Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 4720 in total

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  1. Kuan YC, Tan F
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2014 Dec;69(6):231-3.
    PMID: 25934952 MyJurnal
    The scapula is a flat, triangular bone overlying the posterior chest wall and forming the posterior aspect of the shoulder girdle. To the best of our knowledge, there is no previous description of a notch of the medial aspect of the superior border of the scapula in the literature. The imaging findings of a supero-medial scapula border notch mimicking a bone tumour are presented in this case report.
  2. Liza-Sharmini AT, Ng GF, Nor-Sharina Y, Khairil Anuar MI, Nik Azlan Z, Azhany Y
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2014 Dec;69(6):245-51.
    PMID: 25934953 MyJurnal
    OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical presentation, severity and progression of primary angle closure between Chinese and Malays residing in Malaysia.

    METHODS: A comparative retrospective record review study was conducted involving one hundred (200 eyes) Malay and fifty eight (116 eyes) Chinese patients. They were selected from medical records of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan and Hospital Pulau Pinang, Penang, Malaysia. The selected patients were re-diagnosed based on the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological classification. The clinical data on presentation including the presence of systemic diseases were documented. Progression of the disease was based on available reliable visual fields and optic disc changes of patients who have been on follow-up for at least five years.

    RESULTS: Malay patients presented at older age (61.4 years SD 8.4) compared to Chinese (60.6 years SD 8.3). There was significant higher baseline Intraocular Pressure (IOP) among Malays (34.7 SD 18.5mmHg) compared to Chinese (30.3 SD 16.7mmHg) (p=0.032). The Chinese patients presented with significantly better visual acuity (p<0.001) and less advanced cup to disc changes (p=0.001) compared to Malays. Malay patients progressed faster than the Chinese. Majority progressed within 1 year of diagnosis. Malays without laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) have a 4 fold (95% CI 1.4, 10.9) risk of progression. Higher baseline IOP, more advanced visual field defect and absence of LPI was identified as significant predictors associated with progression.

    CONCLUSION: The Malays presented with more advanced angle closure glaucoma as compared to the Chinese in Malaysia. Aggressive disease progression was observed in Malays with the onset of optic neuropathy. Effective public awareness and aggressive management is important to prevent blindness in the Malaysian population.

  3. Sia KJ, Kong CK, Tan TY, Tang IP
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2014 Dec;69(6):281-3.
    PMID: 25934961
    CASE REPORT: Five cases of Kimura's disease had been treated in our centre from year 2003 to 2010. All cases were presented with head and neck mass with cervical lymphadenopathy. Surgical excision was performed for all cases. Definite diagnosis was made by histopathological examination of the resected specimens. One out of five cases developed tumour recurrence four years after resection.

    CONCLUSION: Surgical excision is our choice of treatment because the outcome is immediate and definite tissue diagnosis is feasible after resection. Oral corticosteroid could be considered as an option in advanced disease. However, tumour recurrence is common after cessation of steroid therapy.

  4. Khairunnisak M, Mohd Khairi MD
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2014 Dec;69(6):277-8.
    PMID: 25934960 MyJurnal
    We describe the clinical presentation, investigation and management of an eventually fatal case of hypercalcemic crisis due to primary hyperparathyridism (PHPT). A 60 year-old lady with history of urolithiasis presented with worsening generalized bone pain, spinal scoliosis and a limp. Laboratory data showed hypercalcemia and raised alkaline phosphatase. Left hip x-ray revealed a subcapital femoral neck fracture. Intact parathyroid hormone was elevated, 187.6 pmol/L (1.6 - 6.9) and ultrasound showed an enlarged right parathyroid gland. Despite initial reduction of serum calcium with saline infusion and multiple doses of intravenous pamidronate, her calcium increased to 4.14 mmol/L a week following application of Buck's traction for persistent left hip pain. She succumbed eventually with serum calcium peaking at 6.28 mmol/L despite multiple therapeutic interventions.
  5. Chong Vh VH, Sharif F, Bickle I
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2014 Dec;69(6):257-60.
    PMID: 25934955 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: Melioidosis is endemic to the tropical regions, in particular Thailand and Northern Australia. Any organ can be affected by melioidosis. Involvement of the urogenital system is common in Northern Australia, but is less common in other regions. This study assesses the characteristics of melioidosis affecting the urogenital system treated in a tertiary referral centre in Brunei Darussalam.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: All patients treated for melioidosis of the urogenital system were identified and retrospectively reviewed.

