Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 90 in total

  1. Khan AYF, Ahmed QU, Narayanamurthy V, Razali S, Asuhaimi FA, Saleh MSM, et al.
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2019 Jun;114:108841.
    PMID: 30981106 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2019.108841
    Porcupine bezoar (PB) is a calcified undigested material generally found in porcupine's (Hystrix brachyura) gastrointestinal tract. The bezoar is traditionally used in South East Asia and Europe for the treatment of cancer, poisoning, dengue, typhoid, etc. However, limited scientific studies have been performed to verify its anticancer potential to substantiate its traditional claims in the treatment of cancers. Hence, this study was aimed at investigating the in vitro and in vivo anticancer properties of two grassy PB aqueous extract (PB-A and PB-B) using A375 cancer cell line and zebrafish model, respectively. This paper presents the first report on in vitro A375 cell viability assay, apoptosis assay, cell cycle arrest assay, migration assay, invasion assay, qPCR experimental assay and in vivo anti-angiogenesis assay using the grassy PBs. Experimental findings revealed IC50 value are 26.59 ± 1.37 μg/mL and 30.12 ± 3.25 μg/mL for PB-A and PB-B respectively. PBs showed anti-proliferative activity with no significant cytotoxic effect on normal human dermal fibroblast (NHDF). PBs were also found to induce apoptosis via intrinsic pathway and arrest cell cycle at G2/M phase. Additionally, the findings indicated its ability to debilitate migration and invasion of A375 cells. Further evaluation using embryo zebrafish model revealed LC50 = 450.0 ± 2.50 μg/mL and 58.7 ± 5.0 μg/mL for PB-A and PB-B which also exerted anti-angiogenesis effect in zebrafish. Moreover, stearic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid and pregnenolone were identified as possible metabolites that might contribute to the anticancer effect of the both PBs. Overall, this study demonstrated that PB-A and PB-B possess potential in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects which are elicited through selective cytotoxic effect, induction of apoptosis, inhibition of migration and invasion and anti-angiogenesis. This study provides scientific evidence that the porcupine bezoar do possess anti-cancer efficacy and further justifies its traditional utility. However, more experiments with higher vertebrae models are still warranted to validate its traditional claims as an anticancer agent.
  2. Jaafaru MS, Nordin N, Rosli R, Shaari K, Bako HY, Noor NM, et al.
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2019 Nov;119:109445.
    PMID: 31541852 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2019.109445
    The antioxidant and neuroprotective activity of Glucomoringin isothiocyanate (GMG-ITC) have been reported in in vivo and in vitro models of neurodegenerative diseases. However, its neuroprotective role via mitochondrial-dependent pathway in a noxious environment remains unknown. The main objective of the present study was to unveil the mitochondrial apoptotic genes' profile and prospectively link with neuroprotective activity of GMG-ITC through its ROS scavenging. The results showed that pre-treatment of differentiated SH-SY5Y cells with 1.25 μg/mL purified isolated GMG-ITC, significantly reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production level, compared to H2O2 control group, as evidenced by flow cytometry-based evaluation of ROS generation. Presence of GMG-ITC prior to development of oxidative stress condition, downregulated the expression of cyt-c, p53, Apaf-1, Bax, CASP3, CASP8 and CASP9 genes with concurrent upregulation of Bcl-2 gene in mitochondrial apoptotic signalling pathway. Protein Multiplex revealed significant decreased in cyt-c, p53, Apaf-1, Bax, CASP8 and CASP9 due to GMG-ITC pre-treatment in oxidative stress condition. The present findings speculated that pre-treatment with GMG-ITC may alleviate oxidative stress condition in neuronal cells by reducing ROS production level and protect the cells against apoptosis via neurodegenerative disease potential pathways.
  3. Wen Jun L, Pit Foong C, Abd Hamid R
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2019 Oct;118:109221.
    PMID: 31545225 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2019.109221
