Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 208 in total

  1. Bello I, Shehu MW, Musa M, Zaini Asmawi M, Mahmud R
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2016 Aug 02;189:253-76.
    PMID: 27220655 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.05.049
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Kigelia africana is a quintessential African herbal medicinal plant with a pan-African distribution and immense indigenous medicinal and non-medicinal applications. The plant is use traditionally as a remedy for numerous disease such as use wounds healing, rheumatism, psoriasis, diarrhea and stomach ailments. It is also use as an aphrodisiac and for skin care.

    AIM OF THE REVIEW: The present review aims to compile an up-to-date review of the progress made in the continuous pharmacological and phytochemistry investigation of K. africana and the corresponding commercial and pharmaceutical application of these findings with the ultimate objective of providing a guide for future research on this plant.

    METHOD: The scholarly information needed for this paper were predominantly sourced from the electronic search engines such as Google, Google scholar; publishing sites such as Elsevier, scienceDirect, BMC, PubMed; other scientific database sites for chemicals such as ChemSpider, PubChem, and also from online books.

    RESULTS: Pharmacological investigations conducted confirm the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant and anticancer activity of the extract of different parts of the plant. Bioactive constituents are found to be present in all parts of the plant. So far, approximately 150 compounds have been characterized from different part of the plant. Iridoids, naphthoquinones, flavonoids, terpenes and phenylethanoglycosides are the major class of compounds isolated. Novel compounds with potent antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer effect such as verbascoside, verminoside and pinnatal among others, have been identified. Commercial trade of K. africana has boosted in the las few decades. Its effect in the maintenance of skin has been recognized resulting in a handful of skin formulations in the market.

    CONCLUSIONS: The pharmaceutical potentials of K. africana has been recognized and have witness a surge in research interest. However, till date, many of its traditional medicinal uses has not been investigated scientifically. Further probing of the existential researches on its pharmacological activity is recommended with the end-goal of unravelling the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical relevance and possible toxicity and side effects of both the extract and the active ingredients isolated.

  2. Lai JC, Lai HY, Nalamolu KR, Ng SF
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2016 08 02;189:277-89.
    PMID: 27208868 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.05.032
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Blechnum orientale Linn. (B. orientale) is a fern traditionally used by the natives as a poultice to treat wounds, boils, ulcers, blisters, abscesses, and sores on the skin.

    AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the wound healing ability of a concentrated extract of B. orientale in a hydrogel formulation in healing diabetic ulcer wounds.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The water extract from the leaves of B. orientale was separated from the crude methanolic extract and subjected to flash column chromatography techniques to produce concentrated fractions. These fractions were tested for phytochemical composition, tannin content, antioxidative and antibacterial activity. The bioactive fraction was formulated into a sodium carboxymethylcellulose hydrogel. The extract-loaded hydrogels were then characterized and tested on excision ulcer wounds of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Wound size was measured for 14 days. Histopathological studies were conducted on the healed wound tissues to observe for epithelisation, fibroblast proliferation and angiogenesis. All possible mean values were subjected to statistical analysis using One-way ANOVA and post-hoc with Tukey's T-test (P<0.05).

    RESULTS: One fraction exhibited strong antioxidative and antibacterial activity. The fraction was also highly saturated with tannins, particularly condensed tannins. Fraction W5-1 exhibited stronger antioxidant activity compared to three standards (α-Tocopherol, BHT and Trolox-C). Antibacterial activity was also present, and notably bactericidal towards Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at 0.25mg/ml. The extract-loaded hydrogels exhibited shear-thinning properties, with high moisture retention ability. The bioactive fraction at 4% w/w was shown to be able to close diabetic wounds by Day 12 on average. Other groups, including controls, only exhibited wound closure by Day 14 (or not at all). Histopathological studies had also shown that extract-treated wounds exhibited re-epithelisation, higher fibroblast proliferation, collagen synthesis, and angiogenesis.

    CONCLUSION: The ethnopharmacological effects of using B. orientale as a topical treatment for external wounds was validated and was also significantly effective in treating diabetic ulcer wounds. Thus, B. orientale extract hydrogel may be presented as a potential treatment for diabetic ulcer wounds.

