Endophytes, which are receiving increasing attention, have been found to be potential sources of bioactive metabolites following the discovery of paclitaxel producing endophytic fungi. In the present study, a total of 348 endophytes were isolated from different parts of 24 Malaysian medicinal plants. Three selected endophytes (HAB10R12, HAB11R3 and HAB21F25) were investigated for their antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. For antimicrobial activity, HAB10R12 and HAB11R3 were found to be most active against bacteria and fungi, respectively. Their antimicrobial effects were comparable to, if not better than, a number of current commercial antibacterial and antifungal agents. Both HAB10R12 and HAB21F25 were found to be potential anticancer drug candidates, having potent activity against MCF-7 and HCT116 cell lines and warrant further investigation.
A 96-well microplate filtration based 5-HT(2A) receptor-radioligand binding assay was optimized and adopted to carry out a bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanol extract of the leaves of Litsea sessilis. This purification led to the isolation of two compounds identified as (+)-boldine (1) and (+)-dehydrovomifoliol (2). (+)-Boldine binds to 5-HT(2A) receptors at high concentrations with a K(i) value of 2.16 microm. However, (+)-dehydrovomifoliol showed minimal competitive inhibition on the binding of [(3)H]ketanserin to the same receptor with a K(i) value of 2.06 mm. These results suggest that (+)-boldine influences the activity of 5-HT(2A) receptors through competitive binding as an agonist or antagonist.
A standardized mixture of Chinese herbs, Zemaphyte taken orally as a daily decoction has been shown to be effective in the treatment of atopic eczema. This study showed that Zemaphyte is an efficient antioxidant, being capable of scavenging both superoxide and hydroxyl, and preventing peroxidation of biological membranes. It does not degrade hydrogen peroxide directly, but instead most likely forms a Zemaphyte-hydrogen peroxide complex. The complexed hydrogen peroxide can then be degraded in the presence of catalase to form oxygen and water. It is conceivable that Zemaphyte may contribute to the down-regulation of the activities of cells implicated in atopic eczema through its antioxidant activities.
Ten compounds isolated from Alpinia mutica Roxb., Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. and Kaempferia rotunda Linn. (Family: Zingiberaceae) were investigated for their platelet-activating factor (PAF) antagonistic activities on rabbit platelets using 3H-PAF as a ligand. Among them, four compounds showed significant inhibitory effects. Alpinetin and 5,6-dehydrokawain isolated from A. mutica exhibited IC50 values of 41.6 and 59.3 microM, respectively. The IC50 values of 3-deacetylcrotepoxide and 2-hydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone from K. rotunda were 45.6 and 57.4 microM, respectively. 1-Methoxy-2-methyl-5-(1',5'-dimethylhex-4'-enyl)-benzene, synthesized by methylation of xanthorrhizol which was obtained from C. xanthorrhiza, showed an IC50 value of 40.9 microM. The results indicated that these compounds were relatively strong PAF receptor binding inhibitors.
Andrographolide, neoandrographolide and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide, ent-labdene diterpenes isolated from Andrographis paniculata showed viricidal activity against herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). None of these compounds exhibited significant cytotoxicity at viricidal concentrations.
Six aporphine and one phenanthrenoid alkaloids isolated from Aromadendron elegans Blume were investigated for their ability to inhibit arachidonic acid (AA), collagen and ADP induced platelet aggregation in human whole blood. The antiplatelet activity of the compounds was measured in vitro by the Chrono Log whole blood aggregometer using an electrical impedance method. Of the compounds tested, (-)-N-acetylnornuciferine, (-)-N-acetylanonaine and 1-(N-acetyl-N-methylamino)ethyl-3,4,6-trimethoxy-7-hydroxyphenanthrene showed strong inhibition on platelet aggregation caused by all three inducers. (-)-N-acetylanonaine was the most effective antiplatelet compound as it inhibited both arachidonic acid, collagen and ADP-induced platelet aggregation with IC(50) values of 66.1, 95.1 and 80.6 microm, respectively.
