associated variability has been removed as an artefact of total variation. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the influence of a full-validation protocol on the performance of a tailor-made array of Franz diffusion cells (GlaxoSmithKline, Harlow, UK) available in our laboratory. To this end, ibuprofen was used as a model hydrophobic drug while synthetic membranes were used as barriers. The parameters investigated included Franz cell dimensions, stirring conditions, membrane type, membrane treatment, temperature regulation and sampling frequency. It was determined that validation dramatically reduced derived data variability as the coefficient of variation for steady-state ibuprofen permeation from a gel formulation was reduced from 25.7% to 5.3% (n = 6). Thus, validation and refinement of the protocol combined with improved operator training can greatly enhance reproducibility in Franz cell experimentation.
  10. Tamilvanan S, Kumar BA, Senthilkumar SR, Baskar R, Sekharan TR
    AAPS PharmSciTech, 2010 Jun;11(2):904-9.
    PMID: 20496017 DOI: 10.1208/s12249-010-9455-3
    The objectives of the present work were to prepare castor oil-based nano-sized emulsion containing cationic droplets stabilized by poloxamer-chitosan emulgator film and to assess the kinetic stability of the prepared cationic emulsion after subjecting it to thermal processing and freeze-thaw cycling. Presence of cryoprotectants (5%, w/w, sucrose +5%, w/w, sorbitol) improved the stability of emulsions to droplet aggregation during freeze-thaw cycling. After storing the emulsion at 4 degrees C, 25 degrees C, and 37 degrees C over a period of up to 6 months, no significant change was noted in mean diameter of the dispersed oil droplets. However, the emulsion stored at the highest temperature did show a progressive decrease in the pH and zeta potential values, whereas the emulsion kept at the lowest temperatures did not. This indicates that at 37 degrees C, free fatty acids were formed from the castor oil, and consequently, the liberated free fatty acids were responsible for the reduction in the emulsion pH and zeta potential values. Thus, the injectable castor oil-based nano-sized emulsion could be useful for incorporating various active pharmaceutical ingredients that are in size from small molecular drugs to large macromolecules such as oligonucleotides.
  11. Zeeshan F, Bukhari NI
    AAPS PharmSciTech, 2010 Jun;11(2):910-6.
    PMID: 20496016 DOI: 10.1208/s12249-010-9456-2
    Modified-release multiple-unit tablets of loratadine and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride with different release profiles were prepared from the immediate-release pellets comprising the above two drugs and prolonged-release pellets containing only pseudoephedrine hydrochloride. The immediate-release pellets containing pseudoephedrine hydrochloride alone or in combination with loratadine were prepared using extrusion-spheronization method. The pellets of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride were coated to prolong the drug release up to 12 h. Both immediate- and prolonged-release pellets were filled into hard gelatin capsule and also compressed into tablets using inert tabletting granules of microcrystalline cellulose Ceolus KG-801. The in vitro drug dissolution study conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography method showed that both multiple-unit capsules and multiple-unit tablets released loratadine completely within a time period of 2 h, whereas the immediate-release portion of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride was liberated completely within the first 10 min of dissolution study. On the other hand, the release of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride from the prolonged release coated pellets was prolonged up to 12 hr and followed zero-order release kinetic. The drug dissolution profiles of multiple-unit tablets and multiple-unit capsules were found to be closely similar, indicating that the integrity of pellets remained unaffected during the compression process. Moreover, the friability, hardness, and disintegration time of multiple-unit tablets were found to be within BP specifications. In conclusion, modified-release pellet-based tablet system for the delivery of loratadine and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride was successfully developed and evaluated.
  12. Zeeshan F, Peh KK, Tan YT
    AAPS PharmSciTech, 2009;10(3):850-7.
