Several triphenylphosphinosilver (I) complexes, viz. bis [acetatotriphenylphosphineargentum (I)], I, lactatotris (triphenylphosphine) argentum (I), II, N, N-diethanoldithiocarbamatobis (triphenylphosphine) silver (I), III, and NÂethanol, N-methyldithiocarbamatobis (triphenylphosphine) silver (I), IV, have been prepared. Apart from characterization by spectroscopic methods, the structures of I-III, have been characterised by single-crystal x-ray diffraction methods. I crystallized as a dimer with a 4-coordinate geometry around the silver atom, while the lactate complex is a monomer with a five-coordinate silver atom. In the four-coordinate complex III, the Ag - S bond distances are 2.6822 (13) and 2.5991 (12) Ã… indicating different modes of bonding to the dithiocarbamate ligands.
Beberapa kompleks trifenilfosfinoargentum telah disintesis, iaitu bis [asetatotrifenilfosfinargentum (I)], I, laktatotris (trifenilfosfin) argentum (I), II dietanolditiokarbamatobis (trifenilfosfin) argentum (I), III dan metiletanolditiokarbamatobis (trifenilfosfin) argentum (I), IV. Selain daripada pencirian dengan kaedqh spektroskopi, struktur kompleks I-III telah ditentukan dengan kaedah pembelauan sinar-X hablur tunggal. Kompleks asetat terhablur sebagai dimer dengan argentum menunjukkan geomertri 4-koordinat, sementara kompleks laktat adalah monomer dengan argentum berkoordinatan lima. Dalam kompleks dietanolditiokarbamat argentum berkoordinatan empat dengan panjang ikatan Ag - S, 2.6822 (13) dan 2.5991 (12) Ã… menunjukkan dua mod pengikatan yang berbeza dengan ditiokarbamat.
A method that delivers a high yield and excellent quality of essential oil, which retains most of its value-added compounds, and undergoes least change after the extraction process, is greatly sought after. Although chemical free methods are acceptable, they call for an extensive processing time, while the yield and quality from these methods are often disappointing. This work utilizes subcritical water technology to address these issues. In this undertaking, essential oil was extracted from Aquilaria malaccensis wood by way of subcritical conditions, and characterized through gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Optimization through response surface methodology revealed temperature to be the most critical factor for the extraction process, while the optimum conditions for temperature, sample-to-solvent ratio, and time for subcritical water extraction was revealed as 225 °C, 0.2 gr/mL, and 17 min, respectively. The subcritical water extraction technique involves two simultaneous processes, which are based on good fitting to the two-site kinetic and second order model. In comparison to the hydrodistillation method, GC/MS results indicated that the quality of A. malaccensis' wood oils, derived through the subcritical water technique, are of significantly better quality, while containing many constructive value-added compounds, such as furfural and guaiacol, which are useful for the production of pesticides and medicines. Pore size, functional groups, and morphology analysis revealed the occurrence of substantial damage to the samples, which facilitated an improved extraction of bio-products. In comparison to conventional methods, the use of the subcritical method not only involves a shorter processing time, but also delivers a higher oil yield and quality.
Semisolid metal processing is a relatively new technology that offers several advantages over liquid processing and solid processing because of the unique behaviour and characteristic microstructure of metals in this state. With the aim of finding a minimum process chain for the manufacture of high-quality production at minimal cost for forming, the microstructural evolution of the ledeburitic AISI D2 tool steel in the semisolid state was studied experimentally. The potential of the direct partial remelting (DPRM) process for the production of AISI D2 with a uniform globular microstructure was revealed. The liquid fraction was determined using differential scanning calorimetry. The microstructures of the samples were investigated using an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive spectroscopy analyser, while X-ray phase analysis was performed to identify the phase evolution and the type of carbides. Mechanical characterisation was completed by hardness measurements. The typical microstructure after DPRM consists of metastable austenite which was located particularly in the globular grains (average grain size about 50 μ m), while the remaining interspaces were filled by precipitated eutectic carbides on the grain boundaries and lamellar network.
