AIM: This study was performed to determine the accuracy of ultrasound (USG) as compared to mammography (MMG) in detecting breast cancer.
METHODS: This was a review of patients who had breast imaging and biopsy during an 18-month period. Details of patients who underwent breast biopsy were obtained from the department biopsy record books and imaging request forms. Details of breast imaging findings and histology of lesions biopsied were obtained from the hospital Integrated Radiology Information System (IRIS). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy of USG and MMG were calculated with histology as the gold standard.
RESULTS: A total of 326 breast lesions were biopsied. Histology results revealed the presence of 74 breast cancers and 252 benign lesions. USG had a sensitivity of 82%, specificity of 84%, PPV = 60%, NPV = 94% and an accuracy of 84%. MMG had a sensitivity of 49%, specificity of 89%, PPV = 53%, NPV = 88% and an accuracy of 81%. A total of 161 lesions which were imaged with both modalities were analyzed to determine the significance in the differences in sensitivity and specificity between USG and MMG. Sensitivity of USG (75%) was significantly higher than sensitivity of MMG (44%) (X(2)1=6.905, p=0.014). Specificity of MMG (91%) was significantly higher than specificity of USG (79%) (X(2)1=27.114, p<0.001). Compared with MMG, the sensitivity of USG was 50% (95% CI 10%-90%) higher in women aged less than 50 years (X(2)1=0.000, p=1.000) and 27% (95% CI 19%-36%) higher in women aged 50 years and above (X(2)1=5.866, p=0.015). Compared with MMG, the sensitivity of USG was 40% (95% CI 10%-70%) higher in women with dense breasts (X(2)1=0.234, p=0.628) and 27% (95% CI 9%-46%) higher in women with non-dense breasts (X(2)1=4.585, p=0.032).
CONCLUSION: Accuracy of USG was higher compared with MMG. USG was more sensitive than MMG regardless of age group. However, MMG was more specific in those aged 50 years and older. USG was more sensitive and MMG was more specific regardless of breast density. In this study, 20% of breast cancers detected were occult on MMG and seen only on USG.
The objective of this study was to compare the intraoperative time, intraoperative blood loss and post operative pain between coblation tonsillectomy and cold tonsillectomy in the same patient. A prospective single blind control trial was carried out on 34 patients whom underwent tonsillectomy. The patients with known bleeding disorder, history of unilateral peritonsillar abscess and unilateral tonsillar hypertrophy were excluded. Operations were done by a single surgeon using cold dissection tonsillectomy in one side while coblation tonsillectomy in the other. Intraoperative time, intraoperative blood loss and post operative pain during the first 3 days were compared between the two methods. Results showed that the intraoperative time was significantly shorter (p<0.001) and intraoperative blood loss was significantly lesser (p<0.001) in coblation tonsillectomy as compared to cold tonsillectomy. Post operative pain score was significantly less at 6 hours post operation (p<0.001) in coblation tonsillectomy as compared to cold tonsillectomy. However, there were no differences in the post operative pain scores on day 1, 2 and 3. In conclusion, coblation tonsillectomy does have superiority in improving intraoperative efficiency in term of intraoperative time and bleeding compared to cold dissection tonsillectomy. The patient will benefit with minimal post operative pain in the immediate post surgery duration.
INTRODUCTION: Acute Promyelocytic Leukaemia (APL) is associated with devastating coagulopathy and life threatening condition which requires immediate medical attention. It is crucial to establish an expedited diagnosis as early therapeutic intervention has led to optimal patient management. In this study, we assessed the type and frequency of antigen expressions in APL and correlated these findings with genetic studies.
METHODS: Multiparametric immunophenotyping was performed on 30 samples and findings were correlated with karyotypes, FISH for t(15;17) translocation and RT-PCR for PML-RARΑ for detection of breakpoint cluster regions (bcr1,bcr2 and bcr3).
RESULTS: On SSC/CD45, APL cells displayed high to moderate SSC, with the expression of CD33 (100%), CD13 (96.8%), cMPO (71%) but lacked CD34 (3.2%) and HLA-DR (9.7%). Aberrant expression of CD4 was seen in 12.9% and CD56 in 6.5% of the cases. A significant association between cumulative aberrant antigen expression and bcr1 were observed bcr1 (X2(2) =6.833,p.05) and (X2(2)=4.599,p>.05) respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Flow cytometry is a rapid and effective tool in detecting APL. It is interesting to note that there is significant association between cumulative aberrant antigen expression and genotype analysis. Further validation is required to corroborate this relationship.
Some diseases may underlie finger clubbing. However, there is a dearth of information about early stage of finger clubbing because only few researchers have shown interest in it. We determined the Digital Index of normal, healthy subjects by using thread and manual Vernier calipers, the time used for the procedure, and its interrater reliability. The value of Digital Index was 8.86 ± 0.29 (Mean ± SD) with a range of 8.15 to 9.41. Interrater reliability was excellent with Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.966. Overall, the time taken to measure the Digital Index ranged from 21.93 to 68.80 minutes with an average of 35.97 ± 9.16 (Mean ± SD). Determining Digital Index need much time, but this can be overcome if we use Digital Index Quantitator (DIQ). Availability of DIQ in the hospital wards will be of much benefit. DIQ can also be used to accurately quantify the progression or regression of the clubbing process. This article proves that we need morphometry of digital clubbing as well as the correlation of the physical sign of clubbing with Digital Index.
