INTRODUCTION: Melioidosis is endemic to the tropical regions, in particular Thailand and Northern Australia. Any organ can be affected by melioidosis. Involvement of the urogenital system is common in Northern Australia, but is less common in other regions. This study assesses the characteristics of melioidosis affecting the urogenital system treated in a tertiary referral centre in Brunei Darussalam.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: All patients treated for melioidosis of the urogenital system were identified and retrospectively reviewed.
RESULTS: There were 9 patients with 11 episodes of urogenital infections treated over 13 years. The median age at diagnosis was 38 years old (range 29 - 63) with men predominantly affected. The major risk factor was underlying diabetes mellitus (n=9), including three patients diagnosed at the time of diagnosis of melioidosis. The median glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was 12.8% (range 6.4 to 16.6%). One patient's risk factor was only moderate alcohol consumption. Common symptoms included; fever, lethargy, rigor and anorexia. Dysuria was reported by two patients. The median duration of symptoms before presentation was 7 days (range 2 to 21 days) and the median number of sites involved were 3 (range of 2 to 6). Urogenital involvement included prostate (n=6), kidney (n=8), seminal vesicles (n=1) and testis (n=1). Radiological imaging showed that large prostate abscesses (>4.5cm) were common, and in some patients, the kidney abscess had the 'honeycomb' previously described as typical for melioidosis liver abscess. All patients were successfully treated for melioidosis and at a median follow up of 34 months (range 1 - 97), there was one death from complications of diabetes mellitus.
CONCLUSION: Urogenital melioidosis only accounted for a small proportion of all melioidosis involvement, with prostate and kidney most commonly affected. Concomitant involvement of other sites were common. The major risk factor was poorly controlled diabetes mellitus.
We describe the clinical presentation, investigation and management of an eventually fatal case of hypercalcemic crisis due to primary hyperparathyridism (PHPT). A 60 year-old lady with history of urolithiasis presented with worsening generalized bone pain, spinal scoliosis and a limp. Laboratory data showed hypercalcemia and raised alkaline phosphatase. Left hip x-ray revealed a subcapital femoral neck fracture. Intact parathyroid hormone was elevated, 187.6 pmol/L (1.6 – 6.9) and ultrasound showed an enlarged right parathyroid gland. Despite initial reduction of serum calcium with saline infusion and multiple doses of intravenous pamidronate, her calcium increased to 4.14 mmol/L a week following application of Buck’s traction for persistent left hip pain. She succumbed eventually with serum calcium peaking at 6.28 mmol/L despite multiple therapeutic interventions.
KEY WORDS: Primary hyperparathyroidism, hypercalcemic crisis, pathological fracture, urolithiasis
OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical presentation, severity and progression of primary angle closure between Chinese and Malays residing in Malaysia.
METHODS: A comparative retrospective record review study was conducted involving one hundred (200 eyes) Malay and fifty eight (116 eyes) Chinese patients. They were selected from medical records of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan and Hospital Pulau Pinang, Penang, Malaysia. The selected patients were re-diagnosed based on the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological classification. The clinical data on presentation including the presence of systemic diseases were documented. Progression of the disease was based on available reliable visual fields and optic disc changes of patients who have been on follow-up for at least five years.
RESULTS: Malay patients presented at older age (61.4 years SD 8.4) compared to Chinese (60.6 years SD 8.3). There was significant higher baseline Intraocular Pressure (IOP) among Malays (34.7 SD 18.5mmHg) compared to Chinese (30.3 SD 16.7mmHg) (p=0.032). The Chinese patients presented with significantly better visual acuity (p<0.001) and less advanced cup to disc changes (p=0.001) compared to Malays. Malay patients progressed faster than the Chinese. Majority progressed within 1 year of diagnosis. Malays without laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) have a 4 fold (95% CI 1.4, 10.9) risk of progression. Higher baseline IOP, more advanced visual field defect and absence of LPI was identified as significant predictors associated with progression.
CONCLUSION: The Malays presented with more advanced angle closure glaucoma as compared to the Chinese in Malaysia. Aggressive disease progression was observed in Malays with the onset of optic neuropathy. Effective public awareness and aggressive management is important to prevent blindness in the Malaysian population.
