Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 134 in total

  1. Adam SH, Giribabu N, Kassim N, Kumar KE, Brahmayya M, Arya A, et al.
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2016 Jul;81:439-452.
    PMID: 27261624 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2016.04.032
    INTRODUCTION: Protective effects of Vitis Vinifera seed aqueous extract (VVSAE) against pancreatic dysfunctions and elevation of oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in the pancreas in diabetes were investigated. Histopathological changes in the pancreas were examined under light microscope.

    METHODS: Blood and pancreas were collected from adult male diabetic rats receiving 28days treatment with VVSAE orally. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin and lipid profile levels and activity levels of anti-oxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase-SOD, catalase-CAT and glutathione peroxidase-GPx) in the pancreas were determined by biochemical assays. Histopathological changes in the pancreas were examined under light microscopy and levels of insulin, glucose transporter (GLUT)-2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, Ikkβ and caspase-3 mRNA and protein were analyzed by real-time PCR (qPCR) and immunohistochemistry respectively. Radical scavenging activity of VVSAE was evaluated by in-vitro anti-oxidant assay while gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the major compounds in the extract.

    RESULTS: GC-MS analyses indicated the presence of compounds that might exert anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis effects. Near normal FBG, HbAIc, lipid profile and serum insulin levels with lesser signs of pancreatic destruction were observed following administration of VVSAE to diabetic rats. Higher insulin, GLUT-2, SOD, CAT and GPx levels but lower TNF-α, Ikkβ and caspase-3 levels were also observed in the pancreas of VVSAE-treated diabetic rats (p<0.05 compared to non-treated diabetic rats). The extract possesses high in-vitro radical scavenging activities.

    CONCLUSION: In conclusions, administration of VVSAE to diabetic rats could help to protect the pancreas against oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis-induced damage while preserving pancreatic function near normal in diabetes.

  2. Lim SW, Loh HS, Ting KN, Bradshaw TD, Zeenathul NA
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2014 Oct;68(8):1105-15.
    PMID: 25456851 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2014.10.006
    The pure vitamin isomer, β-tocotrienol has the least abundance among the other vitamin E isomers that are present in numerous plants. Hence, it is very scarcely studied for its bioactivity. In this study, the antiproliferative effects and primary apoptotic mechanisms of β-tocotrienol on human lung adenocarcinoma A549 and glioblastoma U87MG cells were investigated. It was evidenced that β-tocotrienol had inhibited the growth of both A549 (GI50=1.38±0.334μM) and U87MG (GI50=2.53±0.604μM) cells at rather low concentrations. Cancer cells incubated with β-tocotrienol were also found to exhibit hallmarks of apoptotic morphologies including membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation and formation of apoptotic bodies. The apoptotic properties of β-tocotrienol in both A549 and U87MG cells were the results of its capability to induce significant (P<0.05) double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs) without involving single-strand DNA breaks (SSBs). β-Tocotrienol is said to induce activation of caspase-8 in both A549 and U87MG cells guided by no activation when caspase-8 inhibitor, z-IETD-fmk was added. Besides, disruption on the mitochondrial membrane permeability of the cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner had occurred. The induction of apoptosis by β-tocotrienol in A549 and U87MG cells was confirmed to involve both the death-receptor mediated and mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways. These findings could potentiate the palm oil derived β-tocotrienol to serve as a new anticancer agent for treating human lung and brain cancers.
  3. Chitra P, Bakthavatsalam B, Palvannan T
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2014 Sep;68(7):881-5.
    PMID: 25194446 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2014.07.017
    Rheumatoid arthritis in HIV patients undergoing HAART is associated with increased risk of side effect. Elevation of uric acid (UA) is important in tissue damage, deposition of crystal in joints leads to the development of rheumatoid arthritis in the HAART complaint group. This study was carried out to investigate the relationship of uric acid, RA factor, ANA, ESR, cystatin C, urea and creatinine in the HAART complaint group. Moreover; the ratio of uric acid/cystatin C, uric acid/urea and uric acid/creatinine were also studied. To analyze the progression of HIV, the immunological parameters were correlated with uric acid. Our result showed a statistically high significant increase in uric acid, RA factor, ANA, ESR, cystatin C, urea and creatinine in the HAART complaint group when compared to HAART non-complaint group, early stage and control. The ratio of uric acid/cystatin C, uric acid/urea, uric acid/creatinine were significantly increased in the HAART complaint group. Statistically significant positive correlation was observed between uric acid and cystatin C, urea, creatinine, absolute CD4 and CD8 count. The increased level of uric acid, RA factor, ANA, ESR, cystatin C and increased ratio of uric acid/cystatin C in the HAART complaint group might conclude the mechanism underlying the increased risk for rheumatoid arthritis in the HAART complaint group which may relate to the combined effects of low-grade inflammation and renal dysfunction.