Syzygium samarangense (Family; Myrtaceae) or 'makopa', as it is commonly known, is native to Malaysia, some islands of Indonesia and to Far East in general. This study was undertaken to rationalize the use of this plant in hypermotility states of the gut. The hexane extract of S. samarangense (Ss.Hex) was found to dose-dependently (10-3000 microg/mL) relax the spontaneously contracting isolated rabbit jejunum. When tested for a possible calcium channel blocking (CCB) activity, the extract (10-1000 microg/mL) relaxed the high K+-induced contractions and also decreased the Ca++ dose-response curves in a dose-dependent manner (30-100 microg/mL), confirming the CCB activity. Four flavonoids isolated from the hexane extract were tested for a possible spasmolytic activity. All flavonoids, identified as: 2'-hydroxy-4',6'-dimethoxy-3'-methylchalcone (SS1), 2',4'-dihydroxy-6'-methoxy-3',5'-dimethylchalcone (SS2), 2',4'-dihydroxy-6'-methoxy-3'-methylchalcone (SS3) and 7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-6,8-dimethylflavanone (SS4), showed dose-dependent (10-1000 microg/mL) spasmolytic activity with SS2 being the most potent. These results indicate that the presence of compounds with spasmolytic and calcium antagonist activity may be responsible for the medicinal use of the plant in diarrhoea.
The methanol, n-butanol, chloroform and water extracts obtained from the root of Eurycoma longifolia Jack were assayed using methylene blue assay to evaluate its cytotoxic effect against KB, DU-145, RD, MCF-7, CaOV-3, MDBK cell lines. The results showed that all the root extracts except the water extract of E. longifolia produced significant cytotoxic effect on these cell lines. However, no significant cytotoxic effect was detected on MDBK (kidney) normal cell line. 9-methoxycanthin-6-one, an alkaloid, was detected in each extract with different intensities by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography.
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder of unknown aetiology. There is currently no known cure, and pharmacological interventions are usually targeting symptomatic relief, where natural and herbal remedies also play a role. This study aimed to evaluate the benefit and tolerability of IQP-CL-101 in symptomatic IBS relief. A double-blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled trial was conducted over 8 weeks. A total of 99 subjects fulfilling ROME-III criteria for IBS were randomised into two groups, given either two IQP-CL-101 softgels or matching placebo twice daily before main meals. The primary endpoint was the difference in change of IBS Symptom Severity Score (IBS-SSS) after an 8-week intake of IQP-CL-101 compared to placebo. After 8 weeks, subjects on IQP-CL-101 showed a significant reduction in IBS-SSS (113.0 ± 64.9-point reduction) compared to subjects on placebo (38.7 ± 64.5-point reduction) (p
Eurycoma longifolia Jack is popularly sought in Southeast Asian countries for traditional remedies to improve sexual performance and fertility. 13α(21)-Epoxyeurycomanone and eurycomanone, two major quassinoids in a root extract (TAF2) were reported to improve rat spermatogenesis and fertility. Unfortunately, these quassinoids possess low bioavailability because of high aqueous solubility and low lipid membrane permeability. Often, other possible barriers may be P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux in the gut and presystemic hepatic metabolism. The present study attempted to solve these problems by formulating a lipid-based solid dispersion (TAF2-SD) of optimized mixture of TAF2 and emulsifiers, which was then orally administered to rats prior to sperm count analysis. The TAF2-SD-treated rats showed significantly twofold (p
The antiphoto aging property of Zanthoxylum rhetsa obtained from Pangkor Island, Malaysia, was evaluated. Solvent fractions of different polarity obtained from the methanolic extract of the bark material were initially tested for anticollagenase and antielastase activities. The ethyl acetate fraction showed bioactivity against the protease enzymes. Hence, it was subjected to further purification via column chromatography, to yield a major constituent, hesperidin. Subsequently, the ethyl acetate fraction and hesperidin were tested for their effects against UVB-induced cytotoxicity and expressions of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α), NF-κB, and MMPs (MMP1, 3, and 9) in human dermal fibroblasts (HDF). Both fraction and pure compound prevented UVB-induced cytotoxicity in HDF cells, in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, the ethyl acetate fraction inhibited the increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by UVB to a level similar to the control (without UV treatment). Additionally, the fraction significantly inhibited the expressions of NF-κB, MMP 1, MMP 3, and MMP 9 in HDF cells treated with UVB. Similar effects were observed with hesperidin. The results obtained suggested that the ethyl acetate fraction of Z. rhetsa and its bioactive constituent, hesperidin, have the potential to be used as active ingredients in sunscreen and antiphoto aging formulations.
