Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 158 in total

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  1. Nurbazlin M, Chee WS, Rokiah P, Tan AT, Chew YY, Nusaibah AR, et al.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2013;22(3):391-9.
    PMID: 23945409 DOI: 10.6133/apjcn.2013.22.3.15
    Ultraviolet B sunlight exposure is a primary source of vitamin D. There have been reports of low vitamin D status amongst the Malaysian population despite it being a tropical country. This study was conducted to determine the influence of sun exposure on 25(OH)D concentrations in urban and rural women in Malaysia and factors predicting 25(OH)D concentrations. Women aged above 45 years were recruited from urban (n=107) and rural areas (n=293). Subjects were interviewed regarding their outdoor activities and usual outdoor attire over the previous week. 25(OH)D concentrations were analyzed using the vitamin D3 (25-OH) electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Median (Q1-Q3) age of the participants was 57 (53-61) years old. Median (Q1-Q3) 25(OH)D concentration of rural women was significantly higher [69.5 (59.0-79.1) nmol/L] compared to urban women [31.9 (26.1- 45.5) nmol/L] (p<0.001). Rural women spent more time in the sun compared to urban women (7.83 (3.67-14.7) vs 2.92 (1.17-4.92) hours, p<0.001), although the fraction of body surface area (BSA) exposed to sunlight was significantly higher in the urban group [0.21 (0.21-0.43) vs 0.12 (0.07-0.17), p<0.001]. The calculated sun index (hours of sun exposure per week × fraction of BSA) was significantly higher in rural [0.89 (0.42-1.83)] compared to urban women [0.72 (0.26-1.28)], p=0.018. In the stepwise linear regression, rural dwelling increased the serum 25(OH)D by 31.74 nmol/L and 25(OH)D concentrations increased by 1.93 nmol/L for every unit increment in sun index. Urban women in Malaysia had significantly lower vitamin D status compared to rural women. Rural dwelling and sun index were key factors influencing vitamin D status in Malaysian women.
  2. Foo LH, Teo PS, Abdullah NF, Aziz ME, Hills AP
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2013;22(3):348-56.
    PMID: 23945404 DOI: 10.6133/apjcn.2013.22.3.02
    The main objective of this paper was to determine the utility of various anthropometric measures to assess total and regional body fatness using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the criterion in 454 adolescent boys and girls aged 12-19 years. Multivariable regression analyses of gender-specific and gender-combined models were used to determine anthropometric measures on DXA-derived body fatness models, after adjusting for known confounding biological factors. Partial correlation analyses, after adjusting for age, pubertal growth status and ethnicity in boys and girls, showed that body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-height ratio (WhtR) were significantly correlated with total body fat (TBF), percent body fat (%BF), android region fat (ARF) and trunk fat (TF) (all p<0.0001). BMI was the greatest independent determinant, contributing 43.8%-80.9% of the total variance for DXA-derived body fatness models. Results confirmed that a simple anthropometric index such as the BMI is a good surrogate indicator of body fat levels in Malay and Chinese adolescents.
  3. Naidu BM, Mahmud SZ, Ambak R, Sallehuddin SM, Mutalip HA, Saari R, et al.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2013;22(3):408-15.
    PMID: 23945411 DOI: 10.6133/apjcn.2013.22.3.18
    This study is a secondary data analysis from the National Health Morbidity Survey III, a population-based study conducted in 2006. A total of 7,749 children between 7 and 12 years old were recruited into the study. This study seeks to report the prevalence of overweight (including obesity) children in Malaysia using international cut-off point and identify its associated key social determinants. The results show that the overall prevalence of overweight children in Malaysia was 19.9%. The urban residents, males, Chinese, those who are wealthy, have overweight or educated guardians showed higher prevalence of overweight. In multivariable analysis, higher likelihood of being overweight was observed among those with advancing age (OR=1.15), urban residents (OR=1.16, 95% CI: 1.01-1.36), the Chinese (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 1.19-1.77), boys (OR=1.23, 95% CI: 1.08-1.41), and those who came from higher income family. In conclusion, one out of five of 7-12 year-old-children in Malaysia were overweight. Locality of residence, ethnicity, gender, guardian education, and overweight guardian were likely to be the predictors of this alarming issue. Societal and public health efforts are needed in order to reduce the burden of disease associated with obesity.