    Study done in India
  4. Au A, Aziz Baba A, Goh AS, Wahid Fadilah SA, Teh A, Rosline H, et al.
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2014 Apr;68(3):343-9.
    PMID: 24581936 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2014.01.009
    The introduction and success of imatinib mesylate (IM) has become a paradigm shift in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) treatment. However, the high efficacy of IM has been hampered by the issue of clinical resistance that might due to pharmacogenetic variability. In the current study, the contribution of three common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ABCB1 (T1236C, G2677T/A and C3435T) and two SNPs of ABCG2 (G34A and C421A) genes in mediating resistance and/or good response among 215 CML patients on IM therapy were investigated. Among these patients, the frequency distribution of ABCG2 421 CC, CA and AA genotypes were significantly different between IM good response and resistant groups (P=0.01). Resistance was significantly associated with patients who had homozygous ABCB1 1236 CC genotype with OR 2.79 (95%CI: 1.217-6.374, P=0.01). For ABCB1 G2677T/A polymorphism, a better complete cytogenetic remission was observed for patients with variant TT/AT/AA genotype, compared to other genotype groups (OR=0.48, 95%CI: 0.239-0.957, P=0.03). Haplotype analysis revealed that ABCB1 haplotypes (C1236G2677C3435) was statistically linked to higher risk to IM resistance (25.8% vs. 17.4%, P=0.04), while ABCG2 diplotype A34A421 was significantly correlated with IM good response (9.1% vs. 3.9%, P=0.03). In addition, genotypic variant in ABCG2 421C>A was associated with a major molecular response (MMR) (OR=2.20, 95%CI: 1.273-3.811, P=0.004), whereas ABCB1 2677G>T/A variant was associated with a significantly lower molecular response (OR=0.49, 95%CI: 0.248-0.974, P=0.04). However, there was no significant correlation of these SNPs with IM intolerance and IM induced hepatotoxicity. Our results suggest the usefulness of genotyping of these single nucleotide polymorphisms in predicting IM response among CML patients.
  5. Sosroseno W
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2009 Mar;63(3):221-7.
    PMID: 18534811 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2008.04.004
    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that colchicine may alter Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-induced immune response and abscess formation in mice. BALB/c mice were either sham-immunized or immunized with heat-killed A. actinomycetemcomitans. Spleen cells were stimulated with heat-killed A. actinomycetemcomitans in the presence or absence of colchicine. Specific IgG subclass antibodies, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and cell proliferation were determined. The animals were sham-immunized (group I) or immunized with heat-killed A. actinomycetemcomitans (groups II-VII). Colchicine was administered intraperitoneally before (group III), on the same day of (group IV), or after (group V) the primary immunization and on the same day of (group VI) or after (group VII) the secondary immunization. All groups were challenged with viable A. actinomycetemcomitans. The levels of serum-specific IgG subclasses and both IFN-gamma and IL-4 before and after bacterial challenge were assessed. The diameter of skin lesions was assessed. The results showed that colchicine augmented splenic-specific IgG1 and IL-4 as well as cell proliferation but suppressed specific IgG2a and IFN-gamma levels. Enhancement of serum-specific IgG1 and IL-4 levels, suppression of specific IgG2a and IFN-gamma levels as well as DTH response, and delayed healing of the lesions were observed in groups IV and VI, but not in the remaining groups of animals. Therefore, these results suggest that colchicine may induce a T helper 2 (Th2)-like immunity specific to A. actinomycetemcomitans in vitro and that colchicine administered on the same day as the immunization may stimulate a non-protective Th2-like immunity in A. actinomycetemcomitans-induced infections in mice.
  6. Zulkhairi A, Zaiton Z, Jamaluddin M, Sharida F, Mohd TH, Hasnah B, et al.
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2008 Dec;62(10):716-22.
