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  1. Ahmad Rizal NFA, Ibrahim MF, Zakaria MR, Kamal Bahrin E, Abd-Aziz S, Hassan MA
    Molecules, 2018 Apr 02;23(4).
    PMID: 29614823 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23040811
    The combination of superheated steam (SHS) with ligninolytic enzyme laccase pretreatment together with size reduction was conducted in order to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis of oil palm biomass into glucose. The oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) and oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF) were pretreated with SHS and ground using a hammer mill to sizes of 2, 1, 0.5 and 0.25 mm before pretreatment using laccase to remove lignin. This study showed that reduction of size from raw to 0.25 mm plays important role in lignin degradation by laccase that removed 38.7% and 39.6% of the lignin from OPEFB and OPMF, respectively. The subsequent saccharification process of these pretreated OPEFB and OPMF generates glucose yields of 71.5% and 63.0%, which represent a 4.6 and 4.8-fold increase, respectively, as compared to untreated samples. This study showed that the combination of SHS with laccase pretreatment together with size reduction could enhance the glucose yield.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lignin/metabolism*; Arecaceae/metabolism*; Laccase/metabolism*
  2. Ibrahim MH, Jaafar HZ
    Molecules, 2011 Jun 29;16(7):5514-26.
    PMID: 21716173 DOI: 10.3390/molecules16075514
    Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume), one of the most famous and widely used herbs, especially in Southeast Asia, is found to have interesting bioactive compounds and displays health promoting properties. In this study, the antioxidant activities of the methanol extracts of leaves, stems and roots of three varieties of L. pumila (var. alata, pumila and lanceolata) were evaluated in an effort to compare and validate the medicinal potential of this indigenous Malaysian herb species. The antioxidant activity determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, as well as the total amount of phenolics and flavonoids were the highest in the leaves, followed by the stems and roots in all the varieties. A similar trend was displayed by the ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) activity, suggesting that the L. pumila varieties possess high foliar antioxidant properties. At low FRAP activity concentrations, the values of the leaves' inhibition activity in the three varieties were significantly higher than those of the stems and roots, with var. alata exhibiting higher antioxidant activities and total contents of phenolics and flavonoids compared to the varieties pumila and lanceolata. The high production of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activities in var. alata were firmly related to low nitrogen content and high C/N ratio in plant parts. The study also demonstrated a positive correlation between secondary metabolite content and antioxidant activities, and revealed that the consumption of L. pumila could exert several beneficial effects by virtue of its antioxidant activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/metabolism*; Biphenyl Compounds/metabolism; Carbon/metabolism*; Nitrogen/metabolism*; Picrates/metabolism; Primulaceae/metabolism*
  3. Mannan S, Fakhruĺ-Razi A, Alam MZ
    J Environ Sci (China), 2007;19(1):23-8.
    PMID: 17913149
    The optimization of process parameters for the bioconversion of activated sludge by Penicillium corylophilum was investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The three parameters namely temperature of 33 degrees C, agitation of 150 r/min, and pH of 5 were chosen as center point from the previous study of fungal treatment. The experimental data on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal (%) were fitted into a quadratic polynomial model using multiple regression analysis. The optimum process conditions were determined by analyzing response surface three-dimensional surface plot and contour plot and by solving the regression model equation with Design Expert software. Box-Behnken design technique under RSM was used to optimize their interactions, which showed that an incubation temperature of 32.5 degrees C, agitation of 105 r/min, and pH of 5.5 were the best conditions. Under these conditions, the maximum predicted yield of COD removal was 98.43%. These optimum conditions were used to evaluate the trail experiment, and the maximum yield of COD removal was recorded as 98.5%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Penicillium/metabolism*
  4. Huarte-Bonnet C, Kumar S, Saparrat MCN, Girotti JR, Santana M, Hallsworth JE, et al.
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2018 Mar;184(3):1047-1060.
    PMID: 28942502 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2608-z
    Several filamentous fungi are able to concomitantly assimilate both aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that are the biogenic by-products of some industrial processes. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases catalyze the first oxidation reaction for both types of substrate. Among the cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes, the family CYP52 is implicated in the first hydroxylation step in alkane-assimilation processes, while genes belonging to the family CYP53 have been linked with oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons. Here, we perform a comparative analysis of CYP genes belonging to clans CYP52 and CYP53 in Aspergillus niger, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium robertsii (formerly M. anisopliae var. anisopliae), and Penicillium chrysogenum. These species were able to assimilate n-hexadecane, n-octacosane, and phenanthrene, exhibiting a species-dependent modification in pH of the nutrient medium during this process. Modeling of the molecular docking of the hydrocarbons to the cytochrome P450 active site revealed that both phenanthrene and n-octacosane are energetically favored as substrates for the enzymes codified by genes belonging to both CYP52 and CYP53 clans, and thus appear to be involved in this oxidation step. Analyses of gene expression revealed that CYP53 members were significantly induced by phenanthrene in all species studied, but only CYP52X1 and CYP53A11 from B. bassiana were highly induced with n-alkanes. These findings suggest that the set of P450 enzymes involved in hydrocarbon assimilation by fungi is dependent on phylogeny and reveal distinct substrate and expression specificities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydrocarbons, Cyclic/metabolism*
  5. Singh HJ, Rahman A, Larmie ET, Nila A
    Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand, 2001 Feb;80(2):99-103.
    PMID: 11167202
    AIMS: The pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia is still unclear. Placental hypoperfusion, which precedes the maternal manifestations of pre-eclampsia, could be due to some vasoconstrictor factor/s like endothelin-1. The aim of the study therefore was to estimate the levels of endothelin-1 in feto-placental tissue homogenates from normotensive pregnant women and women with pre-eclampsia.