    Ardisia crispa Thunb. A. DC. (Primulaceae) has been used extensively as folk-lore medicine in South East Asia including China and Japan to treat various inflammatory related diseases. Ardisia crispa root hexane fraction (ACRH) has been thoroughly studied by our group and it has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperalgesic, anti-arthritic, anti-ulcer, chemoprevention and suppression against inflammation-induced angiogenesis in various animal model. Nevertheless, its effect against human endothelial cells in vitro has not been reported yet. Hence, the aim of the study is to investigate the potential antiangiogenic property of ACRH in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and zebrafish embryo model. ACRH was separated from the crude ethanolic extract of the plant's root in prior to experimental studies. MTT assay revealed that ACRH exerted a concentration-dependent antiproliferative effect on HUVEC with the IC50 of 2.49 ± 0.04 μg/mL. At higher concentration (10 μg/mL), apoptosis was induced without affecting the cell cycle distribution. Angiogenic properties including migration, invasion and differentiation of HUVECs, evaluated via wound healing, trans-well invasion and tube formation assay respectively, were significantly suppressed by ACRH in a concentration-dependent manner. Noteworthily, significant antiangiogenic effects were observed even at the lowest concentration used (0.1 μg/mL). Expression of proMMP-2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C, VEGF-D, Angiopoietin-2, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-1, FGF-2, Follistatin, and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) were significantly reduced in various degrees by ACRH. The ISV formation in zebrafish embryo was significantly suppressed by ACRH at the concentration of 5 μg/mL. These findings revealed the potential of ACRH as antiangiogenic agent by suppressing multiple proangiogenic proteins. Thus, it can be further verified via the transcription of these proteins from their respective DNA, in elucidating their exact pathways.
  4. Jabbarzadeh Kaboli P, Afzalipour Khoshkbejari M, Mohammadi M, Abiri A, Mokhtarian R, Vazifemand R, et al.
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2020 Jan;121:109635.
    PMID: 31739165 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2019.109635
    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women. Therefore, discovery of new and effective drugs with fewer side effects is necessary to treat it. Sulforaphane (SFN) is an organosulfur compound obtained from cruciferous plants, such as broccoli and mustard, and it has the potential to treat breast cancer. Hence, it is vital to find out how SFN targets certain genes and cellular pathways in treating breast cancer. In this review, molecular targets and cellular pathways of SFN are described. Studies have shown SFN inhibits cell proliferation, causes apoptosis, stops cell cycle and has anti-oxidant activities. Increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) produces oxidative stress, activates inflammatory transcription factors, and these result in inflammation leading to cancer. Increasing anti-oxidant potential of cells and discovering new targets to reduce ROS creation reduces oxidative stress and it eventually reduces cancer risks. In short, SFN effectively affects histone deacetylases involved in chromatin remodeling, gene expression, and Nrf2 anti-oxidant signaling. This review points to the potential of SFN to treat breast cancer as well as the importance of other new cruciferous compounds, derived from and isolated from mustard, to target Keap1 and Akt, two key regulators of cellular homeostasis.
  5. Uti DE, Atangwho IJ, Eyong EU, Umoru GU, Egbung GE, Nna VU, et al.
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2020 Apr;124:109879.
    PMID: 31991383 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2020.109879
    AIMS: African walnuts were previously shown to modulate hepatic lipid bio-accumulation in obesity. Herein, we investigated the impact of the nuts on fat accumulation in adipose and ectopic regions, and associated oxidatiive stress status in obese rats.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Whole ethanol extract (WE) of the nuts, and its liquid-liquid fractions-ethyl acetate (ET) and residue (RES) were separately administered to obese rats for 6 weeks. The normal (NC) and obese (OC) controls received normal saline and the standard control (SC), orlistat (5.14 mg/kg b.w.), during the same period. Thereafter, the animals were euthanized and the adipose, brain, kidneys and heart tissues were studied.