    RESULTS: There were 9 patients with 11 episodes of urogenital infections treated over 13 years. The median age at diagnosis was 38 years old (range 29 - 63) with men predominantly affected. The major risk factor was underlying diabetes mellitus (n=9), including three patients diagnosed at the time of diagnosis of melioidosis. The median glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was 12.8% (range 6.4 to 16.6%). One patient's risk factor was only moderate alcohol consumption. Common symptoms included; fever, lethargy, rigor and anorexia. Dysuria was reported by two patients. The median duration of symptoms before presentation was 7 days (range 2 to 21 days) and the median number of sites involved were 3 (range of 2 to 6). Urogenital involvement included prostate (n=6), kidney (n=8), seminal vesicles (n=1) and testis (n=1). Radiological imaging showed that large prostate abscesses (>4.5cm) were common, and in some patients, the kidney abscess had the 'honeycomb' previously described as typical for melioidosis liver abscess. All patients were successfully treated for melioidosis and at a median follow up of 34 months (range 1 - 97), there was one death from complications of diabetes mellitus.

    CONCLUSION: Urogenital melioidosis only accounted for a small proportion of all melioidosis involvement, with prostate and kidney most commonly affected. Concomitant involvement of other sites were common. The major risk factor was poorly controlled diabetes mellitus.

  6. Grover CS, Thiagarajah S
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2014 Dec;69(6):268-72.
    PMID: 25934957 MyJurnal
    Our objective was to study the profile of cerebrovascular accidents and proportion of cerebral haemorrhage (CH) among stroke patients. This project was designed after we observed higher incidence of CH in Miri hospital as compared to conventionally reported data.

    METHODS: This was a prospective observational study conducted from 1st June 2008 to 31st May 2009. All patients admitted in both male and female wards of the Medical Unit with the first incidence of a stroke were recruited for analysis. CT scan brain was done in all patients.

    RESULTS: Total admissions in one year in the medical department were 3204 patients, both male and female together, out of which 215 were due to a first incidence of stroke; Stroke accounted for 6.7% of admissions and 16.8% of deaths in medical unit. 139 (64.7%) were ischaemic strokes and 76 (35.3%) were cerebral haemorrhages. The incidence of CH (35.3%) was high compared to regional data. 71.7% (154) patients had preexisting hypertension. Higher incidence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and aspirin intake was noted in the ischaemic group. Also compliance to treatment for hypertension was better in the Ischaemic group with more defaults in CH category (P<0.01). Significantly more deaths were noted in patients with higher systolic blood pressure on presentation, poor Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and those with dysphagia.

    CONCLUSION: Every third stroke was due to cerebral hemorrhage; CH patients were largely unaware of their hypertension or were altogether treatment naïve or defaulters while compliance was far better in ischaemic stroke category.

