The guava processing industry in Malaysia produces by-products in the form of seed core and peel. These by-products can be regarded as underused resources but there are concerns about their composition that prevent their use in the food and feed industries. This study aims to analyze the respective effects of heat treatments (boiling or autoclaving) and germination periods on the nutritional composition and phytochemical content of guava seeds. The guava seeds were found to contain 618, 78, 72, and 5 mg/g dry weight total dietary fiber, fat, protein, and ash, respectively. The tannin and saponin contents, but not the phytic acid content, were below the respective anti-nutritional thresholds. The heat treatments did not affect the total dietary fiber and ash contents but reduced all other chemical components to different extents (15-91%). Boiling did not reduce the phytic acid content substantially but autoclaving caused a reduction of 91% to a level below the anti-nutritional threshold. Germination for 14 days caused a significant reduction in nutrient contents in the range of 16-79%. Germination also reduced the phytic acid content by 90% in the seed but did not significantly affect the saponin content. Thus, guava seed can be treated thermally or germinated to manipulate its chemical composition to enable its use in the food and feed industries.
The impact of tropical seasons (dry and wet) and growth stages (8, 10 and 12 weeks) of Cosmos caudatus on the antioxidant activity (AA), total phenolic content (TPC) as well as the level of bioactive compounds were evaluated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The plant morphology (plant height) also showed variation between the two seasons. Samples planted from June to August (during the dry season) exhibited a remarkably higher bioactivity and height than those planted from October to December (during the wet season). The samples that were harvested at eight weeks of age during the dry season showed the highest bioactivity with values of 26.04 g GAE/100 g and 22.1 μg/ml for TPC and IC₅₀, respectively. Identification of phytochemical constituents in the C. caudatus extract was carried out by liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electrospray tandem mass (LC-DAD-ESIMS/MS) technique and the confirmation of constituents was achieved by comparison with literature data and/or co-chromatography with authentic standards. Six compounds were indentified including quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, rutin, quercetin 3-O-arabinofuranoside, quercetin 3-O-galactoside and chlorogenic acid. Their concentrations showed significant variance among the 8, 10 and 12-week-old herbs during both seasons.
The study investigated the changes in the metabolite, antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of Phyllanthus niruri after three drying treatments: air, freeze and oven dryings. Water extracts and extracts obtained using different solvent ratios of ethanol and methanol (50, 70, 80 and 100%) were compared. The relationships among the antioxidant, α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and metabolite levels of the extracts were evaluated using partial least-square analysis (PLS). The solvent selectivity was assessed based on the phytochemical constituents present in the extract and their concentrations quantitatively analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. The freeze-dried P. niruri samples that were extracted with the mixture of ethanol or methanol with low ratio of water showed higher biological activity values compared with the other extracts. The PLS results for the ethanolic with different ratio and water extracts demonstrated that phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid and ellagic acid) and flavonoids were highly linked to strong α-glucosidase inhibitory and antioxidant activities.
This study was conducted to evaluate the total carotene content (TCC) and beta carotene (BC) in the selected underutilized tropical fruits. TCC of underutilized fruits estimated by spectrophotometric method was in the range of 1.4-19.8 mg/100 g edible portion. The TCC of these fruits decreased in the order: Jentik-jentik > Durian Nyekak 2 > Durian Nyekak 1 > Cerapu 2 > Cerapu 1 > Tampoi Kuning > Bacang 1 > Kuini > Jambu Mawar > Bacang 2 > Durian Daun > Bacang 3 > Tampoi Putih > Jambu Susu. BC contents estimated by HPLC method were highest in Jentik-jentik, followed by Cerapu 2, Durian Nyekak 2, Tampoi Kuning, Durian Nyekak 1, and Cerapu 1, which had a range of 68-92% of BC in TCC. These underutilized fruits have an acceptable amount of carotenoids that are potential antioxidant fruits.
Strobilanthes crispus (Acanthaceae) has been used traditionally as antidiabetic, diuretic, antilytic, and laxative and has been proven scientifically to possess high antioxidant activity, anti-AIDS, and anticancer properties. It is commonly consumed in the form of herbal tea. The ethnopharmacological value of this plant, such as the development of nutraceutical S. crispus herbal tea (fermented and unfermented) and assessment of their antihyperglycemic properties were investigated. The antidiabetic properties of S. crispus fermented and unfermented tea was carried out in normal and streptozotocin-induced hyperglycaemic rats for 21 days. Glucose and lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol) were determined at day 0 (baseline), day 7, and day 21. The results showed that the hot water extract of both fermented and unfermented S. crispus tea reduced blood glucose in hyperglycaemic rats. S. crispus unfermented tea also reduced glucose level in normal rat. Both fermented and unfermented S. crispus tea also showed to improve lipid profile. Antioxidant and polyphenol content that present in the extracts might contribute to the antihyperglycemic and antilipidemic properties. Further study is needed to be carried out in pre-clinical and clinical environment to prove its efficacy in human.
Betacyanins are reddish to violet pigments that can be found in red pitahaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) and red spinach (Amaranthus dubius). This study investigated the impact of sub-fractionation (solvent partitioning) on betacyanin content in both plants. Characterization of betacyanins and evaluation of their antimicrobial activities were also carried out. Betanin was found in both plants. In addition, isobetanin, phyllocactin and hylocerenin were found in red pitahaya whereas amaranthine and decarboxy-amaranthine were found in red spinach. Sub-fractionated red pitahaya and red spinach had 23.5 and 121.5 % more betacyanin content, respectively, than those without sub-fractionation. Sub-fractionation increased the betanin and decarboxy-amaranthine content in red pitahaya and red spinach, respectively. The betacyanin fraction from red spinach (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] values: 0.78-3.13 mg/mL) demonstrated a better antimicrobial activity profile than that of red pitahaya (MIC values: 3.13-6.25 mg/mL) against nine Gram-positive bacterial strains. Similarly, the red spinach fraction (MIC values: 1.56-3.13 mg/mL) was more active than the red pitahaya fraction (MIC values: 3.13-6.25 mg/mL) against five Gram-negative bacterial strains. This could be because of a higher amount of betacyanin, particularly amaranthine in the red spinach.
