Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 6085 in total

  1. Nasir NAA, Sadikan MZ, Agarwal R
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2021 Sep;30(3):537-555.
    PMID: 34587713 DOI: 10.6133/apjcn.202109_30(3).0020
    Tocotrienols have been reported to exert anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cardio-protective and boneprotective effects through modulation of NFκB signalling pathway. The objective of this systematic review is to evaluate available literature showing the effect of tocotrienols on NFκB signalling pathway and identify the potential mechanisms involved. A comprehensive search was conducted using PubMed and SCOPUS databases using the keywords "tocotrienol" and "NFκB" or "nuclear factor kappa b". Main inclusion criteria were English language original articles showing the effect of tocotrienol on NFκB signalling pathway. Fifty-nine articles were selected from the total of 117 articles initially retrieved from the literature search. Modulation of regulatory proteins and genes such as inhibition of farnesyl prenyl transferase were found to be the mechanisms underlying the tocotrienol-induced suppression of NFκB activation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/pharmacology
  2. Imam MU, Ismail M, Ooi DJ, Azmi NH, Sarega N, Chan KW, et al.
    Crit Rev Biotechnol, 2016 Aug;36(4):585-93.
    PMID: 25641328 DOI: 10.3109/07388551.2014.995586
    Plant bioresources are relied upon as natural, inexpensive, and sustainable remedies for the management of several chronic diseases worldwide. Plants have historically been consumed for medicinal purposes based on traditional belief, but this trend is currently changing. The growing interest in the medicinal properties of plant bioresources stems from concerns of side effects and other adverse effects caused by synthetic drugs. This interest has yielded a better understanding of the roles of plant bioactive compounds in health promotion and disease prevention, including the underlying mechanisms involved in such functional effects. The desire to maximize the potential of phytochemicals has led to the development of "rich fractions," in which extracts contain bioactive compounds in addition to elevated levels of the primary compound. Although a rich fraction effectively increases the bioactivity of the extract, the standardization and quality assurance process can be challenging. However, the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) system is a promising green technology in this regard. Future clinical and pharmacological studies are needed to fully elucidate the implications of these preparations in the management of human diseases, thereby fostering a move toward evidence-based medicine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenylpropionates/pharmacology*; Plant Extracts/pharmacology*; Benzoquinones/pharmacology*; Tocotrienols/pharmacology*
  3. Gopinath V, Saravanan S, Al-Maleki AR, Ramesh M, Vadivelu J
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2018 Nov;107:96-108.
    PMID: 30086465 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.07.136
    Natural polysaccharides are renewable with a high degree of biocompatibility, biodegradability, and ability to mimic the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment. Comprehensive investigations of polysaccharides are essential for our fundamental understanding of exploiting its potential as bio-composite, nano-conjugate and in pharmaceutical sectors. Polysaccharides are considered to be superior to other polymers, for its ease in tailoring, bio-compatibility, bio-activity, homogeneity and bio-adhesive properties. The main focus of this review is to spotlight the new advancements and challenges concerned with surface modification, binding domains, biological interaction with the conjugate including stability, polydispersity, and biodegradability. In this review, we have limited our survey to three essential polysaccharides including cellulose, starch, and glycogen that are sourced from plants, microbes, and animals respectively are reviewed. We also present the polysaccharides which have been extensively modified with the various types of conjugates for combating last-ditch pharmaceutical challenges.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology; Cellulose/pharmacology*; Glycogen/pharmacology*; Polysaccharides/pharmacology*; Starch/pharmacology*
  4. Erejuwa OO, Sulaiman SA, Wahab MS
    Molecules, 2012 Feb 15;17(2):1900-15.
    PMID: 22337138 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17021900
    Honey is a natural substance with many medicinal properties, including antibacterial, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, antioxidant and antihypertensive effects. It reduces hyperglycemia in diabetic rats and humans. However, the mechanism(s) of its hypoglycemic effect remain(s) unknown. Honey comprises many constituents, making it difficult to ascertain which component(s) contribute(s) to its hypoglycemic effect. Nevertheless, available evidence indicates that honey consists of predominantly fructose and glucose. The objective of this review is to summarize findings which indicate that fructose exerts a hypoglycemic effect. The data show that glucose and fructose exert a synergistic effect in the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. This synergistic effect might enhance intestinal fructose absorption and/or stimulate insulin secretion. The results indicate that fructose enhances hepatic glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis and storage via activation of hepatic glucokinase and glycogen synthase, respectively. The data also demonstrate the beneficial effects of fructose on glycemic control, glucose- and appetite-regulating hormones, body weight, food intake, oxidation of carbohydrate and energy expenditure. In view of the similarities of these effects of fructose with those of honey, the evidence may support the role of fructose in honey in mediating the hypoglycemic effect of honey.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fructose/pharmacology*; Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology*
  5. Mat Jais AM, Dambisya YM, Lee TL
    J Ethnopharmacol, 1997 Jul;57(2):125-30.