This study reviewed the epidemiology of brain and spinal tumours in Sarawak from January 2009 till December 2012. The crude incidence of brain tumour in Sarawak was 4.6 per 100,000 population/year with cumulative rate 0.5%. Meningioma was the most common brain tumour (32.3%) and followed by astrocytoma (19.4%). Only brain metastases showed a rising trend and cases were doubled in 4 years. This accounted for 15.4% and lung carcinoma was the commonest primary. Others tumour load were consistent. Primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) and astrocytoma were common in paediatrics (60%). We encountered more primary spinal tumour rather than spinal metastases. Intradural schwannoma was the commonest and frequently located at thoracic level. The current healthcare system in Sarawak enables a more consolidate data collection to reflect accurate brain tumours incidence. This advantage allows subsequent future survival outcome research and benchmarking for healthcare resource planning.
Our objective was to study the profile of cerebrovascular accidents and proportion of cerebral haemorrhage (CH) among stroke patients. This project was designed after we observed higher incidence of CH in Miri hospital as compared to conventionally reported data.
METHODS: This was a prospective observational study conducted from 1st June 2008 to 31st May 2009. All patients admitted in both male and female wards of the Medical Unit with the first incidence of a stroke were recruited for analysis. CT scan brain was done in all patients.
RESULTS: Total admissions in one year in the medical department were 3204 patients, both male and female together, out of which 215 were due to a first incidence of stroke; Stroke accounted for 6.7% of admissions and 16.8% of deaths in medical unit. 139 (64.7%) were ischaemic strokes and 76 (35.3%) were cerebral haemorrhages. The incidence of CH (35.3%) was high compared to regional data. 71.7% (154) patients had preexisting hypertension. Higher incidence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and aspirin intake was noted in the ischaemic group. Also compliance to treatment for hypertension was better in the Ischaemic group with more defaults in CH category (P<0.01). Significantly more deaths were noted in patients with higher systolic blood pressure on presentation, poor Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and those with dysphagia.
CONCLUSION: Every third stroke was due to cerebral hemorrhage; CH patients were largely unaware of their hypertension or were altogether treatment naïve or defaulters while compliance was far better in ischaemic stroke category.
Shewanella spp is a facultatively anaerobic, motile, gramnegative bacillus and can be found throughout the world mainly in marine environments and soil. It is a rare pathogen in human and infection by it is usually associated with underlying severe morbidities. We report a case of a 69- years old woman who presented with Shewanella putrefaciens dysentery and who was subsequently found to have underlying malignancy.
CASE REPORT: Five cases of Kimura's disease had been treated in our centre from year 2003 to 2010. All cases were presented with head and neck mass with cervical lymphadenopathy. Surgical excision was performed for all cases. Definite diagnosis was made by histopathological examination of the resected specimens. One out of five cases developed tumour recurrence four years after resection.
CONCLUSION: Surgical excision is our choice of treatment because the outcome is immediate and definite tissue diagnosis is feasible after resection. Oral corticosteroid could be considered as an option in advanced disease. However, tumour recurrence is common after cessation of steroid therapy.
We describe the clinical presentation, investigation and management of an eventually fatal case of hypercalcemic crisis due to primary hyperparathyridism (PHPT). A 60 year-old lady with history of urolithiasis presented with worsening generalized bone pain, spinal scoliosis and a limp. Laboratory data showed hypercalcemia and raised alkaline phosphatase. Left hip x-ray revealed a subcapital femoral neck fracture. Intact parathyroid hormone was elevated, 187.6 pmol/L (1.6 - 6.9) and ultrasound showed an enlarged right parathyroid gland. Despite initial reduction of serum calcium with saline infusion and multiple doses of intravenous pamidronate, her calcium increased to 4.14 mmol/L a week following application of Buck's traction for persistent left hip pain. She succumbed eventually with serum calcium peaking at 6.28 mmol/L despite multiple therapeutic interventions.
Inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombosis typically arises distally from a thrombophlebitic extension in the pelvis or the lower extremities. It may also occur from propagation of an ovarian vein thrombosis as a result of gynaecological disorders such as pelvic inflammatory disease, endometritis or from pelvic surgeries. In this report, we present an interesting case of a tubo-ovarian abscess with an ectopic IVC thrombus. The approach to management in such cases is also highlighted.