Phytonutrients are plant-derived bioactives which are widely utilized as colorants or supplements in food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical products. To meet the global demand for phytonutrients, oil palm has emerged as a promising source of phytonutrients on account of its large-scale plantation worldwide and high oil productivity. Phytonutrients including carotenoids, tocols, sterols, squalene, phospholipids, coenzyme Q10, and polyphenols can be found in crude palm oil as well as in the byproducts (e.g. palm oil mill effluent and palm-pressed fiber oil) generated from the palm oil milling process. However, the high viscosity and semisolid properties of palm oil are problematic in phytonutrient extraction. Another major challenge is the retention of the sensitive phytonutrients during the extraction process. Over the years, the advances in the extraction methods have improved the extractability of phytonutrients. The emerging extraction methods can operate under mild conditions to mitigate the risk of phytonutrient degradation. This review outlines the types of phytonutrient in palm oil and their extraction strategies. The working principles and operating conditions of extraction methods are discussed along with their potential and limitations in terms of extraction efficiency and practicability. The methods for pretreatment of feedstocks for improving extraction efficiency are also highlighted. The challenges in the extraction of phytonutrient from palm oil feedstock are summarized. Lastly, we provide suggestions for overcoming the limitations and improving the performances of phytonutrient extraction.
Tropical and sub-tropical fruits are tremendous sources of polysaccharides (PSs), which are of great interest in the human welfare system as natural medicines, food and cosmetics. This review paper aims to highlight the recent trends in extraction (conventional and non-conventional), purification and analytic techniques of fruit polysaccharides (FPSs). The chemical structure and biological activities, such as immunomodulatory, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, anti-coagulant and anti-diabetic effects, of PSs extracted from 53 various fruits were compared and discussed. With this wide coverage, a total of 172 scientific articles were reviewed and discussed. This comprehensive survey from previous studies suggests that the FPSs are non-toxic and highly biocompatible. In addition, this review highlights that FPSs might be excellent functional foods as well as effective therapeutic drugs. Finally, the future research advances of FPSs are also described. The content of this review will promote human wellness-based food product development in the future.
The aggressive search for unique materials in recent years has put forward chitosan and modified-chitosan as materials with unique structural and morphological characteristics for various important applications. Just as imidazolium-based ionic liquids are the commonly applied ionic liquids (ILs) type for chitosan modifications for various applications, their further modifications into beads for enhancing their properties is now gaining most attention. However, most of the currently prepared imidazolium ILs modified-chitosan beads are not in nano size due to preparation difficulties. In response to this and referencing the research works in the literature, the possible breakthrough directions including synthesis routes, and physical and mechanical transformation processes are proposed. These procedures are expected to provide certain theoretical and empirical basis, as well as technical guide for developing nano-micro size chitosan beads using imidazolium based ILs.
One of the most challenging issues concerning the gasification of oil palm fronds (OPF) is the presence of tar and particulates formed during the process considering its high volatile matter content. In this study, a tar sampling train custom built based on standard tar sampling protocols was used to quantify the gravimetric concentration of tar (g/Nm3) in syngas produced from downdraft gasification of OPF. The amount of char, ash, and solid tar produced from the gasification process was measured in order to account for the mass and carbon conversion efficiency. Elemental analysis of the char and solid tar samples was done using ultimate analysis machine, while the relative concentration of the different compounds in the liquid tar was determined making use of a liquid gas chromatography (GC) unit. Average tar concentration of 4.928 g/Nm3 and 1.923 g/Nm3 was obtained for raw gas and cleaned gas samples, respectively. Tar concentration in the raw gas sample was found to be higher compared to results for other biomass materials, which could be attributed to the higher volatile matter percentage of OPF. Average cleaning efficiency of 61% which is comparable to that of sand bed filter and venturi scrubber cleaning systems reported in the literature was obtained for the cleaning system proposed in the current study.
