Symptomatic bronchial artery aneurysm warrants urgent intervention. It has a known association with pulmonary infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus. We hereby report an elderly lady with a ruptured left superior bronchial artery mycotic aneurysm. She was in the early stages of treatment for a left lung abscess. She had multiple episodes of haemoptysis following which she underwent a left lower lobectomy. Presentation of lung abscess with a concurrent ruptured mycotic aneurysm warrants early surgical intervention and can be curative as seen in this case.
A 36-year-old lady presented with four episodes of right sided pneumothorax during pregnancy requiring multiple chest drain insertion. It was complicated with persistent air leak despite low pressure high volume suction applied to the chest drainage. She delivered safely through spontaneous vaginal delivery with chest drainage. Further imaging by high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scan of thorax done revealed bilateral scattered pulmonary cysts and sub pleural bullae and was later followed up with respiratory unit. She had no further episodes of pneumothorax postpartum. This case highlights the vital importance of prompt recognition and management of pneumothorax in pregnancy as the patient involved is at higher risk for acute respiratory failure leading to maternal and/or foetal mortality. It is essential for early involvement of obstetric team and to expedite the delivery for a better perinatal and maternal outcome.
Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome (DDS) is a neurological disorder with varying severity that is postulated to be associated with cerebral oedema. We described a case of DDS resulting in irreversible brain injury and death following acute haemodialysis. A 13-year-old male with no past medical history and weighing 30kg, presented to hospital with severe urosepsis complicated by acute kidney injury (Creatinine 1422mmol/L; Urea 74.2mmol/L, Potassium 6.3mmol/L, Sodium 137mmol/L) and severe metabolic acidosis (pH 6.99, HC03 1.7mmol/L). Chest radiograph was normal. Elective intubation was done for respiratory distress. Acute haemodialysis performed due to refractory metabolic acidosis. Following haemodialysis, he became hypotensive which required inotropes. His Riker's score was low with absence of brainstem reflexes after withholding sedation. CT Brain showed generalised cerebral oedema consistent with global hypoxic changes involving the brainstem. The symptoms of DDS are caused by water movement into the brain causing cerebral oedema. Two theories have been proposed: reverse osmotic shift induced by urea removal and a fall in cerebral intracellular pH. Prevention is the key to the management of DDS. It is important to identify high risk patients and haemodialysis with reduced dialysis efficacy and gradual urea reduction is recommended. Patients who are vulnerable to DDS should be monitored closely. Low efficiency haemodialysis is recommended. Acute peritoneal dialysis might be an alternative option, but further studies are needed.
We present a rare case of stomach trichobezoar complicated with iatrogenic intussusception noted intra-operatively after failed attempt of endoscopic removal in a 13-year-old girl. At presentation, she had gastric outlet obstruction with anaemia. Endoscopy established the diagnosis of trichobezoar. Surgical removal was warranted after failed endoscopic removal. Her postoperative course was uneventful. Detailed history and careful examination disclosed trichotillomania and associated trichophagia. Psychiatric referral was sought with the intention to prevent future recurrence.
Staphylococcus Aureus is a Gram-positive cocci bacteria which had been found to be the causative organism in over 88% of patients with primary iliopsoas abscess. We report the case of a 53-year-old diabetic woman with end-stage renal failure diagnosed with left iliopsoas abscess with a catheter-related infection. Computed tomogram (CT) of abdomen and pelvis revealed hypodense lesions of left psoas, iliacus and quadratus lumborum suggestive of psoas abscesses. In addition, osteomyelitis changes at left sacroiliac and hip joint were seen. At surgery, she was found to have abscess at the posterior psoas muscle where she underwent open surgery drainage and percutaneous drain was inserted. A high index of suspicion of iliopsoas abscess should be maintained among haemodialysis patients presenting with intradialytic pelvic and hip pain and treated with optimal antibiotics therapy with appropriate surgical intervention.