    PMID: 9254114
    Haruan, Channa striatus, is a snakehead fish consumed in many parts of the southeast Asian region. It is believed to promote wound healing, as well as reduce post-operative pain. In an attempt to establish the scientific basis for the alleged pain-relieving benefits of this fish, we studied the antinociceptive effects of whole fillet and mucus extracts from haruan in the mouse using the abdominal constriction and tail flick tests. In the abdominal constriction test, the 30 min fillet extract exhibited concentration-dependent inhibition of the writhing response in the 10-50% concentration range, with 20% as the IC50 value. This activity was not dependent on the duration of extraction, with no significant differences among the extracts obtained at durations of 10, 20, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min (range between 45-54% inhibition at 20% concentration). The mucus extract also showed concentration-dependent inhibition of the abdominal constriction response-at the highest concentration used the average inhibition was 68.9%, while IC50 value was 25%. Neither the fillet extract (30 min, 20%) nor the mucus extract (25%) had any demonstrable effect on the tail flick latency on their own, but significantly enhanced the antinociceptive activity of morphine in this assay. Similarly, low concentrations of the mucus and fillet extract enhanced the effects of morphine in the abdominal constriction test. Collectively, these results suggest a scientific basis for the folklore practice of eating haruan fish in the post-operative period for pain relief: Haruan extracts have antinociceptive activity and enhance the activity of other antinociceptive agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/pharmacology*; Morphine/pharmacology
  6. Neoh CK
    Med J Malaysia, 1992 Mar;47(1):86-8.
    PMID: 1387458
    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology*; Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology*
  7. Singh KI, Hooi CW, Ha LS
    PMID: 4109414
    Matched MeSH terms: Dichlorvos/pharmacology; Dieldrin/pharmacology; Dimethoate/pharmacology; Chlorpyrifos/pharmacology; Hydrocarbons, Halogenated/pharmacology; Insecticides/pharmacology*; Malathion/pharmacology; Organophosphorus Compounds/pharmacology; Organothiophosphorus Compounds/pharmacology; Tetrachlorvinphos/pharmacology; Vinyl Compounds/pharmacology
  8. Sahid I, Razlin W, Zaabar W
    Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 1993 Oct;51(4):605-11.
    PMID: 8400666
    Matched MeSH terms: Herbicides/pharmacology*; Thiram/pharmacology*; Triazines/pharmacology*
  9. Norliza YH, Mohamed Z, Zaini A, Lang CC
    JUMMEC, 1997;2:23-25.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacology
  10. Mohsin SMN, Hasan ZAA
    Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces, 2023 Jan;221:113025.
    PMID: 36403417 DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2022.113025
    Oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion is utilized as an insecticide delivery system for mosquito control. However, evaporation inhibition adjuvant is needed to prevent fog drift, inhibit release of insecticidal actives and prolong suspension time. In the current study, we evaluated the effect of different short-chain alcohols, namely, propylene glycol, 1,3-propanediol, glycerol and crude glycerol, as adjuvants on the physicochemical properties of d-phenothrin o/w emulsion system. The bioactivity of optimized formulations containing 20 wt% glycerol (D1), 20 wt% propylene glycol (D2) and without added alcohol (negative control) were tested against larvae, pupae and adult Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti). It was found that propylene glycol produced smaller droplets at lower concentrations but poor long-term stability at higher concentrations, whereas glycerol had an appreciable effect on initial droplet size and stability with increasing concentration. According to the dose-response bioassays and room size chamber testing, the highest larvicidal, pupicidal and adulticidal activities were observed with D2, followed by D1 and negative control. Overall, the above study demonstrated improved emulsion stabilities and potency against Ae. aegypti larvae, pupae and adults using glycerol as adjuvant for effective mosquito control.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emulsions/pharmacology; Glycerol/pharmacology; Propylene Glycol/pharmacology
  11. Mahendran R, Lim SK, Ong KC, Chua KH, Chai HC
    Clin Exp Nephrol, 2021 Nov;25(11):1163-1172.
    PMID: 34254206 DOI: 10.1007/s10157-021-02111-x
    BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a monogenic kidney disorder that impairs renal functions progressively leading to kidney failure. The disease affects between 1:400 and 1:1000 ratio of the people worldwide. It is caused by the mutated PKD1 and PKD2 genes which encode for the defective polycystins. Polycystins mimic the receptor protein or protein channel and mediate aberrant cell signaling that causes cystic development in the renal parenchyma. The cystic development is driven by the increased cyclic AMP stimulating fluid secretion and infinite cell growth. In recent years, natural product-derived small molecules or drugs targeting specific signaling pathways have caught attention in the drug discovery discipline. The advantages of natural products over synthetic drugs enthusiast researchers to utilize the medicinal benefits in various diseases including ADPKD.