    RESULTS: The change in body weight to naso-anal length which increased by 63.52 % in OC compared to NC (p < 0.05), decreased by 57.88, 85.80 and 70.20 % in WE, ET and RES-treated groups, respectively, relative to the OC (p < 0.05). Also, adipose tissue weights were lowered upon treatment with the extracts and fractions versus OC (p < 0.05). Total lipids, phospholipids, triacylglycerol and cholesterol concentrations in the studied tissues which were higher in OC (p < 0.05) were lowered (p < 0.05) and compared favorably with SC. Further, malondialdehyde levels in the tissues were lowered upon treatment, compared to the OC (p < 0.05). Glutathione level and activities of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase which were decreased (p < 0.05) in OC, were restored upon treatment with the extracts, relative to the obese control (p < 0.05).

    SIGNIFICANCE: African walnuts assuaged lipogenesis, oxidative stress and peroxidation in extra-hepatic tissues of obese rats, hence, may attenuate ectopic fat accumulation and its associated pathogenesis.

  6. Guo L, Zheng X, Wang E, Jia X, Wang G, Wen J
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2020 May;125:109784.
    PMID: 32092815 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2019.109784
    Doxorubicin (DOX) is an eff ;ective chemotherapeutic drug to suppress the progression of various types of tumors. However, its clinical application has been largely limited due to its potential cardiotoxicity. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are emerged as critical regulators of cardiac injury. This study was aimed to explore the effects of irigenin (IR), as an isoflavonoid isolated from the rhizome of Belamcanda chinensis, on DOX-induced cardiotoxicity using the in vivo and in vitrostudies. The results indicated that DOX-induced fibrosis, cardiac dysfunction and injury were markedly attenuated by IR through reducing apoptosis, oxidative stress and inflammation in heart tissue samples. Importantly, DOX resulted in a remarkable decrease of miR-425 in heart tissues and cells, which was significantly rescued by IR. Receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) was discovered to be a direct target of miR-425. DOX induced over-expression of RIPK1 both in vivo and in vitro, which were greatly decreased by IR. Transfection with miR-425 mimic could inhibit RIPK1 expression, whereas reducing miR-425 increased RIPK1 expression levels. In parallel to miR-425 over-expression, RIPK1 knockdown could attenuate apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and inflammation in HL-1 cells. However, over-expression of RIPK1 markedly abolished miR-425 mimic-induced apoptosis, ROS accumulation and inflammatory response in DOX-exposed cells. Herein, miR-425 could ameliorate cardiomyocyte injury through directly targeting RIPK1. Furthermore, activation of miR-425 by IR markedly improved DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, and therefore IR could be considered as a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of cardiac injury.
  7. Jafari SF, Al-Suede FSR, Yehya AHS, Ahamed MBK, Shafaei A, Asif M, et al.
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2020 Aug 06;130:110602.
    PMID: 32771894 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110602
    PURPOSE: Koetjapic acid is an active compound of a traditional medicinal plant, Sandoricum koetjape. Although koetjapic acid has a promising anticancer potential, yet it is highly insoluble in aqueous solutions. To increase aqueous solubility of koetjapic acid, we have previously reported a chemical modification of koetjapic acid to potassium koetjapate (KKA). However, pharmacokinetics of KKA has not been studied. In this study, pharmacokinetics and antiangiogenic efficacy of KKA are investigated.

    METHODS: Pharmacokinetics of KKA was studied after intravenous and oral administration in SD rats using HPLC. Anti-angiogenic efficacy of KKA was investigated in rat aorta, human endothelial cells (EA.hy926) and nude mice implanted with matrigel.

    RESULTS: Pharmacokinetic study revealed that KKA was readily absorbed into blood and stayed for a long time in the body with Tmax 2.89 ± 0.12 h, Cmax 7.24 ± 0.36 μg/mL and T1/2 1.46 ± 0.03 h. The pharmacological results showed that KKA significantly suppressed sprouting of microvessels in rat aorta with IC50 18.4 ± 4.2 μM and demonstrated remarkable inhibition of major endothelial functions such as migration, differentiation and VEGF expression in endothelial cells. Further, KKA significantly inhibited vascularization in matrigel plugs implanted in nude mice.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that bioabsorption of KKA from oral route was considerably efficient with longer retention in body than compared to that of the intravenous route. Further, improved antiangiogenic activity of KKA was recorded which could probably be due to its increased solubility and bioavailability. The results revealed that KKA inhibits angiogenesis by suppressing endothelial functions and expression of VEGF.