  3. Foo JB, Saiful Yazan L, Tor YS, Wibowo A, Ismail N, Armania N, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2016 Jul 1;187:195-204.
    PMID: 27131434 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.04.048
    Dillenia suffruticosa is traditionally used for treatment of cancerous growth including breast cancer in Malaysia.
  4. Abubakar IB, Lim KH, Kam TS, Loh HS
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2016 May 26;184:107-18.
    PMID: 26947901 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.03.004
    The genus Tabernaemontana has widespread distribution throughout tropical and subtropical parts of the world, i.e. Africa, Asia and America which has long been used for treatments of different disease conditions including tumours, wounds, syphilis, stomach ache and headache. Some Tabernaemontana species are used for treatment of piles, spleen and abdominal tumours in India. In particular, the leaf of Tabernaemontana corymbosa is used for treatment of tumours in Bangladesh. Parts of the plant or whole plants are used as decoctions, steam bath, powder and ointments.
  5. Cheng LC, Murugaiyah V, Chan KL
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2015 Dec 24;176:485-93.
    PMID: 26593216 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2015.11.025
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Lippia nodiflora has been traditionally used in the Ayurvedic, Unani, and Sidha systems, as well as Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for the treatment of knee joint pain, lithiasis, diuresis, urinary disorder and swelling.
    AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study aims to investigate the antihyperuricemic effect of the L. nodiflora methanol extract, fractions, and chemical constituents and their mechanism of action in the rat model.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mechanisms were investigated by performing xanthine oxidase inhibitory, uricosuric, and liver xanthine oxidase/xanthine dehydrogenase (XOD/XDH) inhibitory studies in potassium oxonate- and hypoxanthine-induced hyperuricemic rats. The plant safety profile was determined using acute toxicity study. The molecular docking of the active compound to the xanthine oxidase was simulated using computer aided molecular modeling analysis.
    RESULTS: Oral administration of methanol extract showed a dose-dependent reduction effect on the serum uric acid level of hyperuricemic rats. F3 was the most potent fraction in lowering the serum uric acid level of hyperuricemic rats. Bioactivity-guided purification of F3 afforded two phenylethanoid glycosides, arenarioside (1) and verbascoside (2) and three flavonoids, 6-hydroxyluteolin (3), 6-hydroxyluteolin-7-O-glycoside (4), and nodifloretin (5). The highest serum uric acid reduction effect was exhibited by 3 (66.94%) in hyperuricemic rats, followed by 5 (55.97%), 4 (49.16%), 2 (29.03%), and 1 (22.08%) at 0.2 mmol/kg. Dose-response investigation on 3 at doses of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.3 mmol/kg produced a significant dose-dependent reduction on the serum uric acid level of hyperuricemic rats. Repeated administration of F3 or 3 to the hyperuricemic rats for 10 continuous days resulted in a significant and progressive serum uric acid lowering effect in hyperuricemic rats. In contrast, methanol extract and F3 did not reduce serum uric acid level of normoruricemic rats. In addition, F4 significantly increased the uric acid excretion of hyperuricemic rats at 200mg/kg. No toxic effect was observed in rats administered with 5000 mg/kg of methanol extract or F3.
    CONCLUSION: The potential application of L. nodiflora against hyperuricemia in the animal in accordance with its traditional uses has been demonstrated in the present study for the first time. The antihyperuricemic effect possessed by L. nodiflora was contributed mainly by liver XOD/XDH inhibitory activities and partially by uricosuric effect. Flavonoids mainly accountable for the uric acid lowering effect of L. nodiflora through the inhibition of XOD/XDH activities.
    KEYWORDS: Antihyperuricemic; Hypoxanthine-induced hyperuricemic rat; Lippia nodiflora; Liver xanthine oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase; Serum uric acid; Uric acid excretion
  6. Maulidiani, Abas F, Khatib A, Perumal V, Suppaiah V, Ismail A, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2016 Mar 2;180:60-9.
    PMID: 26775274 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.01.001
    'Pegaga' is a traditional Malay remedy for a wide range of complaints. Among the 'pegaga', Centella asiatica has been used as a remedy for diabetes mellitus. Thus, we decided to validate this claim by evaluating the in vivo antidiabetic property of C. asiatica (CA) on T2DM rat model using the holistic (1)H NMR-based metabolomics approach.
  7. Haghani A, Mehrbod P, Safi N, Aminuddin NA, Bahadoran A, Omar AR, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2016 Jun 5;185:327-40.
    PMID: 26976767 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.03.020
    For centuries, Edible Bird Nest (EBN) has been used in treatment of variety of respiratory diseases such as flu and cough as a Chinese natural medicine.
  8. Ebrahimi F, Ibrahim B, Teh CH, Murugaiyah V, Chan KL
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2016 Apr 22;182:80-9.
    PMID: 26899442 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.02.015
    Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali, TA) roots have been ethnically used as a remedy to boost male sexual desire, libido, energy and fertility.
  9. Zunjar V, Dash RP, Jivrajani M, Trivedi B, Nivsarkar M
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2016 Apr 2;181:20-5.
    PMID: 26812680 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.01.035
    The decoction of Carica papaya Linn. leaves is used in folklore medicine in certain parts of Malaysia and Indonesia for the treatment of different types of thrombocytopenia associated with diseases and drugs. There are several scientific studies carried out on humans and animal models to confirm the efficacy of decoction of papaya leave for the treatment of disease induced and drug induced thrombocytopenia, however very little is known about the bio-active compounds responsible for the observed activity. The aim of present study was to identify the active phytochemical component of Carica papaya Linn. leaves decoction responsible for anti-thrombocytopenic activity in busulfan-induced thrombocytopenic rats.
  10. Alsalahi A, Alshawsh MA, Mohamed R, Alyousefi NA, Alshagga MA, Shwter AN, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2016 Jun 20;186:30-43.
    PMID: 27025406 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.03.045
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Traditionally, the leaves of Catha edulis Forsskal (Khat) are consumed by the people of Yemen primarily for its recreational effect, and secondarily, for achieving certain tasks. Additionally, Yemeni diabetics chew such leaves in the belief that this can control their elevated blood glucose level.