    CONCLUSION: Overall, this review discusses some of the previously studied and reported natural products and their mechanisms of action which may potentially be redirected into ADPKD.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/pharmacology; Curcumin/pharmacology; Diterpenes/pharmacology; Emodin/pharmacology; Epoxy Compounds/pharmacology; Estrogen Antagonists/pharmacology; Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology; Metformin/pharmacology*; Phenanthrenes/pharmacology; Plant Extracts/pharmacology*; Quercetin/pharmacology*; Flavanones/pharmacology*; Diterpenes, Kaurane/pharmacology; Chalcones/pharmacology*; Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology
  12. Kaka U, Hui Cheng C, Meng GY, Fakurazi S, Kaka A, Behan AA, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:305367.
    PMID: 25695060 DOI: 10.1155/2015/305367
    Effects of ketamine and lidocaine on electroencephalographic (EEG) changes were evaluated in minimally anaesthetized dogs, subjected to electric stimulus. Six dogs were subjected to six treatments in a crossover design with a washout period of one week. Dogs were subjected to intravenous boluses of lidocaine 2 mg/kg, ketamine 3 mg/kg, meloxicam 0.2 mg/kg, morphine 0.2 mg/kg and loading doses of lidocaine 2 mg/kg followed by continuous rate infusion (CRI) of 50 and 100 mcg/kg/min, and ketamine 3 mg/kg followed by CRI of 10 and 50 mcg/kg/min. Electroencephalogram was recorded during electrical stimulation prior to any drug treatment (before treatment) and during electrical stimulation following treatment with the drugs (after treatment) under anaesthesia. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with halothane at a stable concentration between 0.85 and 0.95%. Pretreatment median frequency was evidently increased (P < 0.05) for all treatment groups. Lidocaine, ketamine, and morphine depressed the median frequency resulting from the posttreatment stimulation. The depression of median frequency suggested evident antinociceptive effects of these treatments in dogs. It is therefore concluded that lidocaine and ketamine can be used in the analgesic protocol for the postoperative pain management in dogs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/pharmacology*; Ketamine/pharmacology*; Lidocaine/pharmacology*; Morphine/pharmacology*; Thiazines/pharmacology*; Thiazoles/pharmacology*; Propofol/pharmacology
  13. Rahmah S, Ahmad Mubbarakh S, Soo Ping K, Subramaniam S
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2015;2015:961793.
    PMID: 25861687 DOI: 10.1155/2015/961793
    Protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) of Brassidium Shooting Star orchid were successfully cryopreserved using droplet-vitrification method. Vitrification based cryopreservation protocol is comprised of preculture, osmoprotection, cryoprotection, cooling, rewarming, and growth recovery and each and every step contributes to the achievement of successful cryopreservation. In order to reveal the lethal and nonlethal damage produced by cryopreservation, histological observation, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and biochemical analysis were carried out in both cryopreserved and noncryopreserved PLBs of Brassidium Shooting Star orchid comparing with the control PLBs stock culture. Histological and scanning electron microscopy analyses displayed structural changes in cryopreserved PLBs due to the impact of cryoinjury during exposure to liquid nitrogen. Total soluble protein significantly increased throughout the dehydration process and the highest value was achieved when PLBs were stored in liquid nitrogen. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT) showed the highest enzyme activities in both dehydration and cryostorage treatments indicating that stress level of PLBs was high during these stages.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/pharmacology*
  14. Awang AF, Ferdosh S, Sarker MZ, Sheikh HI, Ghafoor K, Yunus K
    Curr Pharm Biotechnol, 2016 9 23;17(12):1024-1035.
    PMID: 27655363
    Stereospermum fimbriatum is one of the medicinal plants that has been claimed to be used traditionally to treat several illnesses such as stomachache, earache, skin irritation and postpartum illness. The genus of this plant is known to possess medicinal properties in every part of the plant. Therapeutic potential of S. fimbriatum is anticipated based on numerous previous studies that documented variety of phytochemical contents and bioactivity of the genus. The most reported bioactivities of its genus are antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diarrheal and analgesic activities. S. fimbriatum is a rare species that has not been discovered yet. Thus, this review aims at highlighting the potentials of S. fimbriatum by collecting available data on the bioactivities of its genus and set the directions for future research on this plant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/pharmacology; Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology; Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology; Antidiarrheals/pharmacology; Antioxidants/pharmacology; Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology; Phytochemicals/pharmacology*
  15. Subrahmanyam C
    Med J Malaya, 1966 Mar;20(3):234-9.
