MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five groups of rats (n=6) were administered orally once daily for 7 days with 8% Tween 80 (negative control), 100 mg/kg ranitidine (positive control), or MEMC (100, 250 or 500 mg/kg), followed by the ulcer induction via ligation of the pyloric part of the rat's stomach. This was followed by the macroscopic analysis of the stomach, evaluation of gastric content parameters, and quantification of mucus content. The antioxidant (measured using the superoxide anion and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-radical scavenging, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and total phenolic content (TPC) assays), anti-inflammatory (evaluated using the in vitro lipoxygenase and xanthine oxidase assays), phytoconstituents and HPLC analysis of MEMC were also carried out.
RESULTS: The MEMC significantly (p<0.05) reduced gastric lesion in this model. Furthermore, the extract also significantly (p<0.01) reduced the volume of gastric content whereas the total acidity was significantly (p<0.05) reduced in the doses of 100 and 500 mg/kg MEMC. Moreover, the mucus content increased significantly (p<0.01) in MEMC-treated rats. The extract also showed high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in all assays tested, and demonstrated the presence of high tannins and saponins followed by flavonoids.
CONCLUSION: The MEMC exerted gastroprotective effect via several mechanisms including the anti-secretory, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. These activities could be attributed to the presence of tannins, saponins and flavonoids (e.g. rutin, quercitrin, fisetin and dihydroquercetin).
METHODS: Five groups of adult male rats were used in this experiment. Normal/control group; the rats were injected subcutaneously with 15 mg/kg of sterile normal saline once a week for two weeks, and orally administered with 10% Tween 20 (5 mL/kg). Carcinogen and treatment groups; the rats were injected subcutaneously each with 15 mg/kg body weight AOM once a week for 2 weeks and were continued to be fed for two months, respectively with 10% Tween 20, 500 and 250mg/kg body weight plant extracts. Reference group; the rats were injected subcutaneously with 15 mg/kg body weight AOM once a week for 2 weeks, and injected intraperitoneally with fluorouracil 35 mg/kg body weight for five consecutive days.
RESULT: Total ACF detected in methylene blue stained whole mounts of rat colon were 21, 23and 130 in rats fed with 500, 250 mg/kg body weight treatment and carcinogen groups, respectively. Treatment with high and low doses of the plant extract led to83.6% and 82.2% decrease in the total crypts in the groups fed 500 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg Gynura procumbens respectively compared to carcinogen group. Immunohistochemical staining of ACF showed suppressed azoxymethane induced colonic cell proliferation and Bcl-2 expression. Glutathione-S-transfarase and superoxide dismutase activities were higher in treated rats compared to carcinogen groups.
CONCLUSION: Gynura procumbens reduced the incidence of AOM induced ACF. The findings showed that Gynura procumbens may have antiproliferative and antioxidative properties. Moreover, Gynura procumbens possesses the medicinal properties to prevent colon cancer.