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  1. Kazi RN, Sattar MA, Abdullah NA, Khan MA, Rathore HA, Abdulla MH, et al.
    Yakugaku Zasshi, 2011 Mar;131(3):431-6.
    PMID: 21372540
    α(1D)-adrenoceptors are involved in the genesis/maintenance of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). This study aims to investigate the role of α(1D)-adrenoceptors in the antinatriuretic and antidiuretic responses in SHR subjected to high sodium (SHRHNa) and normal sodium (SHRNNa) intake for six weeks. Renal inulin clearance study was performed in which the antinatriuretic and antidiuretic responses to phenylephrine were examined in the presence and absence of α(₁D)-adrenoceptors blocker BMY7378. Data, mean±S.E.M. were subjected to ANOVA with significance at p<0.05. Results show that feeding SHR for six weeks with high salt did not cause any change in blood pressure. SHRHNa had higher (all p<0.05) urine flow rate (UFR), fractional and absolute excretion of sodium (FE(Na) and U(Na)V) compared to SHRNNa. Phenylephrine infusion produced significant reduction in UFR, FE(Na) and U(Na)V in both SHRHNa and SHRNNa. The antidiuretic and antinatriuretic responses to phenylephrine in both groups were attenuated in the presence of BMY7378. Moreover, the antidiuretic and antinatriuretic responses to phenylephrine and BMY7378 were independent on any significant changes in renal and glomerular hemodynamics in both groups. Thus we conclude that high sodium intake did not bring any further increase in blood pressure of SHR, however, it results in exaggerated natriuresis and diuresis in SHRHNa. Irrespective of dietary sodium changes, α₁-adrenoceptors are involved in mediating the antinatriuretic and antidiuretic responses to phenylephrine in SHR. Further, high sodium intake did not significantly influence the functionality of α(₁D)-adrenoceptors in mediating the adrenergically induced antinatriuresis and antidiuresis.
  2. Zakaria ZA, Abdul Ghani ZD, Raden Mohd Nor RN, Gopalan HK, Sulaiman MR, Abdullah FC
    Yakugaku Zasshi, 2006 Nov;126(11):1197-203.
    PMID: 17077622
    The present study was carried out to establish the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of Dicranopteris linearis leaves chloroform extract in experimental animals. The antinociceptive activity was measured using the abdominal constriction, formalin and hot plate tests, while the anti-inflammatory activity was measured using the carrageenan-induced paw edema. The extract, obtained after 72 h soaking of the air-dried leaves in chloroform followed by evaporation under vacuo (40 degrees C) to dryness, was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide to the doses of 20, 100 and 200 mg/kg and administered subcutaneously 30 min prior to subjection to the above mentioned assays. The extract, at all doses used, was found to exhibit significant (p<0.05) antinociceptive activity in a dose-dependent manner. However, the significant (p<0.05) anti-inflammatory activity observed occur in a dose-independent manner. As a conclusion, the chloroform extract of D. linearis possesses antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity and thus justify its traditional uses by the Malays to treat various ailments.
  3. Zakaria ZA, Gopalan HK, Zainal H, Mohd Pojan NH, Morsid NA, Aris A, et al.
    Yakugaku Zasshi, 2006 Nov;126(11):1171-8.
    PMID: 17077618
    AIM: The present study was carried out to evaluate the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of chloroform extract of Solanum nigrum leaves using various animal models.

    METHODS: The extract was prepared by soaking (1:20; w/v) the air-dried powdered leaves (20 g) in chloroform for 72 hrs followed by evaporation (40 degrees C) under reduced pressure to dryness (1.26 g) and then dissolved (1:50; w/v) in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The supernatant, considered as the stock solution with dose of 200 mg/kg, was diluted using DMSO to 20 and 100 mg/kg, and all doses were administered (s.c.; 10 ml/kg) in mice/rats 30 min prior to tests.

    RESULTS: The extract exhibited significant (p<0.05) antinociceptive activity when assessed using the abdominal constriction, hot plate and formalin tests. The extract also produced significant (p<0.05) anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities when assessed using the carrageenan-induced paw edema and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia tests. Overall, the activities occurred in a dose-independent manner.

    CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that the lipid-soluble extract of S. nigrum leaves possessed antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic properties and confirmed the traditional claims.

  4. Takayama H, Aimi N, Sakai S
    Yakugaku Zasshi, 2000 Oct;120(10):959-67.
    PMID: 11082707
    The leaves of a tropical plant, Mitragyna speciosa Korth. (Rubiaceae), have been traditionally used as a substitute for opium. By phytochemical studies on the constituents of the plant growing in Thailand as well as in Malaysia, several 9-methoxy-Corynanthe-type monoterpenoid indole alkaloids including new natural products were isolated. The structures of these new compounds were elucidated by the modern spectroscopic methods and/or chiral-total syntheses. The chiral total synthesis of (-)-mitragynine, a major component of this plant, was achieved. Potent opioid agonistic properties of mitragynine, which acts on mu- and delta-opioid subtype receptors, and of mitragynine pseudoindoxyl, whose analgesic activity is more potent than that of morphine, were clarified in in vitro experiments. The essential structural features in mitragynine for revealing the analgesic activity were elucidated by pharmacological evaluation of the natural and synthetic mitragynine derivatives.
  5. Zakaria ZA, Sulaiman MR, Gopalan HK, Abdul Ghani ZD, Raden Mohd Nor RN, Mat Jais AM, et al.
    Yakugaku Zasshi, 2007 Feb;127(2):359-65.
    PMID: 17268156
    The antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of Corchorus capsularis leaves chloroform extract were investigated in experimental animal models. The antinociceptive activity was measured using the writhing, hot plate and formalin tests, while the anti-inflammatory activity was measured using the carrageenan-induced paw edema test. The extract, obtained after 72 h soaking of the air-dried leaves in chloroform followed by in vacuo evaporation to dryness, was weighed and prepared by serial dilution in DMSO in the doses of 20, 100 and 200 mg/kg. The extract was administered (s.c.) 30 min prior to subjection to the respective assays. The extract was found to exhibit significant (p < 0.05) antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. As a conclusion, the present study confirmed the traditional claims of using C. capsularis to treat various ailments related to inflammation and pain.
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