Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 88 in total

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  1. Ayub A, Yip WK, Seow HF
    Biomed. Pharmacother., 2015 Oct;75:40-50.
    PMID: 26463630 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2015.08.031
    Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are aggressive cancers that do not benefit from hormonal therapy or therapies that target HER2 receptors. Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R), which has been shown to be overexpressed in breast cancer, activates numerous downstream kinases that associate with cell proliferation and survival. This study compared the effects caused by dual treatments targeting IGF-1R, PI3K, mTORC, or MEK with those by single treatments in a TNBC cell line, MDA-MB-231. We used small-molecule kinase inhibitors, namely, NVP-AEW541, NVP-BKM120, KU0063794, and PD0325901 to target IGF-1R, PI3K, mTORC, and MEK, respectively. Combination treatments of PD0325901 with NVP-AEW541, NVP-BKM120 or KU0063794 and NVP-AEW541 with KU0063794 demonstrated a significant synergistic growth inhibition. These dual treatments increased apoptosis and/or cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and enhanced the inhibition of phosphorylation of Akt or downstream molecules of mTORC1, as compared to the single treatments. Our study suggests that targeting multiple kinases in IGF-1R signaling may be a promising therapeutic approach.
  2. Adam SH, Giribabu N, Kassim N, Kumar KE, Brahmayya M, Arya A, et al.
    Biomed. Pharmacother., 2016 Jul;81:439-452.
    PMID: 27261624 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2016.04.032
    INTRODUCTION: Protective effects of Vitis Vinifera seed aqueous extract (VVSAE) against pancreatic dysfunctions and elevation of oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in the pancreas in diabetes were investigated. Histopathological changes in the pancreas were examined under light microscope.

    METHODS: Blood and pancreas were collected from adult male diabetic rats receiving 28days treatment with VVSAE orally. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin and lipid profile levels and activity levels of anti-oxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase-SOD, catalase-CAT and glutathione peroxidase-GPx) in the pancreas were determined by biochemical assays. Histopathological changes in the pancreas were examined under light microscopy and levels of insulin, glucose transporter (GLUT)-2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, Ikkβ and caspase-3 mRNA and protein were analyzed by real-time PCR (qPCR) and immunohistochemistry respectively. Radical scavenging activity of VVSAE was evaluated by in-vitro anti-oxidant assay while gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the major compounds in the extract.

    RESULTS: GC-MS analyses indicated the presence of compounds that might exert anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis effects. Near normal FBG, HbAIc, lipid profile and serum insulin levels with lesser signs of pancreatic destruction were observed following administration of VVSAE to diabetic rats. Higher insulin, GLUT-2, SOD, CAT and GPx levels but lower TNF-α, Ikkβ and caspase-3 levels were also observed in the pancreas of VVSAE-treated diabetic rats (p<0.05 compared to non-treated diabetic rats). The extract possesses high in-vitro radical scavenging activities.

    CONCLUSION: In conclusions, administration of VVSAE to diabetic rats could help to protect the pancreas against oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis-induced damage while preserving pancreatic function near normal in diabetes.

  3. Lim SW, Loh HS, Ting KN, Bradshaw TD, Zeenathul NA
    Biomed. Pharmacother., 2014 Oct;68(8):1105-15.
    PMID: 25456851 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2014.10.006
    The pure vitamin isomer, β-tocotrienol has the least abundance among the other vitamin E isomers that are present in numerous plants. Hence, it is very scarcely studied for its bioactivity. In this study, the antiproliferative effects and primary apoptotic mechanisms of β-tocotrienol on human lung adenocarcinoma A549 and glioblastoma U87MG cells were investigated. It was evidenced that β-tocotrienol had inhibited the growth of both A549 (GI50=1.38±0.334μM) and U87MG (GI50=2.53±0.604μM) cells at rather low concentrations. Cancer cells incubated with β-tocotrienol were also found to exhibit hallmarks of apoptotic morphologies including membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation and formation of apoptotic bodies. The apoptotic properties of β-tocotrienol in both A549 and U87MG cells were the results of its capability to induce significant (P<0.05) double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs) without involving single-strand DNA breaks (SSBs). β-Tocotrienol is said to induce activation of caspase-8 in both A549 and U87MG cells guided by no activation when caspase-8 inhibitor, z-IETD-fmk was added. Besides, disruption on the mitochondrial membrane permeability of the cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner had occurred. The induction of apoptosis by β-tocotrienol in A549 and U87MG cells was confirmed to involve both the death-receptor mediated and mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways. These findings could potentiate the palm oil derived β-tocotrienol to serve as a new anticancer agent for treating human lung and brain cancers.