    AIMS: This review focuses on outlining the findings of studies that have been conducted to display the glycemic effect of Catha edulis, while trying to balance it with findings of the association of its chewing with the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The search strategy adopted was based on a comprehensive research in Medline, PubMed, Web of Science, JSTOR, Scopus and Cochrane for articles, proceeding abstracts and theses to identify complete reports written in the English language about the glycemic effect of Catha edulis in humans and animals from 1976 to 2016. In addition, bibliographies were also reviewed to find additional reports not otherwise published. Thirty seven records were identified of which, 25 eligible studies were included in the meta-analysis using blood glucose as an outcome measurement. Studies were divided into four subgroups according to the experimental model, namely; non-diabetic animals, diabetic animals, non-diabetic humans and diabetic humans. The pooled mean difference (MD) of blood glucose between experimental and control were calculated using random effects model of the weighted mean difference of blood glucose with 95% confidence interval (CI). Heterogeneity between studies was tested using I(2) statistic and a value of P<0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance.

    RESULTS: The scientific reports in the literature prevailed that the glycemic effect of Catha edulis were greatly conflicting with the majority of studies indicating that Catha edulis has a mild hypoglycemic effect. However, the meta-analysis indicted that the overall result showed an insignificant reduction in blood glucose (MD=-9.70, 95% CI: -22.17 to 2.76, P=0.13, with high heterogeneity between subgroups, I(2)=88.2%, P<0.0001). In addition, pooled mean difference of blood glucose of non-diabetic animals, diabetic animals and non-diabetic humans showed an insignificant reduction in blood glucose (MD=-18.55, 95% CI: -39.55 to 2.50, P<0.08, MD=-52.13%, 95% CI: -108.24 to 3.99, P=0.07 and MD=-2.71%, 95% CI: -19.19 to -13.77, P=0.75) respectively. Conversely, a significant elevation in the pooled mean difference of blood glucose in diabetic humans was indicated (MD=67.18, 95% CI: 36.93-97.43, P<0.0001). The conflict shown in the glycemic effect of Catha edulis is thought to be cultivar-related, while demographic and epidemiological reports suggested that chewing Catha edulis might be a predisposing factor contributing to the development of type 2 DM.

    CONCLUSION: It was difficult to draw a meaningful conclusion from both the systematic and the meta-analysis with respect to the glycemic effect of Catha edulis since the meta-analysis results were insignificant with high heterogeneity among subgroups and are greatly conflicting. The variation is most likely due to unadjusted experimental factors or is related to Catha edulis itself, such as the differences in the phytochemical composition. Therefore, it is highly recommended that further studies of the glycemic effect of the cultivar of Catha edulis being studied should come with the identification and quantification of phytochemical content so that a meaningful assessment can be made with regard to its hypoglycemic properties. In addition, well-controlled clinical studies should be conducted to confirm whether or not chewing Catha edulis is associated with the development of type 2 DM, since this would be a source of concern seeing that the plant is widely consumed in certain populations.