Spontaneous intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) is a rare complication of chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) in children. We report four patients with cITP who developed ICH. The latency between onset of ITP and ICH varied from 1-8 years. All our patients were profoundly thrombocytopenic (platelet count of <10 x 109/l) at the time of their intracranial bleed. The presenting features and management are discussed. All patients survived, three had complete neurological recovery while one had a minimal residual neurological deficit.
We present a case of a young man with a 5-year history of testicular swelling which was initially thought to be inguinoscrotal hernia. Intra-operatively it was found to be a testicular tumour and histopathological examination confirmed a mixed germ cell tumour. He had an orchidectomy and later underwent chemotherapy. It is interesting to note that the patient had kept the tumour for 5 years with no evidence of distant metastasis at diagnosis. This is probably the longest presentation of a testicular tumour.
Giant lipomatous lesions of the thigh swelling with extension into retroperitoneum are rare. Lesions can be malignant or benign and can have similar clinical presentation. Treatments options differ and their prognosis varies with histology. We present two cases of liposarcoma and lipoma with the same clinical presentations that underwent surgical resection.
Dengue is life-threatening and the paediatric population is highly susceptible to complications. Deterioration can occur rapidly and ability to recognise early warning signs is crucial. This study aims to determine the knowledge and awareness of parents and carers and to predict their ability in recognising life-threatening symptoms and signs of dengue in children and to assess their health-seeking behaviour in dengue emergency. Methods This is a crosssectional study involving parents and carers of children ≤ 12 years old in schools and kindergartens in the Gombak district. Demographic details, knowledge on life-threatening symptoms and signs of dengue and health-seeking behaviour were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and knowledge scoring was done. The questionnaire was pilot tested with a Cronbach alpha of 0.82. The results were analysed using SPSS version 20.0. Results Total respondents were 866 with 44.8% men and 55.2% women. The mean age was 40.3 years (SD ± 5.7). Knowledge score of dengue life threatening features among respondents were good (30.0%) to average (56.8%). Respondents were able to recognise fever (98.5%), petechial rash (97.1%) and bleeding (65.2%) but were less able to recognise abdominal pain (22.3%) and passing less urine (28.2%) as life threatening dengue features. However, the ability to recognise fever is a poor predictor in recognising life threatening dengue in children compared to all other symptoms which were good predictors. A respondent that recognise stomach pain or neck stiffness were five times more likely to recognise life-threatening dengue. Respondents preferred to bring their children to the clinic (50.8%) or hospital (37.8%) themselves Instead of calling for ambulance. Worryingly, some would give antipyretics (3.6%) or wait for improvements (7.8%). Conclusion Concerted efforts by the schools, healthcare professionals and health authorities are required to educate parents and carers to identify life-threatening features of dengue and to improve their health seeking-behaviour.
A 6 years old girl accidentally aspirated a plastic whistle while playing. Computed Tomography of thorax showed foreign body at carina level. Rigid bronchoscope under general anesthesia was attempted but unable to extract the whistle through vocal cord. Tracheostomy was later performed and foreign body was removed.
BACKGROUND: The indiscriminate use of cough and cold medicines (CCMs) in children has become a public health concern. The study evaluates the prescription pattern of CCMs in primary care setting.
METHODS: Analysis of CCMs prescription data among children aged 12 years and below who had participated in the National Medical Care Survey (NMCS) 2010. Data was extracted from NMCS 2010, a cross-sectional survey on the primary healthcare service which was carried out from December 2009 to April 2010 in public and private primary care clinics in Malaysia.
RESULT: Of 21,868 encounters for NMCS 2010, 3574 (16.3%) were children 12 years old and below; 597 (17%) were from public clinics and 2977 (83%) were from private clinics. Of these 3574 encounters, 1748 (49%) children were prescribed with CCM with total of 2402 CCMs. On average, CCMs were prescribed at a rate of 1.3 CCMs per encounter in public clinics and 1.4 CCMs per encounter in private clinics. CCMs containing single ingredient constituted 77% of the prescriptions while 23% were of multiple ingredient preparations. There were 556 (23%) CCMs prescribed to children younger than 2 years. Majority (65%) were prescribed with one CCM per visit, 32% received two CCMs and 3% of the children received three or more CCMs per visit.
CONCLUSION: Prescription of CCMs to children is common. Prevalence of CCM prescriptions among young children is of concern, in view of concerns about the safety and adverse effects related to the use of CCMs in this age group. Firmer policies and greater effort is needed to monitor the prescriptions of CCMs to children.