The reactions of 2-chloropyrimidine with methylamine, ethylamine and piperidine gave the corresponding 2-N-methylamino-, 2-N-ethylamino- and 2N- piperidinopyrimidines, respectively. The fluorescence properties of these alkylamino derivatives in chloroform, ethyl acetate, carbon tetrachloride, acetone, ether, ethanol and methanol were studied. All the alkylamino derivatives showed the highest fluorescence intensity in polar protic solvents; thus 2-N-methylaminopyrimidine (highest fluorescence intensity at 377 nm when excited at 282 nm) and 2-N-ethylaminopyrimidine (highest fluorescence intensity at 375 nm, when excited at 286 nm) showed the highest fluorescence in methanol. In ethanol, 2-N-piperidinopyrimidine showed a fluorescence peak at 403 nm when excited at 360 nm and in chloroform it fluoresced at 392 nm when excited at 356 nm.
In recent years, plasma-assisted synthesis has been extensively used in large scale production of functional nano- and micro-scale materials for numerous applications in optoelectronics, photonics, plasmonics, magnetism and drug delivery, however systematic formation of these minuscule structures has remained a challenge. Here we demonstrate a new method to closely manipulate mesostructures in terms of size, composition and morphology by controlling permeability at the boundaries of an impermeable plasma surrounded by a blanket of neutrals. In situ and rapid growth of thin films in the core region due to ion screening is among other benefits of our method. Similarly we can take advantage of exceptional properties of plasma to control the morphology of the as deposited nanostructures. Probing the plasma at boundaries by means of observing the nanostructures, further provides interesting insights into the behaviour of gas-insulated plasmas with possible implications on efficacy of viscous heating and non-magnetic confinement.
The optical constants of Para-Toluene sulfonic acid-doped polyaniline (PANI), PANIchitosan composites, PANI-reduced graphene-oxide composites and a ternary composite comprising of PANI, chitosan and reduced graphene-oxide dispersed in diluted p-toluene sulfonic acid (PTSA) solution and N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone (NMP) solvent have been evaluated and compared. The optical constant values were extracted from the absorbance spectra of thin layers of the respective samples. The potential utilization of the materials as the active sensing materials of surface plasmon resonance biosensors has also been assessed in terms of the estimated value of the penetration depth through a dielectric medium. The results show a reasonable dependence of the optical constant parameters on the solvent type. Higher real part refractive index (n) and real part complex dielectric permittivity (ε') values were observed for the samples prepared using PTSA solution, while higher optical conductivity values were observed for the NMP-based samples due to their relatively higher imaginary part refractive index (k) and imaginary part complex dielectric permittivity (ε″) values. In addition, NMP-based samples show improvement in terms of the penetration depth through a dielectric medium by around 9.5, 1.6, 4.4 and 2.9 times compared to PTSA-based samples for the PANI, PANI-chitosan, PANI-RGO and the ternary composites, respectively. Based on these, it is concluded that preparation of these materials using different dispersion solvents could produce materials of different optical properties. Thus, the variation of the dispersion solvent will allow the flexible utilization of the PANI and the composites for diverse applications.
Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) was isolated from oil palm empty fruit bunch pulp (EFBP) using ultrasound assisted acid hydrolysis. The obtained NCC was analysed using FESEM, XRD, FTIR, and TGA, and compared with raw empty fruit bunch fibre (REFB), empty fruit bunch pulp (EFBP), and treated empty fruit bunch pulp (TEFBP). Based on FESEM analysis, it was found that NCC has a spherical shaped after acid hydrolysis with the assistance of ultrasound. This situation was different compared to previous studies that obtained rod-like shaped of NCC. Furthermore, the crystallinity of NCC is higher compared to REFB and EFBP. According to thermal stability, the NCC obtained shows remarkable sign of high thermal stability compared to REFB and EFBP.