  8. Abad IPL, Fam RL, Nguyen DT, Nowell CJ, Trinh PNH, Manallack DT, et al.
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2020 Oct 12;132:110860.
    PMID: 33059258 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110860
    Five different subunits of the human serotonin 3 (5-hydroxytrptamine 3; 5-HT3) receptor exist and these are present in both central and peripheral systems. Different subunits alter the efficacy of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists used to treat diarrhoea predominant-irritable bowel syndrome, chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting and depression. Cell surface arrangement of 5-HT3 receptor complexes and the contribution of C, D and E subunits to receptor function is poorly understood. Here, we examine interactions of A and C subunits using 5-HT3 receptor subunits containing fluorescent protein inserts between the 3rd and 4th transmembrane spanning region. HEK293T cells that do not normally express 5-HT3 receptor subunits, were transiently transfected with A or C or both subunits. Patch clamp experiments show that cells transfected with either fluorescent protein tagged A or A and C subunits generate whole cell currents in response to 5-HT. These findings correlate with the apparent distribution of fluorescent protein tagged A and C subunits at or near cell surfaces detected using TIRF microscopy. In co-transfected cells, the A and C subunits are associated forming AC heteromer complexes at or near the cell surface and a proportion can also form A or C homomers. In conclusion, it is likely that both A homomers and AC heteromers contribute to whole cell currents in response to 5-HT with minimal contribution from C homomers.
  9. Adam SH, Giribabu N, Kassim N, Kumar KE, Brahmayya M, Arya A, et al.
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2016 Jul;81:439-452.
    PMID: 27261624 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2016.04.032
    INTRODUCTION: Protective effects of Vitis Vinifera seed aqueous extract (VVSAE) against pancreatic dysfunctions and elevation of oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in the pancreas in diabetes were investigated. Histopathological changes in the pancreas were examined under light microscope.

    METHODS: Blood and pancreas were collected from adult male diabetic rats receiving 28days treatment with VVSAE orally. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin and lipid profile levels and activity levels of anti-oxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase-SOD, catalase-CAT and glutathione peroxidase-GPx) in the pancreas were determined by biochemical assays. Histopathological changes in the pancreas were examined under light microscopy and levels of insulin, glucose transporter (GLUT)-2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, Ikkβ and caspase-3 mRNA and protein were analyzed by real-time PCR (qPCR) and immunohistochemistry respectively. Radical scavenging activity of VVSAE was evaluated by in-vitro anti-oxidant assay while gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the major compounds in the extract.

    RESULTS: GC-MS analyses indicated the presence of compounds that might exert anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis effects. Near normal FBG, HbAIc, lipid profile and serum insulin levels with lesser signs of pancreatic destruction were observed following administration of VVSAE to diabetic rats. Higher insulin, GLUT-2, SOD, CAT and GPx levels but lower TNF-α, Ikkβ and caspase-3 levels were also observed in the pancreas of VVSAE-treated diabetic rats (p<0.05 compared to non-treated diabetic rats). The extract possesses high in-vitro radical scavenging activities.

    CONCLUSION: In conclusions, administration of VVSAE to diabetic rats could help to protect the pancreas against oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis-induced damage while preserving pancreatic function near normal in diabetes.