Intraorbital foreign body (IOFB) has been a rare phenomenon in the cases of gunshot wounds and always represents a dilemma in medical management. In Sabah, this scenario is becoming common as there is still certain population in the interiors who owns self made guns for hunting. They either present with self inflicted gunshot injuries or after being mistakenly shot while hunting. There are very few articles on this topic especially when it is located posteriorly in the orbit and occurs without visual impairment. This case reports the challenges faced in the management of the patient with a posteriorly located metallic IOFB. The appropriate management of the patient is discussed based on several international literatures. Author describes a 37 years old male farmer, who was referred from a nearby district hospital after he sustained gunshot injuries to his face and scalp. Urgent computed tomography (CT) scan showed that bullet pellets were at the left orbital floor, the left mandible and the left frontal bone. All bullet pellets were located extracranially only without intracranial involvement. Patient clinically does not have any neurologic deficit and without any visual impairment, thus he refused any surgical intervention. As there is no proper guideline in managing such cases, decision was made based on evidences from international literatures. It was concluded that metallic IOFB located in the posterior orbit may be conservatively managed with observation and regular follow-ups as they are well-tolerated and does not cause much impact on visual deterioration unless inflammation, infection, optic neuropathy or functional deficit occurs. This avoids unnecessary surgery and prevents risk of iatrogenic injury to the eye.
Subtentorial subdural empyema is a rare and life threatening intracranial suppuration. It is usually an intracranial complication of otogenic infections. Early diagnosis and surgical drainage are the most important factors determining prognosis. The high mortality reported in the literature reflects the severity of subtentorial subdural empyema if proper management is delayed. Intracranial infections usually require between 4 to 6 weeks of intravenous antibiotics therapy. However, the prolonged duration of hospitalization as well as requirement for neurosurgically inserted indwelling devices may predispose these patients to new nosocomial infections.
Congenital vallecular cyst is an uncommon, benign but potentially dangerous condition causing respiratory distress and stridor. It is associated with sudden upper airway obstruction resulting in death due to its anatomical location in neonates and infants. We reported a rare case of 2 months old male infant presented with respiratory obstruction with failure to thrive with polydactyly (rarest finding) and managed timely with appropriate surgical marsupialization.
Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (AAV) are a group of uncommon diseases. Given its rarity and multisystem clinical presentation which are usually serious and potentially fatal, prompt recognition and early treatment are of utmost importance. We report a case of AAV that presented with digital infarcts, cutaneous vasculitis, rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, mononeuritis multiplex, eosinophilia and positive myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA antibody. Apart from renal damage, there was complete recovery in other systems following intravenous cyclophosphamide and high-dose glucocorticoids albeit the response was delayed. This response obviates the need for second-line therapy with newer agent such as rituximab (anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody). We would also like to highlight that this is the first case of AAV that is associated with autoimmune thyroid disease to be reported from Malaysia.
Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) is an uncommon neoplastic disorder characterized by accumulation of histiocytes in various tissues. The clinical manifestation is highly variable, ranging from an isolated skin rash or a single bony lesion, to fatal multi-organ failure. Due to its rarity and systemic involvement, the epidemiology of LCH is still not fully understood and most studies focus on the paediatric population. The extent of clinical involvement has important prognostic implications. Treatment options may be local or systemic depending on disease extent. Here we describe a rare case of adult onset LCH who presented with recurrent pneumothoraces, diabetes insipidus and papules and plaques over the scalp and forehead.
Traumatic chest injury with complete tracheo- bronchial disruption is uncommon and occurs in approximately 1% of motor vehicle accidents (MVA) (1,2). Such injuries carry a high mortality and patients rarely survive transfer to hospital. A high index of suspicion facilitates early diagnosis. Early operative intervention is vital for survival. We describe a rare case of traumatic complete disruption of the right mainstem bronchus (RMB) due to blunt chest trauma. The transected airway was reanastomosed emergently avoiding a lung resection.
INTRODUCTION: There is limited knowledge on primary angle closure (PAC) in Malays. Understanding the clinical presentation and progression of PAC in Malays is important for prevention of blindness in Southeast Asia.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective record review study was conducted on Malay patients seen in the eye clinic of two tertiary hospitals in Kelantan, Malaysia. Based on the available data, Malay patients re-diagnosed as primary angle closure suspect (PACS), primary angle closure (PAC), and primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) based on the International Society Geographical Epidemiological classification. Clinical data was collected from initial presentation including the presence of acute primary angle closure until at least 5 years follow up. Progression was defined based on gonioscopic changes, vertical cup to disc ratio (VCDR), intraocular pressure (IOP) and Humphrey visual field (HVF) analysis. Progression and severity of PACG was defined based Hodapp-Parrish-Anderson classification on reliable HVF central 24-2 or 30-2 analysis.