    Study name: National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-2006)
  4. Daud AZ, Mohd-Esa N, Azlan A, Chan YM
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2013;22(3):431-42.
    PMID: 23945414 DOI: 10.6133/apjcn.2013.22.3.09
    Excessive intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) could reduce the fat density of human milk and impair the desaturation of essential fatty acids. Because the mammary glands are unable to synthesize TFA, it is likely that the TFA in human milk come from dietary intake. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the sources of TFA intake for lactating mothers in one of the urban areas in Selangor. In this cross-sectional study, anthropometric measurements, FFQ including 7 food groups and dietary consumption data were collected from 101 lactating mothers. Five major TFA isomers (palmitoelaidic acid (16:1t9), petroselaidic acid (18:1t6), elaidic acid (18:1t9), vaccenic acid (18:1t11) and linoelaidic acid (18:2t9,12) in human milk were measured by gas chromatography (GC). The relationship between food consumption and TFA levels was assessed using the non-parametric Spearman's rho test. The TFA content in human milk was 2.94±0.96 (SEM) % fatty acid; this is considered low, as it is lower than 4%. The most abundant TFA isomer was linoelaidic acid (1.44±0.60% fatty acid). A sub-experiment (analyzing 3 days of composite food consumption) was conducted with 18 lactating mothers, and the results showed that linoelaidic acid was the most common TFA consumed (0.07±0.01 g/100 g food). Only 10 food items had an effect on the total TFA level and the isomers found in human milk. No association was found between TFA consumption and the TFA level in human milk.
  5. Chong PF, Paraidathathu T
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2013;22(4):548-56.
    PMID: 24231015 DOI: 10.6133/apjcn.2013.22.4.15
    The effectiveness of the Nutrition Support Team (NST) at Hospital Sungai Buloh, a large public hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in optimising parenteral nutrition (PN) has not been evaluated. To evaluate the effects of this NST in optimising patient outcomes, treatment outcomes, and adherence to biochemical monitoring guidelines, two groups of patients, those given PN before (n = 106) NST intervention and those given PN after (n=106) NST intervention, were retrospectively compared. Intervention by the NST significantly reduced metabolic abnormalities, reducing sodium abnormalities from 67% to 44% (p<0.01); potassium abnormalities from 42% to 15% (p<0.01); magnesium abnormalities from 13% to 3% (p<0.05) and phosphate abnormalities from 21% to 9% (p=0.01). Intervention by the NST also significantly reduced the incidence of hypertriglyceridemia from 68% to 45% (p=0.002) and significantly improved adherence to biochemical monitoring guidelines from 46% to 72% (p<0.01). However, the length of hospital stay, patient mortality, and duration of PN were similar in both groups. This study failed to demonstrate that the establishment of a NST gave better outcomes in terms of the common measures of effectiveness. In conclusion, although management by an NST significantly reduced metabolic abnormalities and improved adherence to biochemical monitoring guidelines, the NST did not improve patient mortality rates and length of hospital stay.
  6. Batcagan-Abueg AP, Lee JJ, Chan P, Rebello SA, Amarra MS
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2013;22(4):490-504.