The effect of scopoletin-standardized Morinda elliptica leaf extract against osteoarthritis was investigated in ex vivo explant culture and preclinical rodent model. Thirty male rats were grouped (n = 6) into untreated osteoarthritis (OA), OA + Diclofenac (5 mg/kg), and OA + extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) and compared with healthy control. Monosodium iodoacetate were injected into the right intra-articular knee joints to induce OA. The rats were evaluated for OA severity via physical (micro-CT and histological observations), biochemical, ELISA, and mRNA expression analysis (for inflammation and cartilage degradation biomarkers), after 28 days of treatment. The extract suppressed glycosaminoglycan release from the cartilage explant in the presence of Interleukin-1β. The 200 mg/kg dose appeared better than 400 mg/kg dose, at reducing cartilage and subchondral bone erosions in OA-induced rats, by significantly down-regulating the collagenases and aggrecanase. The extract dose-dependently reduced serum inflammation biomarkers and increased bone formation biomarkers to near normal levels in the OA-induced rats. M. elliptica leaf scopoletin-standardised extract alleviated OA progression and articular cartilage structure, by ameliorating cartilage degradation, nitric oxide levels, inflammation, bone /cartilage homeostasis, collagenase/aggrecanase activities, chondrocytes survival, subchondral bone structure and integrity.
A systematic review and network-meta analysis (NMA) were performed to test significance of the galactagogue effect of fenugreek administrated to lactating women versus other comparators (i.e., placebo/control/other galactagogues). A pairwise comparison for the treatment effect was carried out to generate the forest plot for the NMA. League tables were generated using treatment effect, weighted mean difference (WMD; 95% confidence interval, CI) for all pairwise comparisons, where WMD > 0 favors the column-defining treatment. Five studies were identified with 122 participants receiving treatment with fenugreek. The NMA results of 4 studies indicated that consumption of fenugreek significantly increased amount of the produced breast milk [11.11, CI 95% 6.77, 15.46] versus placebo. The pairwise comparison revealed that fenugreek was effective as a galactagogue compared to placebo, control, and reference groups WMD 17.79 [CI 11.71, 23.88]. However, the effect of fenugreek was substantially inferior to Coleus amboinicus Lour and palm date. The NMA using pairwise comparison demonstrated the effect of C. amboinicus and palm date in the stimulation of the breast milk production was comparable and superior to all comparators.
In this study, a series of 20 structurally similar vanilloids (Vn) were tested for their antiproliferative effects against 12 human cancer cells: human breast (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231), cervical (HeLa), ovarian (Caov-3), lung (A549), liver (HepG2), colorectal (HT-29 and HCT116), nasopharyngeal (CNE-1 and HK-1), and leukemic (K562 and CEM-SS) cancer cells. Among all the tested vanilloids, Vn16 (6-shogaol) exhibited the most potent cytotoxic effects against human colorectal cancer cells (HT-29). The apoptotic induction effects exhibited by Vn16 on HT-29 cells were confirmed using dual staining fluorescence microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The effects of Vn16 on regulation of 43 apoptotic-related markers were determined in HT-29. The results suggested that 8 apoptotic markers (caspase 8, BAD, BAX, second mitochondrial-derived activator, caspase 3, survivin, bcl-2, and cIAP-2) were either upregulated or downregulated. These results further support the chemopreventive properties of foods that contain vanilloids.