  10. Sharma AK, Thanikachalam PV, Rajput SK
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2016 Feb;77:120-8.
    PMID: 26796275 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2015.12.015
    Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the chronic metabolic disorder which provokes several pitfall signalling. Though, a series of anti-diabetic drugs are available in the market but T2DM is still a huge burden on the developed and developing countries. Numerous studies and survey predict the associated baleful circumstances in near future due to incessant increase in this insidious disorder. The novelty of recent explored anti-diabetic drugs including glitazone, glitazaar and gliflozines seems to be vanished due to their associated toxic side effects. Brown and Dryburgh (1970) isolated an intestinal amino acid known as gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) which had insulinotropic activity. Subsequently in 1985, another incretin glucagon likes peptide 1 (GLP-1) having potent insulinotropic properties was discovered by Schmidt and his co-workers. On the basis of results' obtained by Phase III Harmony program FDA approved (14 April, 2014) new GLP-1 agonist 'Albiglutide (ALB)', in addition to exiting components Exenatide (Eli Lilly, 2005) and Liraglutide (Novo Nordisk, 2010). ALB stimulates the release of protein kinase A (PKA) via different mechanisms which ultimately leads to increase in intracellular Ca(2+) levels. This increased intracellular Ca(2+) releases insulin vesicle from β-cells. In-addition, ALB being resistant to degradation by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) and has longer half life. DPP-4 can significantly degrade the level of GLP-1 agonist by hydrolysis. In spite of potent anti-hypergycemic activity, ALB has pleiotropic action of improving cardiovascular physiology. In light of these viewpoints we reveal the individual pharmacological profile of ALB and the critical analyse about its future perspective in present review.
  11. Ismail N, Ismail M, Azmi NH, Bakar MFA, Yida Z, Abdullah MA, et al.
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2017 Nov;95:780-788.
    PMID: 28892789 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2017.08.074
    Though the causes of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are yet to be understood, much evidence has suggested that excessive amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation due to abnormal amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) processing and Aβ metabolism are crucial processes towards AD pathogenesis. Hence, approaches aiming at APP processing and Aβ metabolism are currently being actively pursued for the management of AD. Studies suggest that high cholesterol and a high fat diet have harmful effects on cognitive function and may instigate the commencement of AD pathogenesis. Despite the neuropharmacological attributes of black cumin seed (Nigella sativa) extracts and its main active compound, thymoquinone (TQ), limited records are available in relation to AD research. Nanoemulsion (NE) is exploited as drug delivery systems due to their capacity of solubilising non-polar active compounds and is widely examined for brain targeting. Herewith, the effects of thymoquinone-rich fraction nanoemulsion (TQRFNE), thymoquinone nanoemulsion (TQNE) and their counterparts' conventional emulsion in response to high fat/cholesterol diet (HFCD)-induced rats were investigated. Particularly, the Aβ generation; APP processing, β-secretase 1 (BACE1), γ-secretases of presenilin 1 (PSEN1) and presenilin 2 (PSEN2), Aβ degradation; insulin degrading enzyme (IDE), Aβ transportation; low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) were measured in brain tissues. TQRFNE reduced the brain Aβ fragment length 1-40 and 1-42 (Aβ40 and Aβ42) levels, which would attenuate the AD pathogenesis. This reduction could be due to the modulation of β- and γ-secretase enzyme activity, and the Aβ degradation and transportation in/out of the brain. The findings show the mechanistic actions of TQRFNE in response to high fat and high cholesterol diet associated to Aβ generation, degradation and transportation in the rat's brain tissue.
  12. Kamisah Y, Zuhair JSF, Juliana AH, Jaarin K
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2017 Dec;96:291-298.
    PMID: 28992471 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2017.09.095
    Parkia speciosa Hassk is a plant found abundantly in Southeast Asia region. Its seeds with or without pods and roots have been used in traditional medicine in this region to treat hypertension. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the potential effect of the plant empty pod extract on hypertension development and changes in heart induced by N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) administration in rats. Twenty-four male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Groups 1 to 3 were given l-NAME (25mg/kg, intraperitoneally) for 8 weeks. Groups 2 and 3 were also given Parkia speciosa empty pods methanolic extract (800mg/kg, orally) and nicardipine (3mg/kg, orally), concurrently with l-NAME. The last group served as the control. l-NAME reduced plasma nitric oxide level and therefore, increased systolic blood pressure, angiotensin-converting enzyme and NADPH oxidase activities as well as lipid peroxidation in the heart. Parkia speciosa extract and nicardipine treatments had significantly prevented the elevations of blood pressure, angiotensin-converting enzyme, NADPH oxidase activities and lipid peroxidation in the heart induced by the l-NAME. Parkia speciosa extract but not nicardipine prevented the reduction in plasma nitric oxide level caused by l-NAME. In conclusion, Parkia speciosa empty pods methanolic extract has a potential to prevent the development of hypertension possibly by preventing the loss of plasma nitric oxide, as well as has cardioprotective effects by reducing angiotensin-converting enzyme activity and oxidative stress in the heart in rats administered l-NAME.
  13. Adam SH, Giribabu N, Bakar NMA, Salleh N
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2017 Dec;96:716-726.
    PMID: 29040959 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2017.10.042
    Marontades pumilum is claimed to have beneficial effects in the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM), however the underlying mechanisms were not fully identified. In this study, we hypothesized that M. pumilum could help to enhance cellular glucose uptake and reduces pancreatic complications, which contributed towards its beneficial effects in DM.