RESULTS: A total of 100 patients (200 eyes) with at least 5 years follow up were included. 94 eyes (47%) presented with APAC. During initial presentation, 135 eyes (67.5%) were diagnosed with glaucomatous changes with 91 eyes already blind. After 5 years of follow up, 155 eyes (77.5%) progressed. There was 4 times risk of progression in eyes with PAC (p=0.071) and 16 times risk of progression in PACG (p=0.001). Absence of laser peripheral iridotomy was associated with 10 times the risk of progression.
CONCLUSION: Angle closure is common in Malays. Majority presented with optic neuropathy at the initial presentation and progressed further. Preventive measures including promoting public awareness among Malay population is important to prevent blindness.
Study site: Eye clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia and Hospital
Raja Perempuan Zainab II
INTRODUCTION: Conventional Chest Physiotherapy (CCPT) remains the mainstay of treatment for sputum mobilization in patients with productive cough such as bronchiectasis and "Chronic Obstructive Airway Disease" (COPD). However CCPT is time consuming requires the assistance of a physiotherapist and limits the independence of the patient. Mechanical percussors which are electrical devices used to provide percussion to the external chest wall might provide autonomy and greater compliance. We compared safety and efficacy of a mechanical chest percusser devised by Formedic Technology with conventional chest percussion.
METHODS: Twenty patients (mean age 64years) were randomly assigned to receive either CCPT or mechanical percussor on the first day and crossed over by "Latin square randomisation" to alternative treatment for 6 consecutive days and the amount of sputum expectorated was compared by dry and wet weight. Adverse events and willingness to use was assessed by a home diary and a questionnaire.
RESULTS: There were 13 males and 7 females, eight diagnosed as bronchiectasis and 12 COPD. The mean dry weight of sputum induced by CCPT (0.54g ± 0.32) was significantly more compared with MP (0.40g + 0.11); p-value = 0.002. The mean wet weight of sputum with CCPT (10.71g ± 8.70) was also significantly more compared with MP (5.99g ± 4.5); p-value < 0.001. There were no significant difference in adverse events and majority of patients were willing to use the device by themselves.
CONCLUSION: The mechanical percussor although produces less sputum is well tolerated and can be a useful adjunct to CCPT.
This is a retrospective study examining the outcome of paediatric patients with subglottic stenosis who underwent partial cricotracheal resection (PCTR) as a primary open procedure from 2004 to 2012. There were 5 patients identified aged from 3 to 18 years old. All the subglottic stenosis were acquired type. All of them were secondary to prolonged intubation. Three patients were classified as Myer-Cotton grade III and the other two were Myer-Cotton grade IV. Two of the patients had concomitant bilateral vocal cord immobility. All patients underwent two staged PCTR . All patients underwent two staged PCTR, and one patient underwent posterior cordectomy apart from partial CTR at different setting. All patients were successfully decannulated at various durations postoperatively. Although this is an early experience in our institution, PCTR has shown to be effective and safe procedure in patients with subglottic stenosis especially those with Myer-Cotton grade III and IV.
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in β-thalassaemia patients treated with Desferrioxamine (DFO) and determine the correlation of SNHL with average daily DFO dosage, serum ferritin level and Therapeutic index (T.I).
METHODS: This is a cross sectional descriptive study carried out for a period of 14 months and 54 patients were recruited. The recruited patients are transfusion dependant β- thalassaemia patient aged 3 years and above treated with DFO. An interview, clinical examination and hearing assessment, which included tympanogram, and Pure Tone Audiometry (PTA) or behaviour alaudiometry were performed. The data on age started on DFO, average daily DFO, duration of DFO intake, serum ferritin past 1 year and Therapeutic Index (T.I) were obtained from patients' case notes.
RESULTS: The prevalence of SNHL was 57.4% and majority has mild hearing loss (93.6%). Fourteen patients (25.9%) have bilateral ear involvement and as many as 17 patients (31.5%) have SNHL in either ear. A total of 23 patients (42.6%) have normal hearing level. Although the prevalence of SNHL was 57.4%, only a small percentage of the patient noticed and complained of hearing loss (11.1%). There is no association between age started on DFO, average daily DFO and duration of DFO intake with normal hearing group and those patients with SNHL. Positive correlation was seen between average daily DFO with 2000 and 4000Hz on PTA in the left ear and between serum ferritin level past 1 year with 4000 and 8000Hz in the right ear and 8000Hz in the left ear. No significant correlation was seen between T.I on PTA.
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of SNHL from hearing assessment is high in β-thalassaemia patients in this study. However, it is manifested clinically in a smaller percentage. We suggest a baseline hearing assessment should be carried on all β-thalassaemia patients prior to DFO chelation therapy.
We report a case 35-year-old lady who developed acute psychosis following administration of cefuroxime and metronidazole. Earliest mood changes occurred on the second day of antibiotics therapy. She developed hallucinations, delusions and bizarre behavior 1 day after the completion of the antibiotic therapy. All the relevant investigations including CT brain were normal. The psychosis resolved completely within 5 days of antipsychotic treatment.