Chronic diarrhoea in tropical countries may be due to a myriad of causes from infective to non-infective. This case report illustrates the challenges faced in the investigation of a middle-age Chinese gentleman who presented with chronic diarrhoea and weight loss. The diagnosis of type II enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL) was finally made. The diagnosis of EATL was least suspected as the condition is almost unheard of in this part of the world. The epidemiology, presentation, diagnosis, management and prognosis of this rare condition are discussed.
Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia (CML) is a disease characterised by a distinctive marker that is the Philadelphia Chromosome and an ability to transform into blast phase, which confers a poor prognosis. The median survival was reported to be between three to six months in correlation to blast phase. Extramedullary involvement with CML to sites such as pleural, meningeal and bones have been reported. We report a case of 41-year-old man who was diagnosed with CML in blast phase and presented with ascites. Ultrasound of abdomen showed coarse echotexture of liver suggestive leukaemic infiltration to the liver. The liver profile was severely deranged and associated with coagulopathy. Flow cytometry analysis of the peritoneal fluid revealed presence of myeloblasts consistent with CML in blast crisis with leukaemic ascites. Bone marrow biopsy also confirmed disease transformation. He received standard induction chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia with dose modifications based on liver enzymes performance. Our case highlights an unusual presentation of CML in blast crisis with leukaemic ascites and the challenges in managing cytotoxic treatments due to the liver infiltration.
Abdominal pain with dengue fever can be a diagnostic challenge. Typically, pain is localised to the epigastric region or associated with hepatomegaly. Patients can also present with acute abdomen. We report a case of a girl with dengue fever and right iliac fossa pain. The diagnosis of acute appendicitis was made only after four days of admission. An appendicular mass and a perforated appendix was noted during appendectomy. The patient recovered subsequently. Features suggestive of acute appendicitis are persistent right iliac fossa pain, localised peritonism, persistent fever and leucocytosis. Repeated clinical assessment is important to avoid missing a concurrent diagnosis like acute appendicitis.
Leiomyomas are benign soft tissue swellings of smooth muscle origin, most commonly found in the uterus. Extra uterine leiomyomas presenting as an abdominal mass is often a diagnostic challenge as such occurrence is rare. We present a rare case of primary abdominal wall leiomyoma, and highlight the importance of laparoscopic approach in the diagnosis and treatment of such tumour.
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a rare disorder in children with variable presentation. We report a 7-year-old boy who presented with bilateral retrobulbar optic neuritis and responded very well to treatment. He was also positive for aquaporin 4 (AQP4) antibodies, which is part of an emerging endophenotype within autoimmune neurological disorders in childhood.
Damage Control Resuscitation and Surgery is the concept of controlled hypotension, haemostatic resuscitation and abbreviated surgical procedures following severe trauma; the practice of which has resulted in improved mortality and morbidity. We describe a rare case of thoraco-abdominal impalement successfully managed based on the concept of Damage Control Resuscitation.
Peritoneal radionuclide scan is an established imaging modality for evaluating peritoneopleural communications. In this case report, unusual mediastinal lymph node radiotracer uptake is seen in a patient with portal hypertension on peritoneal scintigraphy. This was suspected to be due to marked lymphatic enlargement from longstanding portal hypertension since childhood, permitting passage of the large Tc-99m MAA particle. The nodes were morphologically benign on CT. Mediastinal lymph node uptake on peritoneal scintigraphy is rare but should not raise undue clinical concern, particularly in a patient with chronic portal hypertension. Anatomic correlation with SPECT-CT can provide reassurance.
A previously well 13-year-old boy presented with a short history of fever and altered mental status. His mother was admitted for dengue fever and there had been a recent dengue outbreak in their neighbourhood. He was diagnosed with dengue encephalitis as both his dengue non-structural protein 1 (NS-1) antigen and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dengue polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were positive. He did not have haemoconcentration, thrombocytopenia or any warning signs associated with severe dengue. He recovered fully with supportive treatment. This case highlights the importance of considering the diagnosis of dengue encephalitis in patients from dengue endemic areas presenting with an acute febrile illness and neurological symptoms.