Roselle fiber is a renewable and sustainable agricultural waste enriched with cellulose polysaccharides. The isolation of Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) from roselle-derived microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) is an alternative approach to recover the agricultural roselle plant residue. In the present study, acid hydrolysis with different reaction time was carried out to degrade the roselle-derived MCC to form NCC. The characterizations of isolated NCC were conducted through Fourier Transform Infrared Ray (FTIR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). As evaluated from the performed morphological investigations, the needle-like shape NCC nanostructures were observed under TEM and AFM microscopy studies, while irregular rod-like shape of NCC was observed under FESEM analysis. With 60min hydrolysis time, XRD analysis demonstrated the highest NCC crystallinity degree with 79.5%. In thermal analysis by TGA and DSC, the shorter hydrolysis time tended to produce NCC with higher thermal stability. Thus, the isolated NCC from roselle-derived MCC has high potential to be used in application of pharmaceutical and biomedical fields for nanocomposite fabrication.
The present study was conducted to optimize extraction process for defatted pitaya seed extract (DPSE) adopting response surface methodology (RSM). A five-level central composite design was used to optimize total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothizoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) activities. The independent variables included extraction time (30-60 min), extraction temperature (40-80 °C) and ethanol concentration (60%-80%). Results showed that the quadratic polynomial equations for all models were significant at (p < 0.05), with non-significant lack of fit at p > 0.05 and R2 of more than 0.90. The optimized extraction parameters were established as follows: extraction time of 45 min, extraction temperature of 70 °C and ethanol concentration of 80%. Under these conditions, the recovery of TPC, TFC, and antioxidant activity based on FRAP and ABTS were 128.58 ± 1.61 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g sample, 9.805 ± 0.69 mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g sample, 1.23 ± 0.03 mM Fe2+/g sample, and 91.62% ± 0.15, respectively. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS) analysis identified seven chemical compounds with flavonoids constituting major composition of the DPSE.
In this study, the optimal conditions for the extraction of antioxidants from the Buah Mahkota Dewa fruit (Phaleria macrocarpa) was determined by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The optimisation was applied using a Central Composite Design (CCD) to investigate the effect of three independent variables, namely extraction temperature (°C), extraction time (minutes) and extraction solvent to-feed ratio (% v/v) on four responses: free radical scavenging activity (DPPH), ferric ion reducing power assay (FRAP), total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC). The optimal conditions for the antioxidants extraction were found to be 64 °C extraction temperature, 66 min extraction time and 75% v/v solvent to-feed ratio giving the highest percentage yields of DPPH, FRAP, TPC and TFC of 86.85%, 7.47%, 292.86 mg/g and 3.22 mg/g, respectively. Moreover, the data were subjected to Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and the results showed that the polynomial equations for all models were significant, did not show lack of fit, and presented adjusted determination coefficients (R²) above 99%, proving that the yield of phenolic, flavonoid and antioxidants activities obtained experimentally were close to the predicted values and the suitability of the model employed in RSM to optimise the extraction conditions. Hence, in this study, the fruit from P. macrocarpa could be considered to have strong antioxidant ability and can be used in various cosmeceutical or medicinal applications.
Genistein, daidzein, glycitein and quercetin are flavonoids present in soybean and other vegetables in high amounts. These flavonoids can be metabolically converted to more active forms, which may react with guanine in the DNA to form complexes and can lead to DNA depurination. We assumed two ultimate carcinogen forms of each of these flavonoids, diol epoxide form and diketone form. Density functional theory (DFT) and Hartree-Fock (HF) methods were used to study the reaction thermodynamics between active forms of flavonoids and DNA guanine. Solvent reaction field method of Tomasi and co-workers and the Langevin dipoles method of Florian and Warshel were used to calculate the hydration free energies. Activation free energy for each reaction was estimated using the linear free energy relation. Our calculations show that diol epoxide forms of flavonoids are more reactive than the corresponding diketone forms and are hence more likely flavonoid ultimate carcinogens. Genistein, daidzein and glycitein show comparable reactivity while quercetin is less reactive toward DNA.