    PMID: 19554454 DOI: 10.1208/s12249-009-9278-2
    Compaction of controlled-release coated pellets into tablets is challenging because of the fusion of pellets and the rupturing of coated film. The difficulty in compaction intensifies with the use of extremely water-soluble drugs. Therefore, the present study was conducted to prepare and compact pellets containing pseudoephedrine hydrochloride as an extremely water-soluble model drug. The pellets were produced using an extrusion-spheronization technique. The drug-loaded pellets were coated to extend the drug release up to 12-h employing various polymers, and then they were compressed into tablets using microcrystalline cellulose Ceolus KG-801 as a novel tabletting excipient. The in vitro drug release studies of coated pellets and tablets were undertaken using the USP basket method in dissolution test apparatus I. The amount of drug released was analyzed at a wavelength of 215 nm. The combined coatings of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and Kollicoat SR-30D yielded 12-h extended-release pellets with drug release independent of pH of dissolution medium following zero-order kinetics. The drug release from the tablets prepared using inert Celous KG-801 granules as tabletting excipient was found faster than that of coated pellets. However, a modification in drug release rate occurred with the incorporation of inert Ceolus KG-801 pellets. The drug dissolution profile from tablets containing 40% w/w each of coated pellets and inert granules along with 20% w/w inert pellets was found to be closely similar to that of coated pellets. Furthermore, the friability, tensile strength, and disintegration time of the tablets were within the USP specifications.
  13. Mat Hadzir N, Basri M, Abdul Rahman MB, Salleh AB, Raja Abdul Rahman RN, Basri H
    AAPS PharmSciTech, 2013 Mar;14(1):456-63.
    PMID: 23386307 DOI: 10.1208/s12249-013-9929-1
    Fatty acid esters are long-chain esters, produced from the reaction of fatty acids and alcohols. They possess potential applications in cosmetic and pharmaceutical formulations due to their excellent wetting behaviour at interfaces and a non-greasy feeling when applied on the skin surfaces. This preliminary work was carried out to construct pseudo-ternary phase diagrams for oleyl laurate, oleyl stearate and oleyl oleate with surfactants and piroxicam. Then, the preparation and optimization study via 'One-At-A-Time Approach' were carried out to determine the optimum amount of oil, surfactants and stabilizer using low-energy emulsification method. The results revealed that multi-phase region dominated the three pseudo-ternary phase diagrams. A composition was chosen from each multi-phase region for preparing the nanoemulsions systems containing piroxicam by incorporating a hydrocolloid stabilizer. The results showed that the optimum amount (w/w) of oil for oleyl laurate nanoemulsions was 30 and 20 g (w/w) for oleyl stearate nanoemulsions and oleyl oleate nanoemulsions. For each nanoemulsions system, the amount of mixed surfactants and stabilizer needed for the emulsification to take place was found to be 10 and 0.5 g (w/w), respectively. The emulsification process via high-energy emulsification method successfully produced nano-sized range particles. The nanoemulsions systems passed the centrifugation test and freeze-thaw cycle with no phase failures, and stable for 3 months at various storage temperatures (3°C, 25°C and 45°C). The results proved that the prepared nanoemulsions system cannot be formed spontaneously, and thus, energy input was required to produce nano-sized range particles.
  14. Amekyeh H, Billa N, Yuen KH, Lim SC
    AAPS PharmSciTech, 2015 Oct 28.
    PMID: 26511938
    Amphotericin B (AmB) is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Recent studies have suggested enhanced drug absorption from solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN). Little is known of the fate of AmB absorption within the gastrointestinal tract, and no gastrointestinal transit study has yet been performed on AmB-containing nano-formulations. We aimed to investigate the effect of food on the gastrointestinal transit properties of an AmB-containing SLN in rats. Three SLNs containing AmB, paracetamol, or sulfasalazine were formulated using cocoa butter and beeswax as lipid matrices and simultaneously administered orally to Sprague-Dawley rats. Paracetamol and sulfapyridine were used as marker drugs for estimating gastric emptying and cecal arrival, respectively. The pharmacokinetic data generated for paracetamol and sulfapyridine were used in estimating the absorption of the AmB SLNs in the small and large intestines, respectively. A delayed rate of AmB absorption was observed in the fed state; however, the extent of absorption was not affected by food. Specifically, the percentages of AmB absorption during the fasted state in the stomach, small intestine, and colon were not significantly different from absorption within the respective regions in the fed state. In both states, however, absorption was highest in the colon and appeared to be a combination of absorption from the small intestine plus absorption proper within the colon. The study suggests that AmB SLN, irrespective of food status, is slowly but predominantly taken up by the lymph, making the small intestine the most favorable site for the delivery of the AmB SLNs.