    METHODS: Two parameters were measured (i) rate of glucose uptake by 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells in-vitro (ii) degree of pancreatic destruction in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced male diabetic rats receiving M. pumilum aqueous extract (M.P) (250 and 500mg/kg/day) as reflected by levels of pancreatic oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. In the meantime, phyto-chemical compounds in M.P were also identified by using LC-MS.

    RESULTS: M.P was found able to enhance glucose uptake by 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells in-vitro while its administration to the male diabetic rats causes decreased in the fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels but causes increased in insulin and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels, to near normal. Levels of oxidative stress in the pancreas as reflected by levels of lipid peroxidation product (LPO) decreased while levels of anti-oxidantive enzymes (SOD, CAT and GPx) in pancreas increased. Additionally, levels of inflammation as reflected by NF-κB p65, Ikkβ and TNF-α levels decreased while apoptosis levels as reflected by caspase-9 and Bax levels decreased. Anti-apoptosis marker, Bcl-2 levels in pancreas increased.

    CONCLUSIONS: The ability of M.P to enhance glucose uptake and reduces pancreatic complications could account for its beneficial effects in treating DM.

  14. Chellappan DK, Chellian J, Ng ZY, Sim YJ, Theng CW, Ling J, et al.
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2017 Dec;96:768-781.
    PMID: 29054093 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2017.10.058
    Pazopanib is a relatively new compound to be introduced into the chemotherapy field. It is thought to have decent anti-angiogenic properties, which gives an additional hope for the treatment of certain types of cancers. A systematic review solely discussing about pazopanib and its anti-angiogenic effect is yet to be published to date, despite several relevant clinical trials being conducted over the recent years. In this review, we aim to investigate the mechanism of pazopanib's anti-angiogenic effect and its effectiveness in treating several cancers. We have included, in this study, findings from electronically searchable data from randomized clinical trials, clinical studies, cohort studies and other relevant articles. A total of 352 studies were included in this review. From the studies, the effect of pazopanib in various cancers or models was observed and recorded. Study quality is indefinite, with a few decent quality articles. The most elaborately studied cancers include renal cell carcinoma, solid tumors, advanced solid tumors, soft tissue sarcoma, breast cancer and gynecological cancers. In addition, several less commonly studied cancers are included in the studies as well. Pazopanib had demonstrated its anti-angiogenic effect based on favorable results observed in cancers, which are caused by angiogenesis-related mechanisms, such as renal cell carcinoma, solid tumors, advanced solid tumors and soft tissue sarcoma. This review was conducted to study, analyze and review the anti-angiogenic properties of pazopanib in various cancers. The results obtained can provide a decent reference when considering treatment options for angiogenesis-related malignancies. Furthermore, the definite observations of the anti-angiogenic effects of pazopanib could provide newer insights leading to the future development of drugs of the same mechanism with increased efficiency and reduced adverse effects.
  15. Prabhu S, Vijayakumar S, Manogar P, Maniam GP, Govindan N
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2017 Aug;92:528-535.
    PMID: 28575810 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2017.05.077
    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), a type II nuclear receptor present in adipose tissue, colon and macrophages. It reduces the hyperglycemia associated metabolic syndromes. Particularly, type II diabetes-related cardiovascular system risk in human beings. The fatty acid storage and glucose metabolism are regulated by PPARγ activation in human body. According to recent reports commercially available PPARγ activating drugs have been causing severe side effects. At the same time, natural products have been proved to be a promising area of drug discovery. Recently, many studies have been attempted to screen and identify a potential drug candidate to activate PPARγ. Hence, in this study we have selected some of the bio-active molecules from traditional medicinal plants. Molecular docking studies have been carried out against the target, PPARγ. We Results suggested that Punigluconin has a efficient docking score and it is found to have good binding affinities than other ligands. Hence, we concluded that Punigluconin is a better drug candidate for activation of PPARγ gene expression. Further studies are necessary to confirm their efficacy and possibly it can develop as a potential drug in future.