    PMID: 24231008 DOI: 10.6133/apjcn.2013.22.4.04
    Increased dietary sodium intake is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The monitoring of population sodium intake is a key part of any salt reduction intervention. However, the extent and methods used for as-sessment of sodium intake in Southeast Asia is currently unclear. This paper provides a narrative synthesis of the best available evidence regarding levels of sodium intake in six Southeast Asian countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, and describes salt reduction measures being undertaken in these countries. Electronic databases were screened to identify relevant articles for inclusion up to 29 February 2012. Reference lists of included studies and conference proceedings were also examined. Local experts and researchers in nutrition and public health were consulted. Quality of studies was assessed using a modified version of the Downs and Black Checklist. Twenty-five studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Full texts of 19 studies including government reports were retrieved, with most studies being of good quality. In-sufficient evidence exists regarding salt intakes in Southeast Asia. Dietary data suggest that sodium intake in most SEA countries exceeded the WHO recommendation of 2 g/day. Studies are needed that estimate sodium intake using the gold standard 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. The greatest proportion of dietary sodium came from added salt and sauces. Data on children were limited. The six countries had salt reduction initiatives that differed in specificity and extent, with greater emphasis on consumer education.
  7. Loh BI, Sathyasuryan DR, Mohamed HJ
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2013;22(2):241-8.
    PMID: 23635368 DOI: 10.6133/apjcn.2013.22.2.04
    Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived hormone has been implicated in the control of blood glucose and chronic inflammation in type 2 diabetes. However, limited studies have evaluated dietary factors on plasma adiponectin levels, especially among type 2 diabetic patients in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of dietary glycemic index on plasma adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 305 type 2 diabetic patients aged 19-75 years from the Penang General Hospital, Malaysia. Socio-demographic information was collected using a standard questionnaire while dietary details were determined by using a pre-validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometry measurement included weight, height, BMI and waist circumference. Plasma adiponectin concentrations were measured using a commercial ELISA kit. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression. After multivariate adjustment, dietary glycemic index was inversely associated with plasma adiponectin concentrations (β =-0.272, 95% CI -0.262, - 0.094; p<0.001). It was found that in individuals who consumed 1 unit of foods containing high dietary glycemic index that plasma adiponectin level reduced by 0.3 μg/mL. Thirty two percent (31.9%) of the variation in adiponectin concentrations was explained by age, sex, race, smoking status, BMI, waist circumference, HDL-C, triglycerides, magnesium, fiber and dietary glycemic index according to the multiple linear regression model (R2=0.319). These results support the hypothesis that dietary glycemic index influences plasma adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. Controlled clinical trials are required to confirm our findings and to elucidate the underlying mechanism.
  8. Lim KK, Wong M, Mohamud WN, Kamaruddin NA
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2013;22(1):41-7.
    PMID: 23353609 DOI: 10.6133/apjcn.2013.22.1.02
    BACKGROUND: This research was performed to determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) and the effects of iodized salt supplementation on thyroid status amongst Orang Asli in Hulu Selangor, Malaysia.
    METHODS: Study respondents were from three target groups, i.e. pre-school children (PSC), primary school-going children (SGC) and adult women. Each household was supplied with iodized salt fortified with iodate fortificant for a period of 12 months and the iodine levels in the salt ranged from 20 to 30 μg/L. Samples collected before and after 6 and 12 months of introduction to iodized salt were urine from all groups, as well as serum samples from adult women.
    RESULTS: A total of 200 respondents were recruited; 58 (29.0%) PSC, 65 (32.5%) SGC and 77 (38.5%) adult women. The median urine-iodine concentration (mUIC) in all groups were of moderately low before the iodized salt intervention, but increased significantly in all study groups after 6 and 12 months of intervention. However, at the end of the study, there was an increase in severe iodine deficiency (mUIC <20 μg/L) from 7.5% to 12% and about 9% of PSC and SGC respondents had mUIC level of more than 300 μg/L while the adult women showed a significant increase in free triiodothyronine (fT3) levels.
    CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated that iodized salt supplementation was able to show an improvement in iodine level amongst Orang Asli. However, an increase in severe iodine deficiency and iodine excess indicated that the iodized salt programme needs to be carefully monitored.
  9. Abu Zaid Z, Shahar S, Jamal AR, Mohd Yusof NA
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2012;21(4):502-10.