The objective of the research was to understand and improve the unusual physical and atomization properties of the complexes/adhesives derived from the tapioca starch by addition of borate and urea. The characterization of physical properties of the synthesized adhesives was carried out by determining the effect of temperature, shear rate, and mass concentration of thickener/stabilizer on the complex viscosity, density, and surface tension. In later stage, phenomenological analyses of spray jet breakup of heated complexes were performed in still air. Using a high speed digital camera, the jet breakup dynamics were visualized as a function of the system input parameters. The further analysis of the grabbed images confirmed the strong influence of the input processing parameters on full cone spray patternation. It was also predicted that the heated starch adhesive solutions generate a dispersed spray pattern by utilizing the partial evaporation of the spraying medium. Below 40°C of heating temperature, the radial spray cone width and angle did not vary significantly with increasing Reynolds and Weber numbers at early injection phases leading to increased macroscopic spray propagation. The discharge coefficient, mean flow rate, and mean flow velocity were significantly influenced by the load pressure but less affected by the temperature.
The present study addressed the synthesis of a bi-layered nanostructured fluorine-doped hydroxyapatite (nFHA)/polycaprolactone (PCL) coating on Mg-2Zn-3Ce alloy via a combination of electrodeposition (ED) and dip-coating methods. The nFHA/PCL composite coating is composed of a thick (70-80 μm) and porous layer of PCL that uniformly covered the thin nFHA film (8-10 μm) with nanoneedle-like microstructure and crystallite size of around 70-90 nm. Electrochemical measurements showed that the nFHA/PCL composite coating presented a high corrosion resistance (R(p)=2.9×10(3) kΩ cm(2)) and provided sufficient protection for a Mg substrate against galvanic corrosion. The mechanical integrity of the nFHA/PCL composite coatings immersed in SBF for 10 days showed higher compressive strength (34% higher) compared with the uncoated samples, indicating that composite coatings can delay the loss of compressive strength of the Mg alloy. The nFHA/PCL coating indicted better bonding strength (6.9 MPa) compared to PCL coating (2.2 MPa). Immersion tests showed that nFHA/PCL composite-coated alloy experienced much milder corrosion attack and more nucleation sites for apatite compared with the PCL coated and uncoated samples. The bi-layered nFHA/PCL coating can be a good alternative method for the control of corrosion degradation of biodegradable Mg alloy for implant applications.
Adsorption performance of chitosan (CS) hydrogel beads was investigated after impregnation of CS with hexadecylamine (HDA) as a cationic surfactant, for the elimination of reactive blue 4 (RB4) from wastewater. The CS/HDA beads formed with 3.8% HDA were the most effective adsorbent. The adsorption capacity was increased by 1.43 times from 317 mg/g (CS) to 454 mg/g (CS/HDA). The RB4 removal increased with decrease in the pH of dye solution from 4 to 9. The isotherm data obtained from RB4 adsorption on CS and CS/HDA are adequately described by Freundlich model (R(2)=0.946 and 0.934, χ(2)=22.414 and 64.761). The kinetic study revealed that the pseudo-second-order rate model (R(2)=0.996 and 0.997) was in better agreement with the experimental data. The negative values of ΔG° (-2.28 and -6.30 kJ/mol) and ΔH° (-172.18 and -101.62 kJ/mol) for CS beads and HDA modified CS beads, respectively; suggested a spontaneous and exothermic process for RB4 adsorption.
Fe3O4/talc nanocomposite was used for removal of Cu(II), Ni(II), and Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions. Experiments were designed by response surface methodology (RSM) and a quadratic model was used to predict the variables. The adsorption parameters such as adsorbent dosage, removal time, and initial ion concentration were used as the independent variables and their effects on heavy metal ion removal were investigated. Analysis of variance was incorporated to judge the adequacy of the models. Optimal conditions with initial heavy metal ion concentration of 100, 92 and 270 mg/L, 120 s of removal time and 0.12 g of adsorbent amount resulted in 72.15%, 50.23%, and 91.35% removal efficiency for Cu(II), Ni(II), and Pb(II), respectively. The predictions of the model were in good agreement with experimental results and the Fe3O4/talc nanocomposite was successfully used to remove heavy metals from aqueous solutions.