    METHOD AND MATERIAL: Fresh, vaginally delivered placentae from ten normotensive pregnant women and nine women with pre-eclampsia were carefully dissected and 4 gm each of amnion, chorion laeve, placental plate chorion, fetal placenta (fetal surface of the placenta) and maternal placenta (surface of the placenta attached to the uterine wall) were obtained. These tissues were then thoroughly washed in a 0.5 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.5, at room temperature and then individually homogenized for one minute in 4 ml of the same buffer. After centrifugation the supernatant was removed. The pellet was re-suspended in buffer, re-homogenized and then centrifuged. The supernatant was removed and the procedure was repeated once again and the three supernatants of each tissue were pooled. Endothelin-1 was estimated by RIA. All results are presented as mean+/-SEM. Statistical analysis was performed using students 't' test for unpaired samples and a 'p' value of <0.05 was considered significant.

    RESULTS: In tissues from normotensive pregnant women, no significant differences were evident in endothelin-1 concentrations in the chorion laeve, fetal placenta and maternal placenta but were significantly higher than those in the amnion and placental plate chorion (p<0.01). In tissues from pre-eclamptic women, no significant differences were evident between endothelin-1 concentrations in the chorion laeve, placental plate chorion and fetal placenta. Mean endothelin-1 concentration in the amnion and maternal placenta were significantly lower than those in chorion laeve, placental plate chorion and fetal placenta (p<0.01). Endothelin-1 concentrations were significantly higher in the amnion, chorion laeve, placental plate chorion and fetal placenta from women with pre-eclampsia when compared to tissues from normotensive pregnant women (p<0.01).

    CONCLUSIONS: Endothelin-1 levels were significantly higher in the placental tissues from women with pre-eclampsia. Endothelin-1, being a powerful vasoconstrictor, could cause significant vasoconstriction in the placental vasculature, and alterations in endothelin-1 levels in placental vasculature may therefore have a role in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Amnion/metabolism; Decidua/metabolism; Fetus/metabolism*; Placenta/metabolism*; Pre-Eclampsia/metabolism*; Pregnancy/metabolism*; Endothelin-1/metabolism*
  6. Tamijani SM, Karimi B, Amini E, Golpich M, Dargahi L, Ali RA, et al.
    Seizure, 2015 Sep;31:155-64.
    PMID: 26362394 DOI: 10.1016/j.seizure.2015.07.021
    Thyroid hormones (THs) L-thyroxine and L-triiodothyronine, primarily known as metabolism regulators, are tyrosine-derived hormones produced by the thyroid gland. They play an essential role in normal central nervous system development and physiological function. By binding to nuclear receptors and modulating gene expression, THs influence neuronal migration, differentiation, myelination, synaptogenesis and neurogenesis in developing and adult brains. Any uncorrected THs supply deficiency in early life may result in irreversible neurological and motor deficits. The development and function of GABAergic neurons as well as glutamatergic transmission are also affected by THs. Though the underlying molecular mechanisms still remain unknown, the effects of THs on inhibitory and excitatory neurons may affect brain seizure activity. The enduring predisposition of the brain to generate epileptic seizures leads to a complex chronic brain disorder known as epilepsy. Pathologically, epilepsy may be accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and eventually dysregulation of excitatory glutamatergic and inhibitory GABAergic neurotransmission. Based on the latest evidence on the association between THs and epilepsy, we hypothesize that THs abnormalities may contribute to the pathogenesis of epilepsy. We also review gender differences and the presumed underlying mechanisms through which TH abnormalities may affect epilepsy here.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brain/metabolism; Epilepsy/metabolism*; Thyroid Hormones/metabolism*
  7. Hasanpourghadi M, Looi CY, Pandurangan AK, Sethi G, Wong WF, Mustafa MR
    Curr Drug Targets, 2017;18(9):1086-1094.
    PMID: 27033190 DOI: 10.2174/1389450117666160401124842
    Phytometabolites are functional elements derived from plants and most of them exhibit therapeutic characteristics such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. Phytometabolites exert their anti-cancer effect by targeting multiple signaling pathways. One of the remarkable phenomena targeted by phytometabolites is the Warburg effect. The Warburg effect describes the observation that cancer cells exhibit an increased rate of glycolysis and aberrant redox activity compared to normal cells. This phenomenon promotes further cancer development and progression. Recent observations revealed that some phytometabolites could target metabolic-related enzymes (e.g. Hexokinase, Pyruvate kinase M2, HIF-1) in cancer cells, with little or no harm