METHODS: A comparative retrospective record review study was conducted involving one hundred (200 eyes) Malay and fifty eight (116 eyes) Chinese patients. They were selected from medical records of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan and Hospital Pulau Pinang, Penang, Malaysia. The selected patients were re-diagnosed based on the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological classification. The clinical data on presentation including the presence of systemic diseases were documented. Progression of the disease was based on available reliable visual fields and optic disc changes of patients who have been on follow-up for at least five years.
RESULTS: Malay patients presented at older age (61.4 years SD 8.4) compared to Chinese (60.6 years SD 8.3). There was significant higher baseline Intraocular Pressure (IOP) among Malays (34.7 SD 18.5mmHg) compared to Chinese (30.3 SD 16.7mmHg) (p=0.032). The Chinese patients presented with significantly better visual acuity (p<0.001) and less advanced cup to disc changes (p=0.001) compared to Malays. Malay patients progressed faster than the Chinese. Majority progressed within 1 year of diagnosis. Malays without laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) have a 4 fold (95% CI 1.4, 10.9) risk of progression. Higher baseline IOP, more advanced visual field defect and absence of LPI was identified as significant predictors associated with progression.
CONCLUSION: The Malays presented with more advanced angle closure glaucoma as compared to the Chinese in Malaysia. Aggressive disease progression was observed in Malays with the onset of optic neuropathy. Effective public awareness and aggressive management is important to prevent blindness in the Malaysian population.
CONCLUSION: Surgical excision is our choice of treatment because the outcome is immediate and definite tissue diagnosis is feasible after resection. Oral corticosteroid could be considered as an option in advanced disease. However, tumour recurrence is common after cessation of steroid therapy.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: All patients treated for melioidosis of the urogenital system were identified and retrospectively reviewed.
RESULTS: There were 9 patients with 11 episodes of urogenital infections treated over 13 years. The median age at diagnosis was 38 years old (range 29 - 63) with men predominantly affected. The major risk factor was underlying diabetes mellitus (n=9), including three patients diagnosed at the time of diagnosis of melioidosis. The median glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was 12.8% (range 6.4 to 16.6%). One patient's risk factor was only moderate alcohol consumption. Common symptoms included; fever, lethargy, rigor and anorexia. Dysuria was reported by two patients. The median duration of symptoms before presentation was 7 days (range 2 to 21 days) and the median number of sites involved were 3 (range of 2 to 6). Urogenital involvement included prostate (n=6), kidney (n=8), seminal vesicles (n=1) and testis (n=1). Radiological imaging showed that large prostate abscesses (>4.5cm) were common, and in some patients, the kidney abscess had the 'honeycomb' previously described as typical for melioidosis liver abscess. All patients were successfully treated for melioidosis and at a median follow up of 34 months (range 1 - 97), there was one death from complications of diabetes mellitus.
CONCLUSION: Urogenital melioidosis only accounted for a small proportion of all melioidosis involvement, with prostate and kidney most commonly affected. Concomitant involvement of other sites were common. The major risk factor was poorly controlled diabetes mellitus.
METHODS: This was a prospective observational study conducted from 1st June 2008 to 31st May 2009. All patients admitted in both male and female wards of the Medical Unit with the first incidence of a stroke were recruited for analysis. CT scan brain was done in all patients.
RESULTS: Total admissions in one year in the medical department were 3204 patients, both male and female together, out of which 215 were due to a first incidence of stroke; Stroke accounted for 6.7% of admissions and 16.8% of deaths in medical unit. 139 (64.7%) were ischaemic strokes and 76 (35.3%) were cerebral haemorrhages. The incidence of CH (35.3%) was high compared to regional data. 71.7% (154) patients had preexisting hypertension. Higher incidence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and aspirin intake was noted in the ischaemic group. Also compliance to treatment for hypertension was better in the Ischaemic group with more defaults in CH category (P<0.01). Significantly more deaths were noted in patients with higher systolic blood pressure on presentation, poor Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and those with dysphagia.
CONCLUSION: Every third stroke was due to cerebral hemorrhage; CH patients were largely unaware of their hypertension or were altogether treatment naïve or defaulters while compliance was far better in ischaemic stroke category.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross sectional study with 64 arms from 32 patients (34 neuropathic, 30 nonneuropathic). Diagnosis was confirmed by nerve conduction study and electromyography. The ulnar nerves were evaluated with 15MHz small footprint linear array transducer. The ulnar nerve CSA was measured at three levels with arm extended: at medial epicondyle (ME), 5cm proximal and 5cm distal to ME. Results from the neuropathic and nonneuropathic arms were compared. Independent T-tests and Pearson correlation tests were used. P value of less than 0.05 was considered significant.
RESULTS: Mean CSA values for the UN at levels 5cm proximal to ME, ME and 5cm distal to ME were 0.055, 0.109, 0.045 cm(2) respectively in the neuropathic group and 0.049, 0.075, 0.042 cm2 respectively in the non-neuropathic group. The CSA of the UN at the ME level was significantly larger in the neuropathic group, with p value of 0.005. However, there was no statistical difference between the groups at 5cm proximal and distal to the ME, with p values of 0.10 and 0.35 respectively.
CONCLUSION: There is significant difference in CSA values of the UN at ME between the neuropathic and non-neuropathic groups with mean CSA value above the predetermined 0.10cm(2) cut-off point. High-resolution ultrasonography is therefore useful to diagnose and follow up cases of elbow UNN.