    PMID: 4223073
    Matched MeSH terms: Hemolysin Proteins/pharmacology*
  16. Wharton RH
    Bull World Health Organ, 1958;18(4):684.
    PMID: 13536813
    Matched MeSH terms: Lindane/pharmacology*
  17. REID JA
    Nature, 1951 Nov 17;168(4281):863-5.
    PMID: 14899505
    Matched MeSH terms: DDT/pharmacology*
  18. Ahmed S, Sulaiman SA, Baig AA, Ibrahim M, Liaqat S, Fatima S, et al.
    Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2018;2018:8367846.
    PMID: 29492183 DOI: 10.1155/2018/8367846
    Honey clasps several medicinal and health effects as a natural food supplement. It has been established as a potential therapeutic antioxidant agent for various biodiverse ailments. Data report that it exhibits strong wound healing, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antiviral, and antidiabetic effects. It also retains immunomodulatory, estrogenic regulatory, antimutagenic, anticancer, and numerous other vigor effects. Data also show that honey, as a conventional therapy, might be a novel antioxidant to abate many of the diseases directly or indirectly associated with oxidative stress. In this review, these wholesome effects have been thoroughly reviewed to underscore the mode of action of honey exploring various possible mechanisms. Evidence-based research intends that honey acts through a modulatory road of multiple signaling pathways and molecular targets. This road contemplates through various pathways such as induction of caspases in apoptosis; stimulation of TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-γ, IFNGR1, and p53; inhibition of cell proliferation and cell cycle arrest; inhibition of lipoprotein oxidation, IL-1, IL-10, COX-2, and LOXs; and modulation of other diverse targets. The review highlights the research done as well as the apertures to be investigated. The literature suggests that honey administered alone or as adjuvant therapy might be a potential natural antioxidant medicinal agent warranting further experimental and clinical research.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/pharmacology*
  19. Khalilpourfarshbafi M, Gholami K, Murugan DD, Abdul Sattar MZ, Abdullah NA
    Eur J Nutr, 2019 Feb;58(1):5-25.
    PMID: 29541908 DOI: 10.1007/s00394-018-1663-8
    PROPOSE: Obesity is a fast growing epidemic worldwide. During obesity, the increase in adipose tissue mass arise from two different mechanisms, namely, hyperplasia and hypertrophy. Hyperplasia which is the increase in adipocyte number is characteristic of severe obese patients. Recently, there has been much interest in targeting adipogenesis as therapeutic strategy against obesity. Flavonoids have been shown to regulate several pathways and affect a number of molecular targets during specific stages of adipocyte development.

    METHODS: Presently, we provide a review of key studies evaluating the effects of dietary flavonoids in different stages of adipocyte development with a particular emphasis on the investigations that explore the underlying mechanisms of action of these compounds in human or animal cell lines as well as animal models.

    RESULTS: Flavonoids have been shown to regulate several pathways and affect a number of molecular targets during specific stages of adipocyte development. Although most of the studies reveal anti-adipogenic effect of flavonoids, some flavonoids demonstrated proadipogenic effect in mesenchymal stem cells or preadipocytes.

    CONCLUSION: The anti-adipogenic effect of flavonoids is mainly via their effect on regulation of several pathways such as induction of apoptosis, suppression of key adipogenic transcription factors, activation of AMPK and Wnt pathways, inhibition of clonal expansion, and cell-cycle arrest.

    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/pharmacology*
  20. Zhang Y, Liu X, Yusoff M, Razali MH
    Scanning, 2021;2021:3839235.
    PMID: 34630820 DOI: 10.1155/2021/3839235
    Flower-like titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanostructures are successfully synthesized using a hybrid sol-gel and a simple hydrothermal method. The sample was characterized using various techniques to study their physicochemical properties and was tested as a photocatalyst for methyl orange degradation and as an antibacterial material. Raman spectrum and X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern show that the phase structure of the synthesized TiO2 is anatase with 80-100 nm in diameter and 150-200 nm in length of flower-like nanostructures as proved by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of flower-like anatase TiO2 nanostructure found that only titanium and oxygen elements are present in the sample. The anatase phase was confirmed further by a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern analysis. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) result shows that the sample had a large surface area (108.24 m2/g) and large band gap energy (3.26 eV) due to their nanosize. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis revealed the formation of Ti4+ and Ti3+ species which could prevent the recombination of the photogenerated electron, thus increased the electron transportation and photocatalytic activity of flower-like anatase TiO2 nanostructure to degrade the methyl orange (83.03%) in a short time (60 minutes). These properties also support the good performance of flower-like titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanostructure as an antibacterial material which is comparable with penicillin which is 13.00 ± 0.02 mm inhibition zone against Staphylococcus aureus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
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