  16. Alam J, Jantan I, Bukhari SNA
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2017 Aug;92:615-633.
    PMID: 28582758 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2017.05.055
    An autoimmune disease is defined as a clinical syndrome resulted from an instigation of both T cell and B cell or individually, in the absence of any present infection or any sort of distinguishable cause. Clonal deletion of auto reactive cells remains the central canon of immunology for decades, keeping the role of T cell and B cell aside, which are actually the guards to recognize the entry of foreign body. According to NIH, 23.5 million Americans are all together affected by these diseases. They are rare, but with the exception of RA. Rheumatoid arthritis is chronic and systemic autoimmune response to the multiple joints with unknown ethology, progressive disability, systemic complications, early death and high socioeconomic costs. Its ancient disease with an old history found in North American tribes since 1500 BCE, but its etiology is yet to be explored. Current conventional and biological therapies used for RA are not fulfilling the need of the patients but give only partial responses. There is a lack of consistent and liable biomarkers of prognosis therapeutic response, and toxicity. Rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by hyperplasic synovium, production of cytokines, chemokines, autoantibodies like rheumatoid factor (RF) and anticitrullinated protein antibody (ACPA), osteoclastogensis, angiogenesis and systemic consequences like cardiovascular, pulmonary, psychological, and skeletal disorders. Cytokines, a diverse group of polypeptides, play critical role in the pathogenesis of RA. Their involvement in autoimmune diseases is a rapidly growing area of biological and clinical research. Among the proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1α/β and TNF-α trigger the intracellular molecular signalling pathway responsible for the pathogenesis of RA that leads to the activation of mesenchymal cell, recruitment of innate and adaptive immune system cells, activation of synoviocytes which in term activates various mediators including tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8), resulting in inflamed synovium, increase angiogenesis and decrease lymphangiogensis. Their current pharmacotherapy should focus on their three phases of progression i.e. prearthritis phase, transition phase and clinical phase. In this way we will be able to find a way to keep the balance between the pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines that is believe to be the dogma of pathogenesis of RA. For this we need to explore new agents, whether from synthetic or natural source to find the answers for unresolved etiology of autoimmune diseases and to provide a quality of life to the patients suffering from these diseases specifically RA.
  17. Gnanaraj C, Shah MD, Song TT, Iqbal M
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2017 Aug;92:1010-1022.
    PMID: 28609838 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2017.06.014
    Plants have been consumed in medicinal practices for centuries. Lygodium microphyllum (Cav.) R.Br. (Lygodiaceae), also known as Old World Climbing Fern, is a medicinal plant used by local communities in Sabah for skin and dysentery ailments. This study aims to test aqueous extract of L. microphyllum leaves for hepatoprotective and immunosuppressive activity in rats. Animal studies were carried out to evaluate hepatoprotection of aqueous extract of L. microphyllum at different doses (200, 400 and 600mg/kg b.w.) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-mediated liver injury and histopathological alterations. Total phenolic content in aqueous extract of L. microphyllum leaves was 206.38±9.62mg gallic acid equivalent/g. The inhibitory concentration (IC50) for free radical scavenging activity of L. microphyllum was reached at a concentration of 65μg/ml.L. microphyllum was able to prevent the increase in levels of serum alanine aminotransferase, serum aspartate aminotransferase and hepatic malondialdehyde formation in a dose-dependent manner. Immunohistochemical results evidenced the suppression of oxidative stress markers (4-hydroxynonenal, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, Interleukin-6, Prostaglandin E2). Histopathological and hepatocyte ultrastructural alterations showed protective effects by L. microphyllum against CCl4-mediated oxidative stress. Hepatoprotective mechanism of L. microphyllum can be attributed to its antioxidative effects through protection of ultrastructural organelles.
  18. Hussain Z, Thu HE, Shuid AN, Kesharwani P, Khan S, Hussain F
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2017 Sep;93:596-608.
    PMID: 28686974 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2017.06.087