  4. Sosroseno W, Herminajeng E, Bird P
    Biomed. Pharmacother., 2015 Mar;70:294-8.
    PMID: 25776514 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2014.12.039
    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of immune status, age and genetic background on the induction of oral tolerance to Actinomyces viscosus. Suppression of delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response and antigen-specific serum antibody levels could be induced in DBA/2 mice intragastrically and systemically immunized with A. viscocus, suggesting the induction of oral tolerance. In contrast, this immune suppression could be abrogated if the animals had been systemically immunized prior to the induction of oral tolerance with the same bacterium. Long-term systemic immunization prior to intragastric immunization with A. viscocus suppressed DTH response only. Cell transfer of this group of animals also suppressed DTH response in the donors, indicating the action of suppressor cells for inhibition of DTH response. Furthermore, oral tolerance to A. viscocus failed to occur in mice aged at 3 days and 1, 2, 4, 6 and 36 weeks old. Mice bearing H-2(d) haplotype were the most susceptible to oral tolerization, followed by H-2(b) and H-2(k). Therefore, the results of the presence study suggest that the induction of oral tolerance to A. viscosus in mice may be dependence on the immune status and genetic background but not age.
  5. Thabethe KR, Adefolaju GA, Hosie MJ
    Biomed. Pharmacother., 2015 Apr;71:227-32.
    PMID: 25960241 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2015.03.001
    Cervical cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer globally and it is one of three AIDS defining malignancies. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is a combination of three or more antiretroviral drugs and has been shown to play a significant role in reducing the incidence of some AIDS defining malignancies, although its effect on cervical cancer is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cervical cancer and HAART. This was achieved by studying the expression of two signalling molecules expressed in cervical cancer; MUC1 and P65. Following the 24-hour treatment of a cervical cancer cell line, HCS-2, with drugs, which are commonly used as part of HAART at their clinical plasma concentrations, real-time qPCR and immunofluorescence were used in order to study gene and protein expression. A one-way ANOVA followed by a Tukey-Kramer post-hoc test was conducted using JMP 11 software on both sets of data. The drug classified as a protease inhibitor (PI) (i.e. LPV/r) reduced MUC1 and P65 gene and protein expression more than the other drug tested. PIs are known to play a significant role in cell death; therefore, the cells were thought to be more susceptible to cell death following treatment with PIs. In conclusion, the drugs used, especially the PI showed some anticancer effects by facilitating cell death through decreased gene and protein expression of MUC1 and P65 and present promising agents for cancer treatment.
  6. Chitra P, Bakthavatsalam B, Palvannan T
    Biomed. Pharmacother., 2014 Sep;68(7):881-5.
    PMID: 25194446 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2014.07.017
    Rheumatoid arthritis in HIV patients undergoing HAART is associated with increased risk of side effect. Elevation of uric acid (UA) is important in tissue damage, deposition of crystal in joints leads to the development of rheumatoid arthritis in the HAART complaint group. This study was carried out to investigate the relationship of uric acid, RA factor, ANA, ESR, cystatin C, urea and creatinine in the HAART complaint group. Moreover; the ratio of uric acid/cystatin C, uric acid/urea and uric acid/creatinine were also studied. To analyze the progression of HIV, the immunological parameters were correlated with uric acid. Our result showed a statistically high significant increase in uric acid, RA factor, ANA, ESR, cystatin C, urea and creatinine in the HAART complaint group when compared to HAART non-complaint group, early stage and control. The ratio of uric acid/cystatin C, uric acid/urea, uric acid/creatinine were significantly increased in the HAART complaint group. Statistically significant positive correlation was observed between uric acid and cystatin C, urea, creatinine, absolute CD4 and CD8 count. The increased level of uric acid, RA factor, ANA, ESR, cystatin C and increased ratio of uric acid/cystatin C in the HAART complaint group might conclude the mechanism underlying the increased risk for rheumatoid arthritis in the HAART complaint group which may relate to the combined effects of low-grade inflammation and renal dysfunction.