  7. Goh CH, Lu YY, Lau BL, Oy J, Lee HK, Liew D, et al.
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2014 Dec;69(6):261-7.
    PMID: 25934956 MyJurnal
    This study reviewed the epidemiology of brain and spinal tumours in Sarawak from January 2009 till December 2012. The crude incidence of brain tumour in Sarawak was 4.6 per 100,000 population/year with cumulative rate 0.5%. Meningioma was the most common brain tumour (32.3%) and followed by astrocytoma (19.4%). Only brain metastases showed a rising trend and cases were doubled in 4 years. This accounted for 15.4% and lung carcinoma was the commonest primary. Others tumour load were consistent. Primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) and astrocytoma were common in paediatrics (60%). We encountered more primary spinal tumour rather than spinal metastases. Intradural schwannoma was the commonest and frequently located at thoracic level. The current healthcare system in Sarawak enables a more consolidate data collection to reflect accurate brain tumours incidence. This advantage allows subsequent future survival outcome research and benchmarking for healthcare resource planning.
  8. Muda Z, Ibrahim H, Abdulrahman EJ, Mahfuzah M, Othman IS, Asohan T, et al.
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2014 Dec;69(6):288-90.
    PMID: 25934964 MyJurnal
    Spontaneous intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) is a rare complication of chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) in children. We report four patients with cITP who developed ICH. The latency between onset of ITP and ICH varied from 1-8 years. All our patients were profoundly thrombocytopenic (platelet count of <10 x 109/l) at the time of their intracranial bleed. The presenting features and management are discussed. All patients survived, three had complete neurological recovery while one had a minimal residual neurological deficit.
  9. Yusoff AR, Aripin YM, Zuhanis AH
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2014 Dec;69(6):286-7.
    PMID: 25934963 MyJurnal
    No abstract available.
  10. Jeffery S
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2014 Dec;69(6):284-5.
    PMID: 25934962 MyJurnal
    Shewanella spp is a facultatively anaerobic, motile, gramnegative bacillus and can be found throughout the world mainly in marine environments and soil. It is a rare pathogen in human and infection by it is usually associated with underlying severe morbidities. We report a case of a 69- years old woman who presented with Shewanella putrefaciens dysentery and who was subsequently found to have underlying malignancy.
  11. Norly S, Sivanes C, Ros'aini P
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2014 Dec;69(6):275-6.
    PMID: 25934959
    We present a case of a young man with a 5-year history of testicular swelling which was initially thought to be inguinoscrotal hernia. Intra-operatively it was found to be a testicular tumour and histopathological examination confirmed a mixed germ cell tumour. He had an orchidectomy and later underwent chemotherapy. It is interesting to note that the patient had kept the tumour for 5 years with no evidence of distant metastasis at diagnosis. This is probably the longest presentation of a testicular tumour.
  12. Khang NC, Ahmad Rafizi H, Zainal Ariffin A, Chye PC
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2014 Dec;69(6):273-4.
    PMID: 25934958 MyJurnal
    Giant lipomatous lesions of the thigh swelling with extension into retroperitoneum are rare. Lesions can be malignant or benign and can have similar clinical presentation. Treatments options differ and their prognosis varies with histology. We present two cases of liposarcoma and lipoma with the same clinical presentations that underwent surgical resection.
  13. Koh KS, Abdullah NA, Chong VH
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2014 Dec;69(6):293-5.
    PMID: 25934966
    Inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombosis typically arises distally from a thrombophlebitic extension in the pelvis or the lower extremities. It may also occur from propagation of an ovarian vein thrombosis as a result of gynaecological disorders such as pelvic inflammatory disease, endometritis or from pelvic surgeries. In this report, we present an interesting case of a tubo-ovarian abscess with an ectopic IVC thrombus. The approach to management in such cases is also highlighted.
  14. Narasimman S, Tan WJ
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2014 Dec;69(6):291-2.
    PMID: 25934965 MyJurnal
    No abstract available.
  15. Loo CH, Chan YC, Lee KQ, Tharmalingam P, Tan WC
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2015 Jun;70(3):177-81.
    PMID: 26248781 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: Psoriasis is a common, chronic, relapsing, immune-mediated inflammatory disease. Our objective is to review the clinical profile, co-morbidities, and outcome of patients with psoriasis.
    METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of outpatient psoriasis patients attending the dermatology clinic, Hospital Sultan Abdul Halim (HSAH) between January 2012 and June 2014. Data collection was based on Malaysian Psoriasis Registry.
    RESULTS: Among 296 patients with psoriasis, Malays were the most common 175 (59.1%), followed by Indians 82 (27.7%), Chinese 37 (12.5%) and others 2 (0.6%). Male to female ratio was 1.2:1. More than half (54.7%) of the patients had early onset disease (age 40 or less). Only 26 patients (8.8%) have positive family history. The most common clinical presentation was chronic plaque psoriasis (89.9%), followed by erythrodermic psoriasis (4.7%), guttate psoriasis (3.0%) and pustular psoriasis (1.7%). Twenty eight percent had nail involvement while arthropathy was seen only in 14.7%. Common triggers were sunlight (46.0%), stress (31.1%), trauma (5.4%), food (4.0%), pregnancy (4.0%), and upper respiratory tract infections (2.7%). Co-morbidities observed include ischaemic heart disease (7.1%), hypertension (26.7%), dyslipidemia (17.6%), and diabetes mellitus (22.0%). All patients were on topical medications. About 6.8% of the patients were treated with phototherapy. One third of patients (35.5%) were given systemic therapy. Out of these, 84 patients (80.0%) were on methotrexate while only 16 (15.2%) on acitretin. None was on cyclosporine or biologic. In term of disease severity, 41.7% of patients had BSA >10% and 31.4% patients had DLQI > 10.
    CONCLUSION: Our patients show a similar clinical profile and outcome as our Malaysian psoriasis population. However they tend to have a more severe disease. There is a need for a more effective targeted therapy for a better outcome.
    Study site: Dermatology clinic, Hospital Sultan Abdul Halim (HSAH), Sungai Petani, Kedah, Malaysia
  16. Rosnah I, Mohd Zali MN, Noor Hassim I, Azmi MT
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2015 Jun;70(3):169-76.
    PMID: 26248780 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: This study aims for construct validation using two approaches, i.e., exploratory factor analysis and Rasch Model.
    METHODS: A cross sectional of 313 male workers from multiple worksites had completed self-administered Malay translated version of Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire- R21. Data quality was assessed by misfit person criteria, dimensionality, summary statistic, item measure and rating (partial credit) scale followed by exploratory factor analysis and internal consistency reliability assessment.
    RESULTS: The dual approaches of construct validation analysis were complement to each other. Rasch analysis supported the theoretical constructs of three eating behaviour dimensions among respondents. In contrary to exploratory factor analysis, it did show presence of a newfound factor (∝=0.04) came up from the separation of the cognitive restrain and uncontrolled eating however, the correlation between the two respective sub-factors were fair (r=0.39) and weak (r= -0.08). Both analyses had detected three problematic items but those items were psychometrically fit for used for current study setting. The data had adequate psychometric properties. Cronbach's alpha for cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating and emotional eating were 0.66, 0.79 and 0.87 respectively. Rating scale quality was conformed to standard criteria.
    CONCLUSION: Malay version TFEQ-R21 with promising psychometric properties and valid measures for eating behaviour dimensions among male workers aged between 20 to 60 years old is now available. Further development should focus on the items in relation to Malaysian cultural adaptation before its use for daily practice in future setting.
  17. Chew KS, Noredelina MN, Ida ZZ
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2015 Jun;70(3):162-8.
    PMID: 26248779 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: Aimed at providing integrated multi-level crisis intervention to women experiencing violence such as rape, One Stop Crisis Centre (OSCC) in Malaysia is often located in the emergency department. Hence, it is imperative that emergency department healthcare providers possess adequate knowledge and acceptable attitudes and practices to ensure the smooth running of an efficient OSCC work process.