    PMID: 18538528 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2006.12.003
    There is accumulating data demonstrated hypercholesterolemia and oxidative stress play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. In the present study, a protective activity of alpha-lipoic acid; a metabolic antioxidant in hypercholesterolemic-induced animals was investigated. Eighteen adult male New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit were segregated into three groups labelled as group K, AT and ALA (n=6). While group K was fed with normal chow and acted as a control, the rest fed with 100 g/head/day with 1% high cholesterol diet to induce hypercholesterolemia. 4.2 mg/body weight of alpha lipoic acid was supplemented daily to the ALA group. Drinking water was given ad-libitum. The study was designed for 10 weeks. Blood sampling was taken from the ear lobe vein at the beginning of the study, week 5 and week 10 and plasma was prepared for lipid profile estimation and microsomal lipid peroxidation index indicated with malondialdehyde (MDA) formation. Animals were sacrificed at the end of the study and the aortas were excised for intimal lesion analysis. The results showed a significant reduction of lipid peroxidation index indicated with low MDA level (p<0.05) in ALA group compared to that of the AT group. The blood total cholesterol (TCHOL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels were found to be significantly low in ALA group compared to that of the AT group (p<0.05). Histomorphometric intimal lesion analysis of the aorta showing less of atheromatous plaque formation in alpha lipoic acid supplemented group (p<0.05) compared to that of AT group. These findings suggested that apart from its antioxidant activity, alpha lipoic acid may also posses a lipid lowering effect indicated with low plasma TCHOL and LDL levels and reduced the athero-lesion formation in rabbits fed a high cholesterol diet.
  7. Sosroseno W, Sugiatno E, Samsudin AR, Ibrahim MF
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2008 Jun;62(5):328-32.
    PMID: 17988826
    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of nitric oxide (NO) on the production of cyclic AMP (cAMP) by a human osteoblast cell line (HOS cells) stimulated with hydroxyapatite. Cells were cultured on the HA surfaces with or without the presence of NO donors (SNAP and NAP) for 3 days. The effect of adenylyl cyclase inhibitor (SQ22536), NO scavenger (carboxy PTIO) or endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) inhibitor (L-NIO), was assessed by adding these to the cultures of HA-stimulated HOS cells with or without the presence of SNAP. Furthermore, HOS cells were pre-treated with anti-human integrin alphaV antibody prior to culturing on HA surfaces with or without the presence of SNAP. The levels of cAMP and cGMP were determined from the 3-day culture supernatants. The results showed that the production of cAMP but not cGMP by HA-stimulated HOS cells was augmented by SNAP. SQ22536 and carboxy PTIO suppressed but L-NIO only partially inhibited the production of cAMP by HA-stimulated HOS cells with or without the presence of exogenous NO. Pre-treatment of the cells with anti-human integrin alphaV antibody suppressed the production of cAMP by HA-stimulated HOS cells with or without the presence of NO. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that NO may up-regulate the production of cAMP, perhaps, by augmenting adenylyl cyclase activity initiated by the binding between HOS cell-derived integrin alphaV and HA surface.
  8. Sugiatno E, Samsudin AR, Ibrahim MF, Sosroseno W
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2006 May;60(4):147-51.
    PMID: 16581222
    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of nitric oxide (NO) on the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by a human osteoblast cell line (HOS cells) stimulated with hydroxyapatite. Cells were cultured on the HA surfaces with or without the presence of NO donors (SNAP and NAP) for 3 days. The effect of NO scavenger, carboxy PTIO, or endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) inhibitor, L-NIO, was assessed by adding this scavenger in the cultures of HA-stimulated HOS cells with or without the presence of SNAP. Furthermore, HOS cells were pre-treated with anti-human integrin alphaV antibody, indomethacin, a non-specific inhibitor, aspirin, a COX-1 inhibitor, or nimesulide, a COX-2 inhibitor, prior to culturing on HA surfaces with or without the presence of SNAP. The levels of PGE2 were determined from the 3 day culture supernatants. The results showed that the production of PGE2 by HA-stimulated HOS cells was augmented by SNAP. Carboxy PTIO suppressed but L-NIO only partially inhibited the production of PGE2 by HA-stimulated HOS cells with or without the presence of exogenous NO. Pre-treatment of the cells with anti-human integrin alphaV antibody, indomethacin or nimesulide but not aspirin suppressed the production of PGE2 by HA-stimulated HOS cells with or without the presence of NO. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that NO may up-regulate the production of PGE2 by augmenting the COX-2 pathway initiated by the binding between HOS cell-derived integrin alphaV and HA surface.