    For many decades, natural herbal medicines, polyherbal formulations and/or decoctions of plant-derived materials have widely been accepted as alternative complementary therapies for the treatment, cure or prevention of a wide range of acute and chronic skin diseases including chronic herpes, prurigo, acute and chronic wounds, psoriasis and atopic dermatitis (AD). This review was aimed to summarize and critically discuss about the therapeutic viability and clinical applicability of natural herbal medicines for the treatment of AD in human. The critical analysis of the literature revealed that oral (in the form of capsules, syrup or granules) and/or topical application (alone or in conjunction with wet-wrap dressing and/or acupuncture) of natural herbal medicines exhibit remarkable potential for the treatment of mild-to-severe AD in adults, children, infants and in the pregnant women. In this review, the clinical efficacy of various herbal formulations such as Chinese herbal therapies, Korean medicines, Iranian medicines, honey, natural herbal oils (coconut oil, olive oil and mineral oil), beeswax, dodder seeds and whey for the treatment of AD has been discussed. The clinical anti-AD efficacy of these complementary therapies has been observed in terms of down-regulation in Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index, erythematic intensity, Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI), Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), pruritus and itching frequency, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and expression of AD-mediated chemokines. Conclusively, we recognized that natural herbal medicines demonstrate remarkable clinical efficacy when used alone or in conjunction with other complementary therapies for the treatment of AD in patients of all ages as well as pregnant women.
  19. Abu Bakar MH, Tan JS
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2017 Sep;93:903-912.
    PMID: 28715871 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2017.07.021
    Compelling evidences posited that high level of saturated fatty acid gives rise to mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation in the development of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Celastrol is a pentacyclic triterpenoid derived from the root extracts of Tripterygium wilfordii that possesses potent anti-inflammatory properties in a number of animal models with metabolic diseases. However, the cellular mechanistic action of celastrol in alleviating obesity-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle remains largely unknown. Therefore, the present investigation evaluated the attributive properties of celastrol at different concentrations (10, 20, 30 and 40nM) on insulin resistance in C2C12 myotubes evoked by palmitate. We demonstrated that celastrol improved mitochondrial functions through significant enhancement of intracellular ATP content, mitochondrial membrane potential, citrate synthase activity and decrease of mitochondrial superoxide productions. Meanwhile, augmented mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content with suppressed DNA oxidative damage were observed following celastrol treatment. Celastrol significantly enhanced fatty acid oxidation rate and increased the level of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates in palmitate-treated cells. Further analysis revealed that the improvement of glucose uptake activity in palmitate-loaded myotubes was partly mediated by celastrol via activation of PI3K-Akt insulin signaling pathway. Collectively, these findings provided evidence for the first time that the protection from palmitate-mediated insulin resistance in C2C12 myotubes by celastrol is likely associated with the improvement of mitochondrial functions-related metabolic activities.
  20. Shahzad N, Khan W, Md S, Ali A, Saluja SS, Sharma S, et al.
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2017 Apr;88:786-794.
    PMID: 28157655 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2017.01.068
    Phytosterols are naturally occurring compounds in plants, structurally similar to cholesterol. The human diet is quite abundant in sitosterol and campesterol. Phytosterols are known to have various bioactive properties including reducing intestinal cholesterol absorption which alleviates blood LDL-cholesterol and cardiovascular problems. It is indicated that phytosterol rich diets may reduce cancer risk by 20%. Phytosterols may also affect host systems, enabling antitumor responses by improving immune response recognition of cancer, affecting the hormone dependent endocrine tumor growth, and by sterol biosynthesis modulation. Moreover, phytosterols have also exhibited properties that directly inhibit tumor growth, including reduced cell cycle progression, apoptosis induction, and tumor metastasis inhibition. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on occurrences, chemistry, pharmacokinetics and potential anticancer properties of phytosterols in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, anticancer effects of phytosterols have strongly been suggested and support their dietary inclusion to prevent and treat cancers.
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