    METHOD: To study the knowledge, attitude and practice of rape management in OSCC among four groups of healthcare providers in the emergency department [i.e., the emergency medicine doctors (EDs), the staff nurses (SNs), the medical assistants (MAs) and the hospital attendants (HAs)], a selfadministered questionnaire in the form of Likert scale was conducted from January to October 2013. Correct or favourable responses were scored appropriately.

    RESULTS: Out of the 159 participants invited, 110 responded (69.2% response rate). As all data sets in the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice sections are non-parametric, Kruskal- Wallis test was performed. Homogeneity of variance was verified using non-parametric Levene test. In all three sections, there are statistically significant differences in scores obtained among the four groups of healthcare providers with H(3) = 16.0, p<0.001 for Knowledge, H(3) = 27.1, p<0.001 for Attitude and H(3) = 15.8, p<0.001 for Practice sections. Generally, the SNs obtained the highest mean rank score in the knowledge and practice sections but the EDs obtained the highest mean rank score in the attitude section. Some of the responses implied that our healthcare providers have the victim-blaming tendency that can negatively impact the victims.

    CONCLUSION: Healthcare providers must not only have adequate knowledge but also the non-judgemental attitude towards victims in OSCC.
  18. Radhika S, Lee YL, Low SF, Fazalina MF, Sharifah Majedah IA, Suraya A, et al.
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2015 Jun;70(3):158-61.
    PMID: 26248778 MyJurnal
    AIM: This study was conducted to measure the cross sectional area (CSA) of the ulnar nerve (UN) in the cubital tunnel and to evaluate the role of high-resolution ultrasonography in the diagnosis of ulnar nerve neuropathy (UNN).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross sectional study with 64 arms from 32 patients (34 neuropathic, 30 nonneuropathic). Diagnosis was confirmed by nerve conduction study and electromyography. The ulnar nerves were evaluated with 15MHz small footprint linear array transducer. The ulnar nerve CSA was measured at three levels with arm extended: at medial epicondyle (ME), 5cm proximal and 5cm distal to ME. Results from the neuropathic and nonneuropathic arms were compared. Independent T-tests and Pearson correlation tests were used. P value of less than 0.05 was considered significant.

    RESULTS: Mean CSA values for the UN at levels 5cm proximal to ME, ME and 5cm distal to ME were 0.055, 0.109, 0.045 cm(2) respectively in the neuropathic group and 0.049, 0.075, 0.042 cm2 respectively in the non-neuropathic group. The CSA of the UN at the ME level was significantly larger in the neuropathic group, with p value of 0.005. However, there was no statistical difference between the groups at 5cm proximal and distal to the ME, with p values of 0.10 and 0.35 respectively.

    CONCLUSION: There is significant difference in CSA values of the UN at ME between the neuropathic and non-neuropathic groups with mean CSA value above the predetermined 0.10cm(2) cut-off point. High-resolution ultrasonography is therefore useful to diagnose and follow up cases of elbow UNN.

  19. Wan Suhailah WH, Mohd Normani Z, Nik Adilah NO, Azizah O, Aw CL, Zuraida Z
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2015 Jun;70(3):188-97.
    PMID: 26248783 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this article was to review the types of psychological interventions for patients with tinnitus, professionals involved in giving the intervention, the effectiveness of each method of interventions and comparisons with non-psychological approaches in treating tinnitus.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed database searched.

    RESULTS: Twenty one articles that employed randomized controlled trials design were included. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) was the most common intervention conducted by the researchers. Clinical psychologists and trainee psychologists were the most professionals involved in the therapy. The length of therapy ranged from six weeks to three months.

    DISCUSSION: Psychological interventions were more effective in reducing psychological impacts of tinnitus than non-psychological interventions such as the use of tinnitus maskers. Nevertheless, the combination of the treatments yielded more superior outcomes.

    CONCLUSION: A simplified version of psychological intervention that can be implemented by other clinical professionals should be developed to treat tinnitus holistically to overcome the shortage number of clinical psychologists.
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