  11. Yap HY, Fung SY, Ng ST, Tan CS, Tan NH
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2015 Nov 4;174:437-51.
    PMID: 26320692 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2015.08.042
    The sclerotium of Lignosus rhinocerotis (Cooke) Ryvarden (tiger milk mushroom) has been traditionally used as a complementary and alternative medicine for cancer treatment by the local communities of Southeast Asia. Despite the continuous research interest in its antiproliferative activity, the identity of the bioactive compound(s) responsible has yet to be determined. This study aims to bridge the gap in existing research literature by using proteomics approach for investigation of the nature of the anticancer substance of L. rhinocerotis.
  12. Zhang Q, Zhao JJ, Xu J, Feng F, Qu W
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2015 Sep 15;173:48-80.
    PMID: 26091967 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2015.06.011
    The genus Uncaria belongs to the family Rubiaceae, which mainly distributed in tropical regions, such as Southeast Asia, Africa and Southeast America. Their leaves and hooks have long been thought to have healing powers and are already being tested as a treatment for asthma, cancer, cirrhosis, diabetes, hypertension, stroke and rheumatism. The present review aims to provide systematically reorganized information on the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmacology of the genus Uncaria to support for further therapeutic potential of this genus. To better understanding this genus, information on the stereo-chemistry and structure-activity relationships in indole alkaloids is also represented.
  13. Kadum Yakob H, Manaf Uyub A, Fariza Sulaiman S
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2015 Aug 22;172:30-7.
    PMID: 26091966 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2015.06.006
    Ludwigia octovalvis is an aquatic plant widely distributed throughout the tropical and sub-tropical regions. It is commonly consumed as a health drink and traditionally used for treating various ailments such as dysentery, diarrhea, diabetes, nephritisn and headache. No information is available on its in vivo antibacterial activity against an important foodborne pathogen, Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli O157:H7.
  14. Lau BF, Abdullah N, Aminudin N, Lee HB, Tan PJ
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2015 Jul 1;169:441-58.
    PMID: 25937256 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2015.04.042
    Several members of the genus Lignosus, which are collectively known as cendawan susu rimau (in Malay) or tiger׳s milk mushrooms (TMM), are regarded as important local medicine particularly by the indigenous communities in Malaysia. The mushroom sclerotia are purportedly effective in treating cancer, coughs, asthma, fever, and other ailments. The most commonly encountered Lignosus spp. in Malaysia was authenticated as Lignosus rhinocerotis (Cooke) Ryvarden (synonym: Polyporus rhinocerus), which is also known as hurulingzhi in China and has been used by Chinese physicians to treat liver cancer, gastric ulcers, and chronic hepatitis. In spite of growing interest in the therapeutic potential of TMM, there is no compilation of scientific evidence that supports the ethnomedicinal uses of these mushrooms. Therefore, the present review is intended (i) to provide a comprehensive, up-to-date overview of the ethnomedicinal uses, pharmacological activities, and cultivation of TMM in general and L. rhinocerotis in particular, (ii) to demonstrate how recent scientific findings have validated some of their traditional uses, and (iii) to identify opportunities for future research and areas to prioritize for TMM bioprospecting.
  15. Bello I, Usman NS, Mahmud R, Asmawi MZ
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2015 Dec 4;175:422-31.
    PMID: 26429073 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2015.09.031
    Alstonia scholaris has a long history of use in the Ayurveda traditional treatment of various ailments including hypertension. We have reported the blood pressure lowering activity of the extract of A. scholaris. The following research aim to delineate the pharmacological mechanism involve in the antihypertensive action.
  16. Latif MA, Zaki MZ, Leng TM, Rahman NH, Arshad SA, Hamid A
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2015 Dec 24;176:258-67.
    PMID: 26519202 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2015.10.036
    A. denudata is traditionally used to treat various skin disorders, including wounds. It is widely used by the traditional healers as an effective wound treatment.
  17. Arya A, Al-Obaidi MM, Karim RB, Taha H, Khan AK, Shahid N, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2015 Dec 4;175:229-40.
    PMID: 26342523 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2015.08.057
    The art of Ayurveda and the traditional healing system in India have reflected the ethnomedicinal importance of the plant Woodfordia fruticosa Kurtz, which demonstrates its vast usage in the Ayurvedic preparations as well as in the management of diabetes by the traditional healers.
  18. Ponnusamy Y, Chear NJ, Ramanathan S, Lai CS
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2015 Jun 20;168:305-14.
    PMID: 25858509 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2015.03.062
    Dicranopteris linearis is a fern used traditionally for the treatment of skin afflictions such as external wounds, boils and ulcers. However, there are no scientific studies to date to demonstrate its ability to induce wound recovery. The objective of the present study was to explore the wound healing properties of an active fraction of D. linearis through several in vitro assays and to determine its chemical profile.
  19. George S, Ajikumaran Nair S, Johnson AJ, Venkataraman R, Baby S
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2015 Jun 20;168:158-63.
    PMID: 25858510 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2015.03.060
    Melicope lunu-ankenda leaves are used to treat diabetes in folklore medicinal practices in India and Malaysia. Here we report the isolation of an O-prenylated flavonoid (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-8,3'-dimethoxy-7-(3-methylbut-2-enoxy)flavone; OPF) from the leaves of M. lunu-ankenda and its antidiabetes activity against type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
  20. Rofiee MS, Yusof MI, Abdul Hisam EE, Bannur Z, Zakaria ZA, Somchit MN, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2015 May 26;166:109-18.
    PMID: 25792013 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2015.03.016
    Muntingia calabura L. has been used in Southeast Asia and tropical America as antipyretic, antiseptic, analgesic, antispasmodic and liver tonic. This study aims to determine the acute toxicity and the metabolic pathways involved in the hepatoprotective mechanism of M. calabura.
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