    Study done in India
  7. Au A, Aziz Baba A, Goh AS, Wahid Fadilah SA, Teh A, Rosline H, et al.
    Biomed. Pharmacother., 2014 Apr;68(3):343-9.
    PMID: 24581936 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2014.01.009
    The introduction and success of imatinib mesylate (IM) has become a paradigm shift in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) treatment. However, the high efficacy of IM has been hampered by the issue of clinical resistance that might due to pharmacogenetic variability. In the current study, the contribution of three common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ABCB1 (T1236C, G2677T/A and C3435T) and two SNPs of ABCG2 (G34A and C421A) genes in mediating resistance and/or good response among 215 CML patients on IM therapy were investigated. Among these patients, the frequency distribution of ABCG2 421 CC, CA and AA genotypes were significantly different between IM good response and resistant groups (P=0.01). Resistance was significantly associated with patients who had homozygous ABCB1 1236 CC genotype with OR 2.79 (95%CI: 1.217-6.374, P=0.01). For ABCB1 G2677T/A polymorphism, a better complete cytogenetic remission was observed for patients with variant TT/AT/AA genotype, compared to other genotype groups (OR=0.48, 95%CI: 0.239-0.957, P=0.03). Haplotype analysis revealed that ABCB1 haplotypes (C1236G2677C3435) was statistically linked to higher risk to IM resistance (25.8% vs. 17.4%, P=0.04), while ABCG2 diplotype A34A421 was significantly correlated with IM good response (9.1% vs. 3.9%, P=0.03). In addition, genotypic variant in ABCG2 421C>A was associated with a major molecular response (MMR) (OR=2.20, 95%CI: 1.273-3.811, P=0.004), whereas ABCB1 2677G>T/A variant was associated with a significantly lower molecular response (OR=0.49, 95%CI: 0.248-0.974, P=0.04). However, there was no significant correlation of these SNPs with IM intolerance and IM induced hepatotoxicity. Our results suggest the usefulness of genotyping of these single nucleotide polymorphisms in predicting IM response among CML patients.
  8. Sharma AK, Thanikachalam PV, Rajput SK
    Biomed. Pharmacother., 2016 Feb;77:120-8.
    PMID: 26796275 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2015.12.015
    Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the chronic metabolic disorder which provokes several pitfall signalling. Though, a series of anti-diabetic drugs are available in the market but T2DM is still a huge burden on the developed and developing countries. Numerous studies and survey predict the associated baleful circumstances in near future due to incessant increase in this insidious disorder. The novelty of recent explored anti-diabetic drugs including glitazone, glitazaar and gliflozines seems to be vanished due to their associated toxic side effects. Brown and Dryburgh (1970) isolated an intestinal amino acid known as gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) which had insulinotropic activity. Subsequently in 1985, another incretin glucagon likes peptide 1 (GLP-1) having potent insulinotropic properties was discovered by Schmidt and his co-workers. On the basis of results' obtained by Phase III Harmony program FDA approved (14 April, 2014) new GLP-1 agonist 'Albiglutide (ALB)', in addition to exiting components Exenatide (Eli Lilly, 2005) and Liraglutide (Novo Nordisk, 2010). ALB stimulates the release of protein kinase A (PKA) via different mechanisms which ultimately leads to increase in intracellular Ca(2+) levels. This increased intracellular Ca(2+) releases insulin vesicle from β-cells. In-addition, ALB being resistant to degradation by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) and has longer half life. DPP-4 can significantly degrade the level of GLP-1 agonist by hydrolysis. In spite of potent anti-hypergycemic activity, ALB has pleiotropic action of improving cardiovascular physiology. In light of these viewpoints we reveal the individual pharmacological profile of ALB and the critical analyse about its future perspective in present review.
  9. Sosroseno W
    Biomed. Pharmacother., 2009 Mar;63(3):221-7.