  15. Tan YT, Peh KK, Al-Hanbali O
    AAPS PharmSciTech, 2000;1(3):E24.
    PMID: 14727910
    This study examined the mechanical (hardness, compressibility, adhesiveness, and cohesiveness) and rheological (zero-rate viscosity and thixotropy) properties of polyethylene glycol (PEG) gels that contain different ratios of Carbopol 934P (CP) and polyvinylpyrrolidone K90 (PVP). Mechanical properties were examined using a texture analyzer (TA-XT2), and rheological properties were examined using a rheometer (Rheomat 115A). In addition, lidocaine release from gels was evaluated using a release apparatus simulating the buccal condition. The results indicated that an increase in CP concentration significantly increased gel compressibility, hardness, and adhesiveness, factors that affect ease of gel removal from container, ease of gel application onto mucosal membrane, and gel bioadhesion. However, CP concentration was negatively correlated with gel cohesiveness, a factor representing structural reformation. In contrast, PVP concentration was negatively correlated with gel hardness and compressibility, but positively correlated with gel cohesiveness. All PEG gels exhibited pseudoplastic flow with thixotropy, indicating a general loss of consistency with increased shearing stress. Drug release T50% was affected by the flow rate of the simulated saliva solution. A reduction in the flow rate caused a slower drug release and hence a higher T50% value. In addition, drug release was significantly reduced as the concentrations of CP and PVP increased because of the increase in zero-rate viscosity of the gels. Response surfaces and contour plots of the dependent variables further substantiated that various combinations of CP and PVP in the PEG gels offered a wide range of mechanical, rheological, and drug-release characteristics. A combination of CP and PVP with complementary physical properties resulted in a prolonged buccal drug delivery.
  16. Billa N, Yuen KH
    AAPS PharmSciTech, 2000;1(4):E30.
    PMID: 14727895
    The purpose of this research was to study processing variables at the laboratory and pilot scales that can affect hydration rates of xanthan gum matrices containing diclofenac sodium and the rate of drug release. Tablets from the laboratory scale and pilot scale proceedings were made by wet granulation. Swelling indices of xanthan gum formulations prepared with different amounts of water were measured in water under a magnifying lens. Granules were thermally treated in an oven at 60 degrees C, 70 degrees C, and 80 degrees C to study the effects of elevated temperatures on drug release from xanthan gum matrices. Granules from the pilot scale formulations were bulkier compared to their laboratory scale counterparts, resulting in more porous, softer tablets. Drug release was linear from xanthan gum matrices prepared at the laboratory scale and pilot scales; however, release was faster from the pilot scales. Thermal treatment of the granules did not affect the swelling index and rate of drug release from tablets in both the pilot and laboratory scale proceedings. On the other hand, the release from both proceedings was affected by the amount of water used for granulation and the speed of the impeller during granulation. The data suggest that processing variables that affect the degree of wetness during granulation, such as increase in impeller speed and increase in amount of water used for granulation, also may affect the swelling index of xanthan gum matrices and therefore the rate of drug release.
  17. Alkhader E, Billa N, Roberts CJ
    AAPS PharmSciTech, 2017 May;18(4):1009-1018.
    PMID: 27582072 DOI: 10.1208/s12249-016-0623-y
    In the present study, we report the properties of a mucoadhesive chitosan-pectinate nanoparticulate formulation able to retain its integrity in the milieu of the upper gastrointestinal tract and subsequently, mucoadhere and release curcumin in colon conditions. Using this system, we aimed to deliver curcumin to the colon for the possible management of colorectal cancer. The delivery system comprised of a chitosan-pectinate composite nanopolymeric with a z-average of 206.0 nm (±6.6 nm) and zeta potential of +32.8 mV (±0.5 mV) and encapsulation efficiency of 64%. The nanoparticles mucoadhesiveness was higher at alkaline pH compared to acidic pH. Furthermore, more than 80% release of curcumin was achieved in pectinase-enriched medium (pH 6.4) as opposed to negligible release in acidic and enzyme-restricted media at pH 6.8. SEM images of the nanoparticles after exposure to the various media indicate a retained matrix in acid media as opposed to a distorted/fragmented matrix in pectinase-enriched medium. The data strongly indicates that the system has the potential to be applied as a colon-targeted mucoadhesive curcumin delivery system for the possible treatment of colon cancer.