  9. Ayub A, Yip WK, Seow HF
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2015 Oct;75:40-50.
    PMID: 26463630 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2015.08.031
    Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are aggressive cancers that do not benefit from hormonal therapy or therapies that target HER2 receptors. Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R), which has been shown to be overexpressed in breast cancer, activates numerous downstream kinases that associate with cell proliferation and survival. This study compared the effects caused by dual treatments targeting IGF-1R, PI3K, mTORC, or MEK with those by single treatments in a TNBC cell line, MDA-MB-231. We used small-molecule kinase inhibitors, namely, NVP-AEW541, NVP-BKM120, KU0063794, and PD0325901 to target IGF-1R, PI3K, mTORC, and MEK, respectively. Combination treatments of PD0325901 with NVP-AEW541, NVP-BKM120 or KU0063794 and NVP-AEW541 with KU0063794 demonstrated a significant synergistic growth inhibition. These dual treatments increased apoptosis and/or cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and enhanced the inhibition of phosphorylation of Akt or downstream molecules of mTORC1, as compared to the single treatments. Our study suggests that targeting multiple kinases in IGF-1R signaling may be a promising therapeutic approach.
  10. Sharma AK, Thanikachalam PV, Rajput SK
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2016 Feb;77:120-8.
    PMID: 26796275 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2015.12.015
    Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the chronic metabolic disorder which provokes several pitfall signalling. Though, a series of anti-diabetic drugs are available in the market but T2DM is still a huge burden on the developed and developing countries. Numerous studies and survey predict the associated baleful circumstances in near future due to incessant increase in this insidious disorder. The novelty of recent explored anti-diabetic drugs including glitazone, glitazaar and gliflozines seems to be vanished due to their associated toxic side effects. Brown and Dryburgh (1970) isolated an intestinal amino acid known as gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) which had insulinotropic activity. Subsequently in 1985, another incretin glucagon likes peptide 1 (GLP-1) having potent insulinotropic properties was discovered by Schmidt and his co-workers. On the basis of results' obtained by Phase III Harmony program FDA approved (14 April, 2014) new GLP-1 agonist 'Albiglutide (ALB)', in addition to exiting components Exenatide (Eli Lilly, 2005) and Liraglutide (Novo Nordisk, 2010). ALB stimulates the release of protein kinase A (PKA) via different mechanisms which ultimately leads to increase in intracellular Ca(2+) levels. This increased intracellular Ca(2+) releases insulin vesicle from β-cells. In-addition, ALB being resistant to degradation by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) and has longer half life. DPP-4 can significantly degrade the level of GLP-1 agonist by hydrolysis. In spite of potent anti-hypergycemic activity, ALB has pleiotropic action of improving cardiovascular physiology. In light of these viewpoints we reveal the individual pharmacological profile of ALB and the critical analyse about its future perspective in present review.
  11. Thabethe KR, Adefolaju GA, Hosie MJ
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2015 Apr;71:227-32.
    PMID: 25960241 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2015.03.001
    Cervical cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer globally and it is one of three AIDS defining malignancies. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is a combination of three or more antiretroviral drugs and has been shown to play a significant role in reducing the incidence of some AIDS defining malignancies, although its effect on cervical cancer is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cervical cancer and HAART. This was achieved by studying the expression of two signalling molecules expressed in cervical cancer; MUC1 and P65. Following the 24-hour treatment of a cervical cancer cell line, HCS-2, with drugs, which are commonly used as part of HAART at their clinical plasma concentrations, real-time qPCR and immunofluorescence were used in order to study gene and protein expression. A one-way ANOVA followed by a Tukey-Kramer post-hoc test was conducted using JMP 11 software on both sets of data. The drug classified as a protease inhibitor (PI) (i.e. LPV/r) reduced MUC1 and P65 gene and protein expression more than the other drug tested. PIs are known to play a significant role in cell death; therefore, the cells were thought to be more susceptible to cell death following treatment with PIs. In conclusion, the drugs used, especially the PI showed some anticancer effects by facilitating cell death through decreased gene and protein expression of MUC1 and P65 and present promising agents for cancer treatment.
