MATERIALS AND METHODS: Whole ethanol extract (WE) of the nuts, and its liquid-liquid fractions-ethyl acetate (ET) and residue (RES) were separately administered to obese rats for 6 weeks. The normal (NC) and obese (OC) controls received normal saline and the standard control (SC), orlistat (5.14 mg/kg b.w.), during the same period. Thereafter, the animals were euthanized and the adipose, brain, kidneys and heart tissues were studied.
RESULTS: The change in body weight to naso-anal length which increased by 63.52 % in OC compared to NC (p < 0.05), decreased by 57.88, 85.80 and 70.20 % in WE, ET and RES-treated groups, respectively, relative to the OC (p < 0.05). Also, adipose tissue weights were lowered upon treatment with the extracts and fractions versus OC (p < 0.05). Total lipids, phospholipids, triacylglycerol and cholesterol concentrations in the studied tissues which were higher in OC (p < 0.05) were lowered (p < 0.05) and compared favorably with SC. Further, malondialdehyde levels in the tissues were lowered upon treatment, compared to the OC (p < 0.05). Glutathione level and activities of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase which were decreased (p < 0.05) in OC, were restored upon treatment with the extracts, relative to the obese control (p < 0.05).
SIGNIFICANCE: African walnuts assuaged lipogenesis, oxidative stress and peroxidation in extra-hepatic tissues of obese rats, hence, may attenuate ectopic fat accumulation and its associated pathogenesis.
METHODS: Pharmacokinetics of KKA was studied after intravenous and oral administration in SD rats using HPLC. Anti-angiogenic efficacy of KKA was investigated in rat aorta, human endothelial cells (EA.hy926) and nude mice implanted with matrigel.
RESULTS: Pharmacokinetic study revealed that KKA was readily absorbed into blood and stayed for a long time in the body with Tmax 2.89 ± 0.12 h, Cmax 7.24 ± 0.36 μg/mL and T1/2 1.46 ± 0.03 h. The pharmacological results showed that KKA significantly suppressed sprouting of microvessels in rat aorta with IC50 18.4 ± 4.2 μM and demonstrated remarkable inhibition of major endothelial functions such as migration, differentiation and VEGF expression in endothelial cells. Further, KKA significantly inhibited vascularization in matrigel plugs implanted in nude mice.
CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that bioabsorption of KKA from oral route was considerably efficient with longer retention in body than compared to that of the intravenous route. Further, improved antiangiogenic activity of KKA was recorded which could probably be due to its increased solubility and bioavailability. The results revealed that KKA inhibits angiogenesis by suppressing endothelial functions and expression of VEGF.
METHODS: Blood and pancreas were collected from adult male diabetic rats receiving 28days treatment with VVSAE orally. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin and lipid profile levels and activity levels of anti-oxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase-SOD, catalase-CAT and glutathione peroxidase-GPx) in the pancreas were determined by biochemical assays. Histopathological changes in the pancreas were examined under light microscopy and levels of insulin, glucose transporter (GLUT)-2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, Ikkβ and caspase-3 mRNA and protein were analyzed by real-time PCR (qPCR) and immunohistochemistry respectively. Radical scavenging activity of VVSAE was evaluated by in-vitro anti-oxidant assay while gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the major compounds in the extract.
RESULTS: GC-MS analyses indicated the presence of compounds that might exert anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis effects. Near normal FBG, HbAIc, lipid profile and serum insulin levels with lesser signs of pancreatic destruction were observed following administration of VVSAE to diabetic rats. Higher insulin, GLUT-2, SOD, CAT and GPx levels but lower TNF-α, Ikkβ and caspase-3 levels were also observed in the pancreas of VVSAE-treated diabetic rats (p<0.05 compared to non-treated diabetic rats). The extract possesses high in-vitro radical scavenging activities.
CONCLUSION: In conclusions, administration of VVSAE to diabetic rats could help to protect the pancreas against oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis-induced damage while preserving pancreatic function near normal in diabetes.
METHODS: Two parameters were measured (i) rate of glucose uptake by 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells in-vitro (ii) degree of pancreatic destruction in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced male diabetic rats receiving M. pumilum aqueous extract (M.P) (250 and 500mg/kg/day) as reflected by levels of pancreatic oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. In the meantime, phyto-chemical compounds in M.P were also identified by using LC-MS.
RESULTS: M.P was found able to enhance glucose uptake by 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells in-vitro while its administration to the male diabetic rats causes decreased in the fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels but causes increased in insulin and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels, to near normal. Levels of oxidative stress in the pancreas as reflected by levels of lipid peroxidation product (LPO) decreased while levels of anti-oxidantive enzymes (SOD, CAT and GPx) in pancreas increased. Additionally, levels of inflammation as reflected by NF-κB p65, Ikkβ and TNF-α levels decreased while apoptosis levels as reflected by caspase-9 and Bax levels decreased. Anti-apoptosis marker, Bcl-2 levels in pancreas increased.
CONCLUSIONS: The ability of M.P to enhance glucose uptake and reduces pancreatic complications could account for its beneficial effects in treating DM.