Cancer is a preventable and treatable disease, however, the incidence rates are on the rise. Classical treatment modalities for cancer include surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, these are associated with detrimental side effects such as nausea and emesis. Therefore, researchers currently vest interest in complementary and alternative medicines for cancer treatment and prevention. Plants such as Syzygium sp. are a common basis of complementary medicines due to its abundance of bioactive phytochemicals. Numerous natural compounds derived from Syzygium sp., such as phenolics, oleanolic acids, and betulinic acids, and dimethyl cardamonins, were reported to have anticancer effects. Many possess the ability to inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. In this review, we discuss the vast potential Syzygium sp. harbours as a source of anticancer natural compounds due to its abundance, easy acceptability, affordability and safety for regular consumption.
Amino acid profiles, protein digestibility, corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS), chemical scores, essential amino acid indexes, and calculated biological values of controlcowpea flour (CCF), germinated cowpea flour (GCF) prepared from cowpeas germinated at 25 degrees C for either 24 h or 48 h and weaning foods prepared from cowpea flours were determined. Locally available rice, cowpea flour, banana-pumpkin slurry, and skim milk powder and sucrose in the ratio 35:35:15:15:5 were used to formulate weaning food containing not less than 15% protein. The ingredients were cooked into a slurry and oven-dried to produce flakes. The nutritional and sensory qualities of the weaning products were evaluated. Germination had little effect on the amino acid profile of cowpeas. In vitro protein quality and starch digestibility were improved in germinated cowpea flour. The PDCAAS of 24 h germinated cowpea flour (GCF) weaning food was higher (55.49%) than CCF-weaning food (46.74%). Vitamin A activity in 24 h GCF weaning food was higher than in CCF-weaning food. In vitro starch digestibilities of 24 h GCF and 48 h GCF-weaning foods were higher than that of CCF weaning food. The 24 h GCF-weaning food which had a higher overall acceptability score by sensory panelist than 48 h GCF and CCF-weaning food is recommended for household consumption.
Acid sulfate, peat, sandy podzolic, and saline soils are widely distributed in the lowlands of Thailand and Malaysia. The nutrient concentrations in the leaves of plants grown in these type of soils were studied with the aim of developing a nutritional strategy for adapting to such problem soils. In sago and oil palms that were well-adapted to peat soil, the N, P, and K concentrations were the same in the mature leaves, while the Ca, Mg, Na, and Fe concentrations were higher in the mature leaves of the oil palm than of the sago palm. Melastoma malabathricum and Melaleuca cajuputi plants that were well-adapted to low pH soils, peat. and acid sulfate soils were also studied. It was observed that a high amount of Al accumulated in the M. marabathricum leaves, while Al did not accumulate in M. cajuputi leaves. M. cajuputi plants accumulated large amounts of Na in their leaves or stems regardless of the exchangeable Na concentration in the soil, while M. malabathricum that was growing in saline-affected soils excluded Na. Positive relationships between macronutrients were recognized between P and N, between K and N, and between P and K. Al showed antagonistic relationships with P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Na. Na also showed antagonistic relationships with P, K, Zn, Mn, Cu, and Al. Fe showed weak antagonistic relationships with Zn, Mn, Cu, and Al.
Gynura procumbens and Cleome gynandra are two herbs commonly used in Malaysia to treat various ailments and are also consumed as salads (ulam) and vegetables. The present study aims to evaluate the relationship between the chemical compositions of both herbs and their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics approach, which is being reported for the first time. Different ethanolic extracts of both herbs were tested for DPPH scavenging and inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) via RAW 264.7 macrophage cell induction. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed a good separation between the extracts and the corresponding metabolites identified via 1H NMR spectroscopy. The 100% ethanolic extract from both herbs and 20% ethanolic extract of C. gynandra were found to have the best antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Kaempferol, quercetin, caffeoylquinic, dicaffeoylquinic acids, gallic acid, mallic acid, citric acid, phenylalanine, and choline are among the metabolites that contributed to bioactivities. The partial least square (PLS) model for both herbs have an overall acceptable goodness of fit and predictive power, which further strengthens the validity of this study. The present study provides a preliminary reference for the selection of optimum extract and will shed some light on the potential use of G. procumbens and C. gynandra as a phytomedicinal preparation.
Onion (Allium cepa) and leek (Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum) are common herbs and vegetables found in our daily life. It belongs to the genus Allium, which is usually known for their high antioxidant and anticancer properties. Medical researchers highly recommend the exploitation of herbs and plants as alternative ways in the treatment of cancer. This research was designed to study the anticancer effects of onion and leek extracts on MCF-7 human breast cancer cell. Crude extracts of ethanol, methanol, and water of onion and leek were obtained by maceration. MCF-7 cells were cultured in complete media at 37 °C and subjected to different treatments that involved varying concentrations (10, 50, and 100 μg/mL) of onion and leek extracts for 24, 48, and 72 h of incubation. The percentage of cell viability and the concentration of extracts on MCF-7 cells were determined using MTT assay. The water leek extract proved to be the most effective extract at 50 μg/mL, whereby it showed a significant inhibition ability due to the presence of entadamide A-β-D-glucopyranoside as identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS). Further studies about the mechanism of both extracts in causing cell death and the determination of the presence of other bioactive compounds in the extracts are needed.