Semisolid metal processing is a relatively new technology that offers several advantages over liquid processing and solid processing because of the unique behaviour and characteristic microstructure of metals in this state. With the aim of finding a minimum process chain for the manufacture of high-quality production at minimal cost for forming, the microstructural evolution of the ledeburitic AISI D2 tool steel in the semisolid state was studied experimentally. The potential of the direct partial remelting (DPRM) process for the production of AISI D2 with a uniform globular microstructure was revealed. The liquid fraction was determined using differential scanning calorimetry. The microstructures of the samples were investigated using an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive spectroscopy analyser, while X-ray phase analysis was performed to identify the phase evolution and the type of carbides. Mechanical characterisation was completed by hardness measurements. The typical microstructure after DPRM consists of metastable austenite which was located particularly in the globular grains (average grain size about 50 μ m), while the remaining interspaces were filled by precipitated eutectic carbides on the grain boundaries and lamellar network.
One of the most challenging issues concerning the gasification of oil palm fronds (OPF) is the presence of tar and particulates formed during the process considering its high volatile matter content. In this study, a tar sampling train custom built based on standard tar sampling protocols was used to quantify the gravimetric concentration of tar (g/Nm3) in syngas produced from downdraft gasification of OPF. The amount of char, ash, and solid tar produced from the gasification process was measured in order to account for the mass and carbon conversion efficiency. Elemental analysis of the char and solid tar samples was done using ultimate analysis machine, while the relative concentration of the different compounds in the liquid tar was determined making use of a liquid gas chromatography (GC) unit. Average tar concentration of 4.928 g/Nm3 and 1.923 g/Nm3 was obtained for raw gas and cleaned gas samples, respectively. Tar concentration in the raw gas sample was found to be higher compared to results for other biomass materials, which could be attributed to the higher volatile matter percentage of OPF. Average cleaning efficiency of 61% which is comparable to that of sand bed filter and venturi scrubber cleaning systems reported in the literature was obtained for the cleaning system proposed in the current study.
In recent years, plasma-assisted synthesis has been extensively used in large scale production of functional nano- and micro-scale materials for numerous applications in optoelectronics, photonics, plasmonics, magnetism and drug delivery, however systematic formation of these minuscule structures has remained a challenge. Here we demonstrate a new method to closely manipulate mesostructures in terms of size, composition and morphology by controlling permeability at the boundaries of an impermeable plasma surrounded by a blanket of neutrals. In situ and rapid growth of thin films in the core region due to ion screening is among other benefits of our method. Similarly we can take advantage of exceptional properties of plasma to control the morphology of the as deposited nanostructures. Probing the plasma at boundaries by means of observing the nanostructures, further provides interesting insights into the behaviour of gas-insulated plasmas with possible implications on efficacy of viscous heating and non-magnetic confinement.
The reactions of 2-chloropyrimidine with methylamine, ethylamine and piperidine gave the corresponding 2-N-methylamino-, 2-N-ethylamino- and 2N- piperidinopyrimidines, respectively. The fluorescence properties of these alkylamino derivatives in chloroform, ethyl acetate, carbon tetrachloride, acetone, ether, ethanol and methanol were studied. All the alkylamino derivatives showed the highest fluorescence intensity in polar protic solvents; thus 2-N-methylaminopyrimidine (highest fluorescence intensity at 377 nm when excited at 282 nm) and 2-N-ethylaminopyrimidine (highest fluorescence intensity at 375 nm, when excited at 286 nm) showed the highest fluorescence in methanol. In ethanol, 2-N-piperidinopyrimidine showed a fluorescence peak at 403 nm when excited at 360 nm and in chloroform it fluoresced at 392 nm when excited at 356 nm.
Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) was isolated from oil palm empty fruit bunch pulp (EFBP) using ultrasound assisted acid hydrolysis. The obtained NCC was analysed using FESEM, XRD, FTIR, and TGA, and compared with raw empty fruit bunch fibre (REFB), empty fruit bunch pulp (EFBP), and treated empty fruit bunch pulp (TEFBP). Based on FESEM analysis, it was found that NCC has a spherical shaped after acid hydrolysis with the assistance of ultrasound. This situation was different compared to previous studies that obtained rod-like shaped of NCC. Furthermore, the crystallinity of NCC is higher compared to REFB and EFBP. According to thermal stability, the NCC obtained shows remarkable sign of high thermal stability compared to REFB and EFBP.