    PMID: 23017308
    A randomised trial was carried out to determine the effect of supplementation of fish oil among 51 children with leukaemia aged 4 to 12 years on appetite level, caloric intake, body weight and lean body mass. They were randomly allocated into the trial group (TG) and the control group (CG). At baseline, 30.8% of TG subjects and 44.0% of CG subjects were malnourished and 7.7% of subject from TG and 28.0% from CG were classified as stunted. The majority of subjects from TG and CG were in the mild malnutrition category for mid upper arm muscle circumference (MUAMC)-for-age. The TG group showed significant increment in MUAMC (0.13 cm vs -0.09 cm) compared with CG at 8 weeks (p<0.001). There was a significant higher increase for appetite level (0.12±0.33) (p<0.05) and an increasing trend on energy and protein intake in the TG group (213±554 kcal; 3.64 ±26.8 g) than in the CG group. In conclusion, supplementation of fish oil has a positive effect on appetite level, caloric intake and MUAMC among children with leukaemia.
  10. Khor GL, Misra S
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2012;21(4):476-86.
    PMID: 23017305
    It is estimated that more than 200 million young children worldwide fail to reach their potential in cognitive development owing to undernutrition. Numerous studies have assessed the effects of micronutrient supplementation on growth and cognitive development in infants, toddlers and preschoolers. However, micronutrient interventions on the cognitive performance of older children are limited. This article seeks to provide an update on micronutrient interventions and cognitive outcomes among children aged 5-15 years in developing countries. A total of 13 randomized controlled trials published since 2000 were identified. Majority of these studies assessed the effects of micronutrient-fortified foods on various domains of cognitive function. Among key micronutrients assessed were iron, zinc, iodine and vitamin A. This review found a lack of consistency in the impact of micronutrient supplementation on intelligence, long term mental functions and school examination grades of the children. A beneficial effect of micronutrient supplementation on short term memory was more consistently reported. Overall, the evidence from this review for the impact of micronutrients on cognitive performance in older children remains equivocal. In light of the growing interest on the influence of nutrition on cognition, it is important that culturally-appropriate and sufficiently sensitive assessment tools be used for measuring the desired cognitive outcomes that are most likely to be affected by the nutrients under study.
  11. Benton D, Winichagoon P, Ng TP, Tee ES, Isabelle M
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2012;21(1):104-24.
    PMID: 22374567
    A SYMPOSIUM ON NUTRITION AND COGNITION: Towards research and application for different life stages was held on October 2010 in Malaysia. The influence of diet and nutrition on the cognitive development of the child and on cognitive decline in later life was reviewed. Central to the study of such topics is the assessment of cognitive functioning. Cognitive functioning falls into six main areas: executive functioning, memory, attention, perception, psychomotor and language skills, although each domain can be further subdivided. As it is in the nature of human functioning that the performance on any cognitive test can reflect aspects of many of these domains, ideally a battery of tests should be used to establish the basis of any difference in performance. In intervention studies, frequently there has been a failure to demonstrate a beneficial influence of changes in diet. A possible reason is that studies have failed to acknowledge the time scale and critical ages over which diet has an impact. Diet may have a slow and progressive influence making it difficult for short-term studies to show an improvement. In addition, as many factors influence human behaviour, dietary interventions should only be one part of a coordinated approach; the effect of diet will depend on the social and psychological context in which an individual lives. Placing diet into a broader social and psychological context greatly increases the chance of generating significant findings. This report highlights and reviews presentations and discussions at the symposium.
  12. Nurul-Fadhilah A, Teo PS, Foo LH
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2012;21(1):97-103.
    PMID: 22374566
    Food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) must be tailored to the target populations because dietary habits vary within the populations due to differences in cultural and lifestyles practices. Limited information is available to assess the validity of FFQ used among Malaysian adolescents.
  13. Yap RW, Shidoji Y, Hon WM, Masaki M
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2012;21(2):302-11.
    PMID: 22507619
    Dietary pattern and genetic predisposition of each population have different impacts on lifestyle-related chronic diseases. This study was conducted to evaluate the association and interaction between dietary patterns and VEGFR2 or KDR gene polymorphisms on physical and biochemical risk factors of cardiovascular disease in two Asian populations (179 Chinese Malaysian and 136 Japanese adults).