  18. Ahmad K, Win T, Jaffri JM, Edueng K, Taher M
    AAPS PharmSciTech, 2018 Jan;19(1):371-383.
    PMID: 28744617 DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0843-9
    This study aims to investigate the use of palm olein as the oil phase for betamethasone 17-valerate (BV) emulsions. The physicochemical properties of the formulations were characterized. In vitro drug release study was performed with the Hanson Vertical Diffusion Cell System; the samples were quantified with HPLC and the results were compared with commercial products. Optimized emulsion formulations were subjected to stability studies for 3 months at temperatures of 4, 25, and 40°C; the betamethasone 17-valerate content was analyzed using HPLC. The formulations produced mean particle size of 2-4 μm, viscosities of 50-250 mPa.s, and zeta potential between -45 and -68 mV. The rheological analyses showed that the emulsions exhibited pseudoplastic and viscoelastic behavior. The in vitro release of BV from palm olein emulsion through cellulose acetate was 4.5 times higher than that of commercial products and more BV molecules deposited in rat skin. Less than 4% of the drug was degraded in the formulations during the 3-month period when they were subjected to the three different temperatures. These findings indicate that palm olein-in-water emulsion can be an alternative vehicle for topical drug delivery system with superior permeability.
  19. Zeeshan F, Tabbassum M, Jorgensen L, Medlicott NJ
    AAPS PharmSciTech, 2018 Feb;19(2):769-782.
    PMID: 29134579 DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0883-1
    Protein biologics are prone to conformational changes during formulation development. Limited methods are available for conformational analysis of proteins in solid state and in the presences of formulation excipients. The aim of this study was to investigate the secondary structures of proteins encased in solid lipid matrices as a novel indicator of their stability upon in vitro release. Model proteins namely catalase and lysozyme were incorporated into lipid namely Precirol® AT05 (glycerol palmitostearate, melting point 58°C) at 30% w/w loading using melting and mixing and wet granulation methods. Attenuated total reflectance (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and biological activity analyses were performed. The information about secondary structure was acquired using second derivative analysis of amide-I band (1600-1700 cm-1). ATR analysis demonstrated interference of lipid spectrum with protein amide-I band which was subsequently subtracted to allow the analysis of the secondary structure. ATR spectra amide-I bands showed shifts peak band positions compared to native protein for matrices prepared using wet granulation. SEC analysis gave evidence of protein aggregation for catalase which was increased using wet granulation. The biological activity of catalase was statistically different from that of control and was affected by the incorporation method and was found to be in alignment with ATR spectral changes and extent of aggregation. In conclusion, ATR spectroscopy could analyze protein secondary structure in lipid matrices provided lipid interference was minimized. The ATR spectral changes and formation of aggregates can indicate the loss in biological activity of protein released from solid lipid matrices.
  20. Zulfakar MH, Chan LM, Rehman K, Wai LK, Heard CM
    AAPS PharmSciTech, 2018 Apr;19(3):1116-1123.
    PMID: 29181705 DOI: 10.1208/s12249-017-0923-x
    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a vitamin-like oil-soluble molecule that has anti-oxidant and anti-ageing effects. To determine the most optimal CoQ10 delivery vehicle, CoQ10 was solubilised in both water and fish oil, and formulated into hydrogel, oleogel and bigel. Permeability of CoQ10 from each formulation across porcine ear skin was then evaluated. Furthermore, the effects of the omega-3 fatty eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids from fish oil on skin permeation were investigated by means of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and computerised molecular modelling docking experiments. The highest drug permeation was achieved with the bigel formulation that proved to be the most effective vehicle in delivering CoQ10 across the skin membrane due to a combination of its adhesive, viscous and lipophilic properties. Furthermore, the interactions between CoQ10 and fatty acids revealed by NMR and molecular modelling experiments likely accounted for skin permeability of CoQ10. NMR data showed dose-dependent changes in proton chemical shifts in EPA and DHA. Molecular modelling revealed complex formation and large binding energies between fatty acids and CoQ10. This study advances the knowledge about bigels as drug delivery vehicles and highlights the use of NMR and molecular docking studies for the prediction of the influence of drug-excipient relationships at the molecular level.
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