Roselle fiber is a renewable and sustainable agricultural waste enriched with cellulose polysaccharides. The isolation of Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) from roselle-derived microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) is an alternative approach to recover the agricultural roselle plant residue. In the present study, acid hydrolysis with different reaction time was carried out to degrade the roselle-derived MCC to form NCC. The characterizations of isolated NCC were conducted through Fourier Transform Infrared Ray (FTIR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). As evaluated from the performed morphological investigations, the needle-like shape NCC nanostructures were observed under TEM and AFM microscopy studies, while irregular rod-like shape of NCC was observed under FESEM analysis. With 60min hydrolysis time, XRD analysis demonstrated the highest NCC crystallinity degree with 79.5%. In thermal analysis by TGA and DSC, the shorter hydrolysis time tended to produce NCC with higher thermal stability. Thus, the isolated NCC from roselle-derived MCC has high potential to be used in application of pharmaceutical and biomedical fields for nanocomposite fabrication.
In this study, the optimal conditions for the extraction of antioxidants from the Buah Mahkota Dewa fruit (Phaleria macrocarpa) was determined by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The optimisation was applied using a Central Composite Design (CCD) to investigate the effect of three independent variables, namely extraction temperature (°C), extraction time (minutes) and extraction solvent to-feed ratio (% v/v) on four responses: free radical scavenging activity (DPPH), ferric ion reducing power assay (FRAP), total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC). The optimal conditions for the antioxidants extraction were found to be 64 °C extraction temperature, 66 min extraction time and 75% v/v solvent to-feed ratio giving the highest percentage yields of DPPH, FRAP, TPC and TFC of 86.85%, 7.47%, 292.86 mg/g and 3.22 mg/g, respectively. Moreover, the data were subjected to Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and the results showed that the polynomial equations for all models were significant, did not show lack of fit, and presented adjusted determination coefficients (R²) above 99%, proving that the yield of phenolic, flavonoid and antioxidants activities obtained experimentally were close to the predicted values and the suitability of the model employed in RSM to optimise the extraction conditions. Hence, in this study, the fruit from P. macrocarpa could be considered to have strong antioxidant ability and can be used in various cosmeceutical or medicinal applications.
Genistein, daidzein, glycitein and quercetin are flavonoids present in soybean and other vegetables in high amounts. These flavonoids can be metabolically converted to more active forms, which may react with guanine in the DNA to form complexes and can lead to DNA depurination. We assumed two ultimate carcinogen forms of each of these flavonoids, diol epoxide form and diketone form. Density functional theory (DFT) and Hartree-Fock (HF) methods were used to study the reaction thermodynamics between active forms of flavonoids and DNA guanine. Solvent reaction field method of Tomasi and co-workers and the Langevin dipoles method of Florian and Warshel were used to calculate the hydration free energies. Activation free energy for each reaction was estimated using the linear free energy relation. Our calculations show that diol epoxide forms of flavonoids are more reactive than the corresponding diketone forms and are hence more likely flavonoid ultimate carcinogens. Genistein, daidzein and glycitein show comparable reactivity while quercetin is less reactive toward DNA.
Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is a well known and widely used herb, especially in Asia, which contains several interesting bioactive constituents and possesses health promoting properties. In this study, the antioxidant activities of methanol extracts from the leaves, stems and rhizomes of two Zingiber officinale varieties (Halia Bentong and Halia Bara) were assessed in an effort to compare and validate the medicinal potential of the subterranean part of the young ginger. The antioxidant activity and phenolic contents of the leaves as determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay and the total amounts of phenolics and flavonoids were higher than those of the rhizomes and stems. On the other hand, the ferric reducing/antioxidant potential (FRAP) activity of the rhizomes was higher than that of the leaves. At low concentration the values of the leaves' inhibition activity in both varieties were significantly higher than or comparable to those of the young rhizomes. Halia Bara had higher antioxidant activities as well as total contents of phenolic and flavonoid in comparison with Halia Bentong. This study validated the medicinal potential of the leaves and young rhizome of Zingiber officinale (Halia Bara) and the positive relationship between total phenolics content and antioxidant activities in Zingiber officinale.