    PMID: 18534811 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2008.04.004
    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that colchicine may alter Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-induced immune response and abscess formation in mice. BALB/c mice were either sham-immunized or immunized with heat-killed A. actinomycetemcomitans. Spleen cells were stimulated with heat-killed A. actinomycetemcomitans in the presence or absence of colchicine. Specific IgG subclass antibodies, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and cell proliferation were determined. The animals were sham-immunized (group I) or immunized with heat-killed A. actinomycetemcomitans (groups II-VII). Colchicine was administered intraperitoneally before (group III), on the same day of (group IV), or after (group V) the primary immunization and on the same day of (group VI) or after (group VII) the secondary immunization. All groups were challenged with viable A. actinomycetemcomitans. The levels of serum-specific IgG subclasses and both IFN-gamma and IL-4 before and after bacterial challenge were assessed. The diameter of skin lesions was assessed. The results showed that colchicine augmented splenic-specific IgG1 and IL-4 as well as cell proliferation but suppressed specific IgG2a and IFN-gamma levels. Enhancement of serum-specific IgG1 and IL-4 levels, suppression of specific IgG2a and IFN-gamma levels as well as DTH response, and delayed healing of the lesions were observed in groups IV and VI, but not in the remaining groups of animals. Therefore, these results suggest that colchicine may induce a T helper 2 (Th2)-like immunity specific to A. actinomycetemcomitans in vitro and that colchicine administered on the same day as the immunization may stimulate a non-protective Th2-like immunity in A. actinomycetemcomitans-induced infections in mice.
  10. Zulkhairi A, Zaiton Z, Jamaluddin M, Sharida F, Mohd TH, Hasnah B, et al.
    Biomed. Pharmacother., 2008 Dec;62(10):716-22.
    PMID: 18538528 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2006.12.003
    There is accumulating data demonstrated hypercholesterolemia and oxidative stress play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. In the present study, a protective activity of alpha-lipoic acid; a metabolic antioxidant in hypercholesterolemic-induced animals was investigated. Eighteen adult male New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit were segregated into three groups labelled as group K, AT and ALA (n=6). While group K was fed with normal chow and acted as a control, the rest fed with 100 g/head/day with 1% high cholesterol diet to induce hypercholesterolemia. 4.2 mg/body weight of alpha lipoic acid was supplemented daily to the ALA group. Drinking water was given ad-libitum. The study was designed for 10 weeks. Blood sampling was taken from the ear lobe vein at the beginning of the study, week 5 and week 10 and plasma was prepared for lipid profile estimation and microsomal lipid peroxidation index indicated with malondialdehyde (MDA) formation. Animals were sacrificed at the end of the study and the aortas were excised for intimal lesion analysis. The results showed a significant reduction of lipid peroxidation index indicated with low MDA level (p<0.05) in ALA group compared to that of the AT group. The blood total cholesterol (TCHOL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels were found to be significantly low in ALA group compared to that of the AT group (p<0.05). Histomorphometric intimal lesion analysis of the aorta showing less of atheromatous plaque formation in alpha lipoic acid supplemented group (p<0.05) compared to that of AT group. These findings suggested that apart from its antioxidant activity, alpha lipoic acid may also posses a lipid lowering effect indicated with low plasma TCHOL and LDL levels and reduced the athero-lesion formation in rabbits fed a high cholesterol diet.
  11. Sosroseno W, Sugiatno E, Samsudin AR, Ibrahim MF
    Biomed. Pharmacother., 2008 Jun;62(5):328-32.
    PMID: 17988826
    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of nitric oxide (NO) on the production of cyclic AMP (cAMP) by a human osteoblast cell line (HOS cells) stimulated with hydroxyapatite. Cells were cultured on the HA surfaces with or without the presence of NO donors (SNAP and NAP) for 3 days. The effect of adenylyl cyclase inhibitor (SQ22536), NO scavenger (carboxy PTIO) or endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) inhibitor (L-NIO), was assessed by adding these to the cultures of HA-stimulated HOS cells with or without the presence of SNAP. Furthermore, HOS cells were pre-treated with anti-human integrin alphaV antibody prior to culturing on HA surfaces with or without the presence of SNAP. The levels of cAMP and cGMP were determined from the 3-day culture supernatants. The results showed that the production of cAMP but not cGMP by HA-stimulated HOS cells was augmented by SNAP. SQ22536 and carboxy PTIO suppressed but L-NIO only partially inhibited the production of cAMP by HA-stimulated HOS cells with or without the presence of exogenous NO. Pre-treatment of the cells with anti-human integrin alphaV antibody suppressed the production of cAMP by HA-stimulated HOS cells with or without the presence of NO. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that NO may up-regulate the production of cAMP, perhaps, by augmenting adenylyl cyclase activity initiated by the binding between HOS cell-derived integrin alphaV and HA surface.