  12. Sosroseno W, Herminajeng E, Bird P
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2015 Mar;70:294-8.
    PMID: 25776514 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2014.12.039
    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of immune status, age and genetic background on the induction of oral tolerance to Actinomyces viscosus. Suppression of delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response and antigen-specific serum antibody levels could be induced in DBA/2 mice intragastrically and systemically immunized with A. viscocus, suggesting the induction of oral tolerance. In contrast, this immune suppression could be abrogated if the animals had been systemically immunized prior to the induction of oral tolerance with the same bacterium. Long-term systemic immunization prior to intragastric immunization with A. viscocus suppressed DTH response only. Cell transfer of this group of animals also suppressed DTH response in the donors, indicating the action of suppressor cells for inhibition of DTH response. Furthermore, oral tolerance to A. viscocus failed to occur in mice aged at 3 days and 1, 2, 4, 6 and 36 weeks old. Mice bearing H-2(d) haplotype were the most susceptible to oral tolerization, followed by H-2(b) and H-2(k). Therefore, the results of the presence study suggest that the induction of oral tolerance to A. viscosus in mice may be dependence on the immune status and genetic background but not age.
  13. Abad IPL, Fam RL, Nguyen DT, Nowell CJ, Trinh PNH, Manallack DT, et al.
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2020 Dec;132:110860.
    PMID: 33059258 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110860
    Five different subunits of the human serotonin 3 (5-hydroxytrptamine 3; 5-HT3) receptor exist and these are present in both central and peripheral systems. Different subunits alter the efficacy of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists used to treat diarrhoea predominant-irritable bowel syndrome, chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting and depression. Cell surface arrangement of 5-HT3 receptor complexes and the contribution of C, D and E subunits to receptor function is poorly understood. Here, we examine interactions of A and C subunits using 5-HT3 receptor subunits containing fluorescent protein inserts between the 3rd and 4th transmembrane spanning region. HEK293T cells that do not normally express 5-HT3 receptor subunits, were transiently transfected with A or C or both subunits. Patch clamp experiments show that cells transfected with either fluorescent protein tagged A or A and C subunits generate whole cell currents in response to 5-HT. These findings correlate with the apparent distribution of fluorescent protein tagged A and C subunits at or near cell surfaces detected using TIRF microscopy. In co-transfected cells, the A and C subunits are associated forming AC heteromer complexes at or near the cell surface and a proportion can also form A or C homomers. In conclusion, it is likely that both A homomers and AC heteromers contribute to whole cell currents in response to 5-HT with minimal contribution from C homomers.
  14. Sarkar C, Quispe C, Jamaddar S, Hossain R, Ray P, Mondal M, et al.
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2020 Dec;132:110908.
    PMID: 33254431 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110908
    Ginkgolide A is a highly active platelet activating factor antagonist cage molecule which was isolated from the leaves of the Ginkgo biloba L. It is known for its inflammatory and immunological potentials. This review aims to sketch a current scenario on its therapeutic activities on the basis of scientific reports in the databases. A total 30 articles included in this review suggests that ginkgolide A has many important biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anxiolytic-like, anti-atherosclerosis and anti-atherombosis, neuro- and hepatoprotective effects. There is a lack of its toxicological (e.g. toxicity, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and mutagenitcity) profile. In conclusion, ginkgolide A may be one of the potential therapeutic lead compounds, especially for the treatment of cardiovascular, hepatological, and neurological diseases and disorders. More studies are necessary on this hopeful therapeutic agent.
  15. Jaafaru MS, Nordin N, Rosli R, Shaari K, Bako HY, Noor NM, et al.
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2019 Nov;119:109445.