The objective of the research was to understand and improve the unusual physical and atomization properties of the complexes/adhesives derived from the tapioca starch by addition of borate and urea. The characterization of physical properties of the synthesized adhesives was carried out by determining the effect of temperature, shear rate, and mass concentration of thickener/stabilizer on the complex viscosity, density, and surface tension. In later stage, phenomenological analyses of spray jet breakup of heated complexes were performed in still air. Using a high speed digital camera, the jet breakup dynamics were visualized as a function of the system input parameters. The further analysis of the grabbed images confirmed the strong influence of the input processing parameters on full cone spray patternation. It was also predicted that the heated starch adhesive solutions generate a dispersed spray pattern by utilizing the partial evaporation of the spraying medium. Below 40°C of heating temperature, the radial spray cone width and angle did not vary significantly with increasing Reynolds and Weber numbers at early injection phases leading to increased macroscopic spray propagation. The discharge coefficient, mean flow rate, and mean flow velocity were significantly influenced by the load pressure but less affected by the temperature.
We report the impact of dysprosium (Dy(3+)) dopant and magnesium oxide (MgO) modifier on the thermoluminescent properties of lithium borate (LB) glass via two procedures. The thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves reveal a single prominent peak at 190 °C for 0.5 mol% of Dy(3+). An increase in MgO contents by 10 mol% enhances the TL intensity by a factor of 1.5 times without causing any shift in the maximum temperature. This enhancement is attributed to the occurrence of extra electron traps created via magnesium and the energy transfer to trivalent Dy(3+) ions. Good linearity in the range of 0.01-4 Gy with a linear correlation coefficient of 0.998, fading as low as 21% over a period of 3 months, excellent reproducibility without oven annealing and tissue equivalent effective atomic numbers ~8.71 are achieved. The trap parameters, including geometric factor (μg), activation energy (E) and frequency factor (s) associated with LMB:Dy are also determined. These favorable TL characteristics of prepared glasses may contribute towards the development of Li2O-MgO-B2O3 radiation dosimeters.
The aim of this study was to produce and characterise nanosize liposomes containing bioactive peptides with antioxidative and ACE-inhibitory properties, derived from winged bean seeds (WBS) protein. WBS powder was papain-proteolysed, at 70 °C and pH 6.5 for six hours, followed by encapsulation via a solvent-free heating method. The results showed that the WBS proteolysate was successfully incorporated into spherical, unilamellar liposomal particles, with particle diameter, polydispersity index, zeta potential and encapsulation efficiency of 193.3 ± 0.12 nm, 0.4 ± 0.02 (unit less), -70.5 ± 0.30 mV and 27.6 ± 1.17%, respectively. It also demonstrated good storage stability over eight weeks at 4 °C, indicated by slight increment (15.1%) in particle size and a zeta potential only weaker by 17.2% at the end of the study period. These results suggested the feasibility of entrapping water soluble peptides in hydrophobic liposomal system that, upon optimisation, has the potential to act as bioactive food ingredient.
The direct determination of toxic metal ions, in environmental samples, is difficult because of the latter's presence in trace concentration in association with complex matrices, thereby leading to insufficient sensitivity and selectivity of the methods used. The simultaneous removal of the matrix and preconcentration of the metal ions, through solid phase extraction, serves as the promising solution. The mechanism involved in solid phase extraction (SPE) depends on the nature of the sorbent and analyte. Thus, SPE is carried out by means of adsorption, ion exchange, chelation, ion pair formation, and so forth. As polymeric supports, the commercially available Amberlite resins have been found very promising for designing chelating matrices due to its good physical and chemical properties such as porosity, high surface area, durability and purity. This review presents an overview of the various works done on the modification of Amberlite XAD resins with the objective of making it an efficient sorbent. The methods of modifications which are generally based on simple impregnation, sorption as chelates and chemical bonding have been discussed. The reported results, including the preconcentration limit, the detection limit, sorption capacity, preconcentration factors etc., have been reproduced.