  12. Sugiatno E, Samsudin AR, Ibrahim MF, Sosroseno W
    Biomed. Pharmacother., 2006 May;60(4):147-51.
    PMID: 16581222
    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of nitric oxide (NO) on the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by a human osteoblast cell line (HOS cells) stimulated with hydroxyapatite. Cells were cultured on the HA surfaces with or without the presence of NO donors (SNAP and NAP) for 3 days. The effect of NO scavenger, carboxy PTIO, or endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) inhibitor, L-NIO, was assessed by adding this scavenger in the cultures of HA-stimulated HOS cells with or without the presence of SNAP. Furthermore, HOS cells were pre-treated with anti-human integrin alphaV antibody, indomethacin, a non-specific inhibitor, aspirin, a COX-1 inhibitor, or nimesulide, a COX-2 inhibitor, prior to culturing on HA surfaces with or without the presence of SNAP. The levels of PGE2 were determined from the 3 day culture supernatants. The results showed that the production of PGE2 by HA-stimulated HOS cells was augmented by SNAP. Carboxy PTIO suppressed but L-NIO only partially inhibited the production of PGE2 by HA-stimulated HOS cells with or without the presence of exogenous NO. Pre-treatment of the cells with anti-human integrin alphaV antibody, indomethacin or nimesulide but not aspirin suppressed the production of PGE2 by HA-stimulated HOS cells with or without the presence of NO. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that NO may up-regulate the production of PGE2 by augmenting the COX-2 pathway initiated by the binding between HOS cell-derived integrin alphaV and HA surface.
  13. Chia JSM, Omar Farouk AA, Mohamad AS, Sulaiman MR, Perimal EK
    Biomed. Pharmacother., 2016 Oct;83:1303-1310.
    PMID: 27570173 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2016.08.052
    Zerumbone, a bioactive sesquiterpene isolated from Zingiber zerumbet (Smith), has shown to exert antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects in neuropathic pain mice model in our recent study. The mechanism through which zerumbone alleviates neuropathic pain has yet to be elucidated. Thus, this study aimed to determine whether the serotonergic system, part of the descending pain modulation pathway, contributes to the antineuropathic effect of zerumbone. Participation of the serotonergic system in zerumbone-induced antiallodynia and antihyperalgesia was assessed using Dynamic Plantar Aesthesiometer von Frey test and Hargreaves plantar test respectively in chronic-constriction injury mice model. Administration of ρ-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, 100mg/kg, i.p.) for four consecutive days to deplete serotonin (5-HT) prior to zerumbone administration blocked the antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects of zerumbone. Further investigation with 5-HT receptor antagonists methiothepin (5-HT1/6/7 receptor antagonist, 0.1mg/kg), WAY-100635 (5-HT1A receptor antagonist, 1mg/kg), isamoltane (5-HT1B receptor antagonist, 2.5mg/kg), ketanserin (5-HT2A receptor antagonist, 0.3mg/kg) and ondansetron (5-HT3 receptor antagonist, 0.5mg/kg) managed to significantly attenuate antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects of zerumbone (10mg/kg). These findings demonstrate that zerumbone alleviates mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia through the descending serotonergic system via 5-HT receptors 1A, 1B, 2A, 3, 6 and 7 in chronic constriction injury neuropathic pain mice.
  14. Shahzad N, Khan W, Md S, Ali A, Saluja SS, Sharma S, et al.
    Biomed. Pharmacother., 2017 Apr;88:786-794.
    PMID: 28157655 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2017.01.068
    Phytosterols are naturally occurring compounds in plants, structurally similar to cholesterol. The human diet is quite abundant in sitosterol and campesterol. Phytosterols are known to have various bioactive properties including reducing intestinal cholesterol absorption which alleviates blood LDL-cholesterol and cardiovascular problems. It is indicated that phytosterol rich diets may reduce cancer risk by 20%. Phytosterols may also affect host systems, enabling antitumor responses by improving immune response recognition of cancer, affecting the hormone dependent endocrine tumor growth, and by sterol biosynthesis modulation. Moreover, phytosterols have also exhibited properties that directly inhibit tumor growth, including reduced cell cycle progression, apoptosis induction, and tumor metastasis inhibition. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on occurrences, chemistry, pharmacokinetics and potential anticancer properties of phytosterols in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, anticancer effects of phytosterols have strongly been suggested and support their dietary inclusion to prevent and treat cancers.