The traditional practice of eating the flowers of Clitoria ternatea L. or drinking their infusion as herbal tea in some of the Asian countries is believed to promote a younger skin complexion and defend against skin aging. This study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of C. ternatea flower water extract (CTW) against hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity and ultraviolet (UV)-induced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage in human keratinocytes. The protective effect against hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity was determined by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium assay, and mtDNA damage induced by UV was determined by polymerase chain reaction. Preincubation of HaCaT with 100, 250, and 500 μg/ml CTW reduced cytotoxicity effects of H2 O2 compared with control (H2 O2 alone). CTW also significantly reduced mtDNA damage in UV-exposed HaCaT (p
Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for the initiation and development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and atherosclerosis. The present study evaluated the hypocholesterolemic effect of virgin avocado oil (VAO) using urinary metabolomic method. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed high-cholesterol diet for four weeks to induce hypercholesterolemia. After confirming the establishment of hypercholesterolemia model, the VAO (450 and 900 mg·kg-1 ·day-1 ) and simvastatin (10 mg·kg-1 ·day-1 ) were given orally while maintaining the high-cholesterol diet for another four weeks. Assessment of urinary metabolomics using NMR revealed that VAO treatment could partially recover the metabolism dysfunction induced by hypercholesterolemia mainly via lipid, energy, amino acid, and gut microbiota metabolism.
The antifatigue properties of Morinda elliptica (ME) leaf were compared with Morinda citrifolia (MC) leaf extracts. Sixty Balb/C mice were administered (N = 10): control water, standardized green tea extract (positive control 200 mg/kg body weight [BW]), either 200 or 400 mg MC/kg BW, or either 200 or 400 mg ME/kg BW). The mice performances, biochemical, and mRNA expressions were evaluated. After 6 weeks, the weight-loaded swimming time to exhaustion in the mice consuming 400 mg MC/kg, were almost five times longer than the control mice. The gene expressions analysis suggested the extracts enhanced performance by improving lipid catabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, electron transport, antioxidant responses, energy production, and tissue glycogen stores. The MC and ME extracts enhanced stamina by reducing blood lactate and blood urea nitrogen levels, increasing liver and muscle glycogen reserve through augmenting the glucose metabolism (glucose transporter type 4 and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4), lipid catabolism (acyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenases and fatty acid translocase), antioxidant (superoxide dismutase 2) defence responses, electron transport (COX4I2), and energy production (PGC1α, NRF1, NRF2, cytochrome C electron transport, mitochondrial transcription factor A, UCP1, and UCP3) biomarkers. The MC (containing scopoletin and epicatechin) was better than ME (containing only scopoletin) or green tea (containing epicatechin and GT catechins) for alleviating fatigue.
14-deoxyandrographolide (DA) and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (DDA) are two diterpenoids isolated from A. paniculata, a popular folk medicine used as an antihypertensive drug in Malaysia. We have previously reported that DDA exhibited a greater hypotensive effect in anaesthetized rats and a vasorelaxant activity in isolated rat aorta, compared with DA. Their vasorelaxant activities were mediated through the activation of the enzymes, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and guanylyl cyclase. The present study demonstrated that both DA and DDA stimulated nitric oxide (NO) release from human endothelial cells. DDA compared with DA caused a greater production of NO; this is in line with the finding of the earlier study that the vasorelaxant effect of DDA was more dependent on endothelium than DA.
The ethanol extract of leaves of Piper porphyrophyllum N.E. Br. showed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. The activity was increased on fractionation (hexane, dichloromethane and aqueous), particularly in the aqueous fraction. No activity was shown against tested Candida albicans.
Bioassay guided fractionation of the roots of Cyathostemma argenteum using the brine shrimp resulted in the isolation of two uncommon flavanones, 2,5-dihydroxy-7-methoxy flavanone 1 and 2,5-dihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxy flavanone 2 while the stem bark yielded the related compounds 5-hydroxy-7-methoxy flavone 3 and 5-hydroxy-6,7-dimethoxy flavone 4. The alkaloids liriodenine 5 and discretamine 6 as well as benzyl benzoate 7 were isolated from the roots and 6 was also isolated from the stembark. In cytotoxicity tests using four human breast cancer cell lines, 1 and 2 were weakly toxic to MCF-7 cells (IC(50) = 19.6 and 19.0 microM, respectively) but showed little activity against MCF-7 cells resistant to doxorubicin or against two oestrogen receptor-deficient cell lines. Compound 5, but not 6 and 7, was moderately cytotoxic against all four cell lines. These results are discussed in the context of the traditional use of C. argenteum in the treatment of breast cancer.