Matched MeSH terms: Metals/chemistry*; Polymers/chemistry; Polystyrenes/chemistry*; Polyvinyls/chemistry*; Water Pollutants, Chemical/chemistry*
Calcium silicate (CaSiO3, CS) ceramic composites reinforced with graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) were prepared using hot isostatic pressing (HIP) at 1150°C. Quantitative microstructural analysis suggests that GNP play a role in grain size and is responsible for the improved densification. Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed that GNP survived the harsh processing conditions of the selected HIP processing parameters. The uniform distribution of 1 wt.% GNP in the CS matrix, high densification and fine CS grain size help to improve the fracture toughness by ∼130%, hardness by ∼30% and brittleness index by ∼40% as compared to the CS matrix without GNP. The toughening mechanisms, such as crack bridging, pull-out, branching and deflection induced by GNP are observed and discussed. The GNP/CS composites exhibit good apatite-forming ability in the simulated body fluid (SBF). Our results indicate that the addition of GNP decreased pH value in SBF. Effect of addition of GNP on early adhesion and proliferation of human osteoblast cells (hFOB) was measured in vitro. The GNP/CS composites showed good biocompatibility and promoted cell viability and cell proliferation. The results indicated that the cell viability and proliferation are affected by time and concentration of GNP in the CS matrix.
Fe3O4/talc nanocomposite was used for removal of Cu(II), Ni(II), and Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions. Experiments were designed by response surface methodology (RSM) and a quadratic model was used to predict the variables. The adsorption parameters such as adsorbent dosage, removal time, and initial ion concentration were used as the independent variables and their effects on heavy metal ion removal were investigated. Analysis of variance was incorporated to judge the adequacy of the models. Optimal conditions with initial heavy metal ion concentration of 100, 92 and 270 mg/L, 120 s of removal time and 0.12 g of adsorbent amount resulted in 72.15%, 50.23%, and 91.35% removal efficiency for Cu(II), Ni(II), and Pb(II), respectively. The predictions of the model were in good agreement with experimental results and the Fe3O4/talc nanocomposite was successfully used to remove heavy metals from aqueous solutions.
In this study, oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFBF) was pretreated with alkali, and lignin was extracted for further degradation into lower molecular weight phenolic compounds using enzymes and chemical means. Efficiency of monomeric aromatic compounds production from OPEFBF lignin via chemical (nitrobenzene versus oxygen) and enzymatic [cutinase versus manganese peroxidase (MnP)] approaches was investigated. The effects of sodium hydroxide concentration (2, 5, and 10% wt.) and reaction time (30, 90, and 180 minutes) on the yield of aromatic compounds were studied. The results obtained indicated that nitrobenzene oxidation produced the highest yield (333.17 ± 49.44 ppm hydroxybenzoic acid, 5.67 ± 0.25 ppm p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 25.57 ± 1.64 ppm vanillic acid, 168.68 ± 23.23 ppm vanillin, 75.44 ± 6.71 ppm syringic acid, 815.26 ± 41.77 ppm syringaldehyde, 15.21 ± 2.19 ppm p-coumaric acid, and 44.75 ± 3.40 ppm ferulic acid), among the tested methods. High sodium hydroxide concentration (10% wt.) was needed to promote efficient nitrobenzene oxidation. However, less severe oxidation condition was preferred to preserve the hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid). Cutinase-catalyzed hydrolysis was found to be more efficient than MnP-catalyzed oxidation in the production of aromatic compounds. By hydrolyzed 8% wt. of lignin with 0.625 mL cutinase g(-1) lignin at pH 8 and 55°C for 24 hours, about 642.83 ± 14.45 ppm hydroxybenzoic acid, 70.19 ± 3.31 ppm syringaldehyde, 22.80 ± 1.04 ppm vanillin, 27.06 ± 1.20 ppm p-coumaric acid, and 50.19 ± 2.23 ppm ferulic acid were produced.