  15. Jin NZ, Gopinath SCB
    Biomed. Pharmacother., 2016 Dec;84:356-365.
    PMID: 27668535 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2016.09.057
    Hemostasis initiates a wound healing process and stops bleeding of blood within a damaged tissue, an important process in human and animal systems. However, this process needs to revert temporarily during surgery and analyze the clotting mechanism. In the past decade, heparin has been used widely as an anticoagulant in surgery to prevent unwanted blood clotting as it is not expensive, not difficult to control, lack of suitable replacement as well as less harmful to the human. However, heparin has several disadvantages, which include thrombocytopenia and non-specific plasma binding. Moreover, using heparin it may lead dysfunction and platelet aggregation. In this overview, potential clotting factors and anticoagulants are reviewed and special focus was given to get more insights.
  16. Leong XY, Thanikachalam PV, Pandey M, Ramamurthy S
    Biomed. Pharmacother., 2016 Dec;84:1051-1060.
    PMID: 27780133 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2016.10.044
    BACKGROUND: Swertiamarin, is a secoiridoid glycoside found in genera of Enicostemma Species (Enicostemma littorale and Enicostemma axillare) belonging to the family of gentianaceae, which has been reported to cure many diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, arthritis, malaria and abdominal ulcers. However, to the best of our knowledge, till date systematic studies to understand the molecular basis of cardiac and metabolic disease preventing properties of swertiamarin has not been reported.

    AIM OF THE REVIEW: The present review aims to compile an up-to-date information on the progress made in the protective role of swertiamarin in cardiac and metabolic diseases with the objective of providing a guide for future research on this bioactive molecule.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Information on the swertiamarin was collected from major scientific databases (Pubmed, Springer, google scholar, and Web of Science) for publication between1974-2016. In this review, the protective role of swertiamarin on cardiac and metabolic diseases was discussed.

    RESULTS: Swertiamarin reported to exhibit a wide range of biological activities such as anti-atherosclerotic, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. These activities were mainly due to its effect on various signaling pathways associated with cardiac remodeling events such as inhibition of NF-kB expression, LDL oxidation, apoptosis, inflammatory and lipid peroxidation markers and stimulation of antioxidant enzymes.

    CONCLUSION: Sweriamarin exhibit a wide range of biological activities. This review presents evidence supporting the point of view that swertiamarin should be considered a potential therapeutic agent against cardiac and metabolic diseases, giving rise to novel applications in their prevention and treatment.

  17. Siti HN, Kamisah Y, Nur Iliyani MI, Mohamed S, Jaarin K
    Biomed. Pharmacother., 2017 Mar;87:451-460.
    PMID: 28068636 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2016.12.075
    Prolonged consumption of repeatedly heated vegetable oil increases blood pressure. This study aimed to determine the effects of Citrus leaf extract, (CLE) on blood pressure, blood pressure-regulating enzymes and mediators, as well as aortic histomorphometry in heated palm oil induced-hypertension. Male Sprague Dawley rats (n=56) were divided into seven groups; control group was given normal diet and the other groups were fed with palm oil-enriched diet (15% w/w) either fresh (FPO), five-time-heated (5HPO) or ten-time-heated (10HPO) with or without CLE (0.15%, w/w) supplementation. CLE supplementation reduced the heated oil-raising effect of blood pressure, plasma TBARS, thromboxane and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme in 5HPO but not in 10HPO group. CLE increased serum heme oxygenase-1 in both 5HPO and 10HPO groups. CLE supplementation reduced the increase in aortic intima-media thickness, intima-media area and circumferential wall tension in 5HPO group but not in 10HPO group. These findings suggested that CLE supplementation reduces the blood pressure-raising effects of 5HPO and vascular damage, possibly through its antioxidant effect by modulating vasoactive mediators and blood pressure-regulating enzymes.
  18. Chang VS, Okechukwu PN, Teo SS
    Biomed. Pharmacother., 2017 Mar;87:296-301.