    PMID: 31541852 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2019.109445
    The antioxidant and neuroprotective activity of Glucomoringin isothiocyanate (GMG-ITC) have been reported in in vivo and in vitro models of neurodegenerative diseases. However, its neuroprotective role via mitochondrial-dependent pathway in a noxious environment remains unknown. The main objective of the present study was to unveil the mitochondrial apoptotic genes' profile and prospectively link with neuroprotective activity of GMG-ITC through its ROS scavenging. The results showed that pre-treatment of differentiated SH-SY5Y cells with 1.25 μg/mL purified isolated GMG-ITC, significantly reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production level, compared to H2O2 control group, as evidenced by flow cytometry-based evaluation of ROS generation. Presence of GMG-ITC prior to development of oxidative stress condition, downregulated the expression of cyt-c, p53, Apaf-1, Bax, CASP3, CASP8 and CASP9 genes with concurrent upregulation of Bcl-2 gene in mitochondrial apoptotic signalling pathway. Protein Multiplex revealed significant decreased in cyt-c, p53, Apaf-1, Bax, CASP8 and CASP9 due to GMG-ITC pre-treatment in oxidative stress condition. The present findings speculated that pre-treatment with GMG-ITC may alleviate oxidative stress condition in neuronal cells by reducing ROS production level and protect the cells against apoptosis via neurodegenerative disease potential pathways.
  16. Wen Jun L, Pit Foong C, Abd Hamid R
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2019 Oct;118:109221.
    PMID: 31545225 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2019.109221
    Ardisia crispa Thunb. A. DC. (Primulaceae) has been used extensively as folk-lore medicine in South East Asia including China and Japan to treat various inflammatory related diseases. Ardisia crispa root hexane fraction (ACRH) has been thoroughly studied by our group and it has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperalgesic, anti-arthritic, anti-ulcer, chemoprevention and suppression against inflammation-induced angiogenesis in various animal model. Nevertheless, its effect against human endothelial cells in vitro has not been reported yet. Hence, the aim of the study is to investigate the potential antiangiogenic property of ACRH in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and zebrafish embryo model. ACRH was separated from the crude ethanolic extract of the plant's root in prior to experimental studies. MTT assay revealed that ACRH exerted a concentration-dependent antiproliferative effect on HUVEC with the IC50 of 2.49 ± 0.04 μg/mL. At higher concentration (10 μg/mL), apoptosis was induced without affecting the cell cycle distribution. Angiogenic properties including migration, invasion and differentiation of HUVECs, evaluated via wound healing, trans-well invasion and tube formation assay respectively, were significantly suppressed by ACRH in a concentration-dependent manner. Noteworthily, significant antiangiogenic effects were observed even at the lowest concentration used (0.1 μg/mL). Expression of proMMP-2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C, VEGF-D, Angiopoietin-2, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-1, FGF-2, Follistatin, and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) were significantly reduced in various degrees by ACRH. The ISV formation in zebrafish embryo was significantly suppressed by ACRH at the concentration of 5 μg/mL. These findings revealed the potential of ACRH as antiangiogenic agent by suppressing multiple proangiogenic proteins. Thus, it can be further verified via the transcription of these proteins from their respective DNA, in elucidating their exact pathways.
  17. Gorain B, Choudhury H, Pandey M, Kesharwani P, Abeer MM, Tekade RK, et al.
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2018 Aug;104:496-508.
    PMID: 29800914 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.05.066
    Myocardial infarction (cardiac tissue death) is among the most prevalent causes of death among the cardiac patients due to the inability of self-repair in cardiac tissues. Myocardial tissue engineering is regarded as one of the most realistic strategies for repairing damaged cardiac tissue. However, hindrance in transduction of electric signals across the cardiomyocytes due to insulating properties of polymeric materials worsens the clinical viability of myocardial tissue engineering. Aligned and conductive scaffolds based on Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have gained remarkable recognition due to their exceptional attributes which provide synthetic but viable microenvironment for regeneration of engineered cardiomyocytes. This review presents an overview and critical analysis of pharmaceutical implications and therapeutic feasibility of CNT based scaffolds in improving the cardiac tissue regeneration and functionality. The expository analysis of the available evidence revealed that inclusion of single- or multi-walled CNT into fibrous, polymeric, and elastomeric scaffolds results in significant improvement in electrical stimulation and signal transduction through cardiomyocytes. Moreover, incorporation of CNT in engineering scaffolds showed a greater potential of augmenting cardiomyocyte proliferation, differentiation, and maturation and has improved synchronous beating of cardiomyocytes. Despite promising ability of CNT in promoting functionality of cardiomyocytes, their presence in scaffolds resulted in substantial improvement in mechanical properties and structural integrity. Conclusively, this review provides new insight into the remarkable potential of CNT aligned scaffolds in improving the functionality of engineered cardiac tissue and signifies their feasibility in cardiac tissue regenerative medicines and stem cell therapy.