The present study addressed the synthesis of a bi-layered nanostructured fluorine-doped hydroxyapatite (nFHA)/polycaprolactone (PCL) coating on Mg-2Zn-3Ce alloy via a combination of electrodeposition (ED) and dip-coating methods. The nFHA/PCL composite coating is composed of a thick (70-80 μm) and porous layer of PCL that uniformly covered the thin nFHA film (8-10 μm) with nanoneedle-like microstructure and crystallite size of around 70-90 nm. Electrochemical measurements showed that the nFHA/PCL composite coating presented a high corrosion resistance (R(p)=2.9×10(3) kΩ cm(2)) and provided sufficient protection for a Mg substrate against galvanic corrosion. The mechanical integrity of the nFHA/PCL composite coatings immersed in SBF for 10 days showed higher compressive strength (34% higher) compared with the uncoated samples, indicating that composite coatings can delay the loss of compressive strength of the Mg alloy. The nFHA/PCL coating indicted better bonding strength (6.9 MPa) compared to PCL coating (2.2 MPa). Immersion tests showed that nFHA/PCL composite-coated alloy experienced much milder corrosion attack and more nucleation sites for apatite compared with the PCL coated and uncoated samples. The bi-layered nFHA/PCL coating can be a good alternative method for the control of corrosion degradation of biodegradable Mg alloy for implant applications.
Adsorption performance of chitosan (CS) hydrogel beads was investigated after impregnation of CS with hexadecylamine (HDA) as a cationic surfactant, for the elimination of reactive blue 4 (RB4) from wastewater. The CS/HDA beads formed with 3.8% HDA were the most effective adsorbent. The adsorption capacity was increased by 1.43 times from 317 mg/g (CS) to 454 mg/g (CS/HDA). The RB4 removal increased with decrease in the pH of dye solution from 4 to 9. The isotherm data obtained from RB4 adsorption on CS and CS/HDA are adequately described by Freundlich model (R(2)=0.946 and 0.934, χ(2)=22.414 and 64.761). The kinetic study revealed that the pseudo-second-order rate model (R(2)=0.996 and 0.997) was in better agreement with the experimental data. The negative values of ΔG° (-2.28 and -6.30 kJ/mol) and ΔH° (-172.18 and -101.62 kJ/mol) for CS beads and HDA modified CS beads, respectively; suggested a spontaneous and exothermic process for RB4 adsorption.
The sorption and desorption of cyfluthrin mixture isomers were determined using batch equilibration method and mobility was studied under laboratory conditions, using packed soil column. The soil types used in the study were clayey, clay loam and sandy clay loam obtained from three tomato farms in Cameron Highlands. A low Freundlich adsorption distribution coefficient K(ads(f)) for cyfluthrin was observed for clayey, clay loam and sandy clay loam soils (95.69, 21.64 and 8.99 l/kg, respectively). Results showed that cyfluthrin had high Freundlich organic matter (OM) distribution coefficient K(oc) values of 5799, 2278 and 1635 lkg(-1) for clayey, clay loam and sandy clay loam soils, respectively. These values indicate that cyfluthrin is considered immobile in Malaysian soils with different textures, based on the value of K(oc) by McCall. Adsorption of cyfluthrin was significantly (P < 0.05) affected with soil pH, fertilizer NPK, organic matter content and temperature. It was observed that approximately 95.8%, 93.8% and 91.8% of the adsorbed cyfluthrin remained sorbed after four successive rinses for clayey, clay loam and sandy clay loam soils. Soil column test showed that cyfluthrin was not detected in leachate. Cyfluthrin was detected in topsoil and its concentration decreased with depth. The downward movement of cyfluthrin in sandy clay loam soil was more than that in clay loam and clayey soils. Approximately, 80.9%, 77.8% and 67.3% cyfluthrin was observed at the depth of 0-5 cm (rainfall 350 mm) for clayey, clay loam and sandy clay loam soils respectively. Mobility of cyfluthrin showed that the percentage of cyfluthrin leached into soil was not affected by the amount of rainfall. The result clearly showed that cyfluthrin molecules were bound strongly to all the three Malaysian soil types.