    PMID: 28063411 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2016.12.092
    The edible red seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii) is one of the algae species which was found to be rich in nutrients and nutraceutical. Hence, K. alvarezii may have the ability to suppress cancer through its antiproliferative properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential compounds of K. alvarezii, cytotoxicity properties of K. alvarezii extract on breast cancer cell line (MCF-7), investigated toxicity effect of high dosage K. alvarezii extract in rats and determined the effect of K. alvarezii on 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) mammary carcinogenesis in rats. The method of LCMS/MS and MTT assay were used. For animal study, sub-chronic toxicity method was used, the rats were supplemented with 2000mg/kg body weight daily of K. alvarezii crude extracts by oral gavage. For the anticancer effect of K. alvarezii crude extracts, this study consisted of three groups of the experimental, untreated and normal group of rats. The experimental and untreated groups of rats were induced with mammary tumour with DMBA. The experimental group of rats was given with K. alvarezii crude extracts orally. The results were being used to compare with the untreated group of rats and normal group of rats. All the rats were fed with standard diet and water ad libitum. Mortality, behavior changes and tumour sizes were observed specifically. The differences between the three groups of rats were evaluated by using the ANOVA test. By using LCMS/MS method, six unknown compounds were analysed. K. alvarezii crude extract reduced the cell viability of MCF-7 from 84.91% to 0.81% and the IC50 value is 4.1±0.69mg/mL. For sub-chronic and heavy metal toxicity studies, no significant difference was found in haematological and biochemical values of the control group and experimental group. The growth rate of tumours in the untreated group of rats was found significantly higher than the experimental group of rats. Besides that, the white blood cells level in untreated group was found significantly higher than the experimental group and the normal group. In conclusion, K. alvarezii extract might able to slow down the growth rate of the tumour cells, therefore, identification of an active compound of inhibition growth rate of the tumour cells can be positively carried out in the future.
  19. Kavitha N, Chen Y, Kanwar JR, Sasidharan S
    Biomed. Pharmacother., 2017 Mar;87:609-620.
    PMID: 28081471 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2016.12.127
    Phaleria macrocarpa (Boerl.) is a well-known medicinal plant and have been extensively used as traditional medicine for ages in treatment of various diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the in situ cytotoxicity effect P. macrocarpa fruit ethyl acetate fraction (PMEAF) by using various conventional and modern microscopy techniques. The cytotoxicity of PMEAF treated MDA-MB-231 cells was determined through the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cytotoxicity assay and CyQuant Cell Proliferation Assay after 24h of treatment. Both results were indicated that the PMEAF is a potential anticancer agent with the average IC50 values of 18.10μg/mL by inhibiting the MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation. Various conventional and modern microscopy techniques such as light microscopy, holographic microscopy, transmission (TEM) and scanning (SEM) electron microscope were used for the observation of morphological changes in PMEAF treated MDA-MB-231cells for 24h. The characteristic of apoptotic cell death includes cell shrinkage, membrane blebs, chromatin condensation and the formation of apoptotic bodies were observed. PMEAF might be the best candidate for developing more potent anticancer drugs or chemo-preventive supplements.
  20. Venugopalan SK, T S S, V N, S M M, S R
    Biomed. Pharmacother., 2016 Oct;83:1485-1492.
    PMID: 27619103 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2016.08.068
    Thymus mitochondria play a crucial role in immune function. This study identifies the novel protective role of N-Acetylglucosamine (NAG) in dexamethasone (DEX) induced mitochondrial perturbations in mice thymus. Mice were induced with DEX (5mg/kg) and treated with NAG i.p. (266μg/kg, 400μg/kg and 800μg/kg) for 14 days, Withanolide A (800μg/kg) has been used as positive control. Dose dependent treatment of NAG against DEX significantly restored the mitochondrial enzyme levels (ICDH, KDH, SDH and MDH) and elevated the mitochondrial glutathione antioxidants defense (GSH, SOD, GPX and GST) thus improving the ATP status which was confirmed by ultrastructural alterations in mitochondria and nucleus using TEM studies. Further histopathological studies also revealed that NAG attenuate DEX induced thymotoxicity. Finally, the study concludes that dose dependent treatment of NAG supports a potential role in preventing DEX induced thymotoxicity and NAG acts as a beneficial pharmacological intervention in the DEX induced thymic repercussions.
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