  18. Tan SH, Karri V, Tay NWR, Chang KH, Ah HY, Ng PQ, et al.
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2019 Mar;111:765-777.
    PMID: 30612001 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.12.101
    Neurodegenerative diseases are usually sporadic in nature and commonly influenced by a wide range of genetic, life style and environmental factors. A unifying feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) is the abnormal accumulation and processing of mutant or damaged intra and extracellular proteins; this leads to neuronal vulnerability and dysfunction in the brain. Through a detailed review of ubiquitin proteasome, mRNA splicing, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress pathway interrelation on neurodegeneration can improve the understanding of the disease mechanism. The identified pathways common to AD and PD nominate promising new targets for further studies, and as well as biomarkers. These insights suggested would likely provide major stimuli for developing unified treatment approaches to combat neurodegeneration. More broadly, pathways can serve as vehicles for integrating findings from diverse studies of neurodegeneration. The evidence examined in this review provides a brief overview of the current literature on significant pathways in promoting in AD, PD. Additionally, these insights suggest that biomarkers and treatment strategies may require simultaneous targeting of multiple components.
  19. Gurunanselage Don RAS, Yap MKK
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2019 Feb;110:918-929.
    PMID: 30572196 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.12.023
    Arctium lappa L. is a perennial herb traditionally consumed to improve well-being. It has been widely reported for its antioxidant properties; however, very little is known for its exact mechanisms underlying the anticancer activity. This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms of anticancer action for different A. lappa root extracts. Arctium lappa root was extracted with ethanol, hexane and ethyl acetate, then examined for in vitro anticancer activity against cancerous HeLa, MCF-7, Jurkat cell lines and non-cancerous 3T3 cell lines. Induction of apoptosis was determined by cellular morphological changes, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), caspase-3/7 activity and DNA fragmentation. The active compounds present in the most potent root extracts were identified by LC-ESI-MS. Among all the extracts, ethyl acetate root extract has the highest potency with IC50 of 102.2 ± 42.4 μg/ml, followed by ethanolic root extract in Jurkat T cells, at 24 h. None of the extracts were cytotoxic against 3T3 cells, suggesting that the extracts were selective against cancerous cells only. Both ethyl acetate and ethanolic root extracts exhibited significant morphological changes in Jurkat T cells, including the detachment from adjacent cells, appearance of apoptotic bodies and cells shrinkage. The extracts treated cells also displayed an increase in caspase-3/7 activity and alteration in mitochondrial membrane potential. Only ethyl acetate root extract at IC50 induced DNA fragmentation in Jurkat T cells. LC-ESI-MS analysis of the extract revealed the presence of 8 compounds, of which only 6 compounds with various biological activities reported. These findings suggest that the ethyl acetate extract of A. lappa had strong anticancer potential and induced intrinsic apoptosis via loss of ΔΨm and activation of caspase-3/7 This study can provide new insight to the discovery of new promising lead compound in chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic strategies.
  20. Lee ECS, Elhassan SAM, Lim GPL, Kok WH, Tan SW, Leong EN, et al.
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2019 Mar;111:198-208.
    PMID: 30583227 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.12.052
    For many years, circular ribonucleic acids (circRNAs) have been counted as aberrant splicing by-products. Advanced bioinformatics analysis and deep sequencing techniques have allowed researchers to discover more interesting facts about circRNAs. Intriguing evidence has shed light on the functions of circRNAs in many tissues. Furthermore, emerging reports showed that circRNAs are found abundantly in saliva and blood samples, suggesting that circRNAs are potential clinical biomarkers for human embryonic development, diseases progression and prognosis, in addition to its role in organogenesis and pathogenesis. The implementation of circRNAs in human developmental stages and diseases would be a tremendous discovery in the science and medical field. Therefore, circRNAs have been studied for its biological function as well as its implication in various human diseases. The aim of this review is to highlight the importance of circRNAs in cardiac, respiratory, nervous, endocrine and digestive systems. In addition, the role and impact of circRNAs in, cardiogenesis, neurogenesis and cancer have been discussed.
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