Extra-adrenal /retroperitoneal paraganglioma is a rare cause of hypertension in young with increased incidence of metastasis as compared to adrenal pheochromocytoma. We present a case of a young female with history of headache, nausea/vomiting, palpitations, uncontrolled hypertension, heat intolerance and diaphoresis. The 24-hour urine catecholamine levels were elevated. Clinical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma was made and further evaluation with Computed Tomography (CT) scan of the adrenals revealed extradrenal para-aortic retroperitoneal mass in keeping with paraganglioma. Gallium-68 DOTATE positron emission tomography-CT scan (PET-CT) confirmed the diagnosis without evidence of metastatic foci.
Cronkhite-Canada Syndrome (CCS) is a syndrome characterised by a constellation of signs including but not limited to onychodystrophy of the finger and toe nails, skin hyperpigmentation and alopecia. Endoscopic features showed hamartomatous polyps involving all segments of the gastrointestinal tract with the characteristic exception of being oesophageal sparring. These polyps show confirmation by the presence of eosinophils and mast cells at the lamina propria upon histological studies.
We report a middle age man who presented with intermittent vomiting and loss of weight. Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy showed numerous antral hyperplastic polyps with inaccessible duodenum. Contrast enhanced computed topography demonstrated a classical target sign of intussusception. This finding was later confirmed at laparotomy. This rare presentation and management strategy is discussed.
Mediastinal teratoma is an infrequent germ cell tumour and comprises of 1 to 5% of all mediastinal tumours. We report a case of mediastinal mature teratoma in a 12 year old boy who presented to us with persistent non-productive cough, fever and dyspnoea for the past 7 months. Computed tomographic scan of thorax revealed a large anterior mediastinal mass measuring 11.2x9.9x14cm with calcification within. He subsequently underwent a median sternotomy with left subcostal extension (L-incision) and excision of tumour. Histopathology of the tumour revealed a mature cystic teratoma. We would like to report a case of successful surgical management of a large mediastinal mature teratoma in a child.
This is a case report of spontaneous pneumomediastinum that occurred in a 19-year-old army trainee during his 2.4km run. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is a rare disorder. It is usually precipitated by activities related to Valsalva manoeuvres such as strenuous physical activities, retching and vomiting. Treatment is expectant and the disorder usually resolves spontaneously within a few days. However, one must be aware of the disorder so that additional advice such as avoiding activities that involve Valsalva manoeuvres can be given.
Zika virus (ZIKV) has re-emerged to cause explosive epidemics in the Pacific and Latin America, and appears to be associated with severe neurological complications including microcephaly in babies. ZIKV is transmitted to humans by Aedes mosquitoes, principally Ae. aegypti, and there is historical evidence of ZIKV circulation in Southeast Asia. It is therefore clear that Malaysia is at risk of similar outbreaks. Local and international guidelines are available for surveillance, diagnostics, and management of exposed and infected individuals. ZIKV is the latest arbovirus to have spread globally beyond its initial restricted niche, and is unlikely to be the last. Innovative new methods for surveillance and control of vectors are needed to target mosquito-borne diseases as a whole.
INTRODUCTION: Nasal colonisation of S. aureus in healthy children was 18% to 30%. One to three percent of them were colonised by Methicillin-resistant Staphlycoccus aureus (MRSA). Although MRSA infection has become increasingly reported, population-based S. aureus and MRSA colonisation estimates are lacking. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. aureus carriage among children.
METHODS: Nasal samples for S. aureus culture were obtained from 250 children from three kindergartens in the Klang Valley, after consent was obtained from the children and their parents. Swabs were transported in Stuart medium, and inoculated on mannitol-salt agar within four hours of collection. Identification and disk diffusion test were done according to guidelines. Polymerase chain reaction was done on MRSA isolates for the presence of mecA and lukS/FPV genes.
RESULTS: Overall prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA carriage were 19.2% (48/250) and 1.6% (4/250) respectively. mecA gene was present in all isolates, 50% isolates carried Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) gene. Sccmec type I was found in 2 isolates and the remaining isolates has Sccmec type V.
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA carriage were similar to other studies. However, risk of contracting severe infection might be higher due to presence of PVL gene in half of the MRSA isolates.