  14. Shyam S, Wai TN, Arshad F
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2012;21(2):201-8.
    PMID: 22507605
    This paper outlines the methodology to add glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) functionality to food DietPLUS, a Microsoft Excel-based Malaysian food composition database and diet intake calculator. Locally determined GI values and published international GI databases were used as the source of GI values. Previously published methodology for GI value assignment was modified to add GI and GL calculators to the database. Two popular local low GI foods were added to the DietPLUS database, bringing up the total number of foods in the database to 838 foods. Overall, in relation to the 539 major carbohydrate foods in the Malaysian Food Composition Database, 243 (45%) food items had local Malaysian values or were directly matched to International GI database and another 180 (33%) of the foods were linked to closely-related foods in the GI databases used. The mean ± SD dietary GI and GL of the dietary intake of 63 women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus, calculated using DietPLUS version3 were, 62 ± 6 and 142 ± 45, respectively. These values were comparable to those reported from other local studies. DietPLUS version3, a simple Microsoft Excel-based programme aids calculation of diet GI and GL for Malaysian diets based on food records.
  15. Eng JY, Moy FM
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2011;20(4):639-45.
    PMID: 22094851
    Cardiovascular diseases are the major cause of death in Malaysia. Evidence shows that dietary fat intake is one of the important risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, studies assessing the association of fatty acids and risk of cardiovascular diseases in Malaysia are scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) assessing total fat and different types of fat among Malay adults in Malaysia.
  16. Isabelle M, Chan P
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2011;20(1):141-7.
    PMID: 21393122
    The Seminar on Young Child Nutrition: Improving Nutrition and Health Status of Young Children in Indonesia held in Jakarta on November 2009 reviewed the current nutritional and health status of young children in Indonesia and identified key nutrient deficiencies affecting their optimal growth. The continuation of child growth from fetal stage is of paramount importance; and maternal and child health should be a central consideration in policy and strategy development. Clinical management of nutrient deficiency and malnutrition, as well as strategies and education to improve feeding practices of young Indonesian children were discussed in the seminar. Relevant experiences, approaches and strategies from France, New Zealand and Malaysia were also shared and followed with discussion on how regulatory systems can support the development of health policy for young children. This report highlights important information presented at the seminar.
  17. Mohamud WN, Musa KI, Khir AS, Ismail AA, Ismail IS, Kadir KA, et al.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2011;20(1):35-41.
    PMID: 21393108
    A total of 4428 adults (>18 years old) from 5 different selected regions in Peninsular and East Malaysia participated in this health survey. Using World Health Organization recommendations for body mass index (BMI), the prevalence of overweight and obesity were found to be 33.6% (95% CI= 32.2, 35.0) and 19.5% (95% CI= 18.3, 20.7) respectively. There were more females who were obese (22.5%, 95% CI=20.9, 24.0) compared to males (14.1%, 95% CI=12.3, 15.9). Highest prevalence of obesity were among the Indians (24.6%, 95% CI=20.3, 29.3), followed closely by the Malays (23.2%, 95% CI=21.6, 24.8%) and lowest prevalence was among the Chinese subjects (8.2%, 95% CI=6.2, 10.6). More than 43% of the 531 younger subjects (<30 years old) were either overweight (20%, 95% CI=16.6, 23.6) or obese (13.9%, 95% CI=11.1, 17.2%). All subjects who claimed to be non-diabetes were required to undergo 75 g glucose tolerance test. Compared to subjects with normal BMI (18.5-24.9 kg/m2), there was a 3- and 2-folds increase in the prevalence of newly diagnosed diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance respectively, among obese subjects (BMI>30 kg/m2) who initially claimed to have no diabetes. This study highlights a need for more active, inter-sectoral participation advocating a health-promoting environment in order to combat obesity in this country.
  18. Kasapila W, Shaarani SM
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2011;20(1):1-8.
    PMID: 21393103
    In the globalised world of the 21st century, issues of food and nutrition labelling are of pre-eminent importance. Several international bodies, including the World Health Organisation and World Trade Organisation, are encouraging countries to harmonise their food and nutrition regulations with international standards, guidelines and recommendations such as those for Codex Alimentarius. Through harmonisation, these organisations envisage fewer barriers to trade and freer movement of food products between countries, which would open doors to new markets and opportunities for the food industry. In turn, increased food trade would enhance economic development and allow consumers a greater choice of products. Inevitably, however, embracing harmonisation brings along cost implications and challenges that have to be overcome. Moreover, the harmonisation process is complex and sporadic in light of the tasks that countries have to undertake; for example, updating legislation, strengthening administrative capabilities and establishing analytical laboratories. This review discusses the legislation and regulations that govern food and nutrition labelling in Southeast Asia, and highlights the discrepancies that exist in this regard, their origin and consequences. It also gives an account of the current status of harmonising labelling of pre-packaged foodstuffs in the region and explains the subsequent benefits, challenges and implications for governments, the food industry and consumers.
  19. Tee ES
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2011;20(3):455-61.
    PMID: 21859667
    Development and promotion of dietary guidelines is one of the key activities outlined in the National Plan of Action for Nutrition of Malaysia for the prevention of nutrition-related disorders. The first official Malaysian Dietary Guidelines (MDG) was published in 1999 and was thoroughly reviewed and launched on 25 March 2010. The new MDG 2010 is a compilation of science-based nutrition and physical activity recommendations. These guidelines form the basis of consistent and scientifically sound nutrition messages for the public. There are 14 key messages and 55 recommendations, covering the whole range of food and nutrition issues, from importance of consuming a variety of foods to guidance on specific food groups, messages to encourage physical activities, consuming safe food and beverages and making effective use of nutrition information on food labels. The MDG also has an updated food pyramid. Various efforts have been made to ensure that the revised MDG is disseminated to all stakeholders. The Ministry of Health has organised a series of workshops for nutritionists and other health care professionals, and the food industry. In collaboration with other professional bodies and the private sector, the Nutrition Society of Malaysia has been promoting the dissemination and usage of the MDG to the public through a variety of formats and channels. These include the publication of a series of leaflets, educational press articles, educational booklets, as well as through educational activities for children. It is imperative to monitor the usage and evaluation of these dietary messages.
  20. Selamat R, Mohamud WN, Zainuddin AA, Rahim NS, Ghaffar SA, Aris T
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2010;19(4):578-85.
    PMID: 21147721
    A nationwide cross-sectional school-based survey was undertaken among children aged 8-10 years old to determine the current iodine deficiency status in the country. Determination of urinary iodine (UI) and palpation of the thyroid gland were carried out among 18,012 and 18,078 children respectively while iodine test of the salt samples was done using Rapid Test Kits and the iodometric method. The results showed that based on WHO/ ICCIDD/UNICEF criteria, the national median UI was 109 μg/L [25th, 75th percentile (67, 166)] showing borderline adequacy. The overall national prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) with UI<100 μg/L was 48.2% (95% CI: 46.0, 50.4), higher among children residing in rural areas than in urban areas. The highest prevalence of UI<100 μg/L was noted among the aborigines [(81.4% (95% CI: 75.1, 86.4)]. The national total goitre rate (grade 1 and grade 2 goitre) was 2.1%. Of 17,888 salt samples brought by the school children, 28.2% (95% CI: 26.4, 30.2) were found to have iodine content. However, the overall proportion of the households in Malaysia using adequately iodised salt as recommended by Malaysian Food Act 1983 of 20-30 ppm was only 6.8% (95% CI: 5.1, 9.0). In conclusion, although a goitre endemic was not present in Malaysia, almost half of the states in Peninsular Malaysia still have large proportion of UI level <100 μg/L and warrant immediate action. The findings of this survey suggest that there is a need for review on the current approach of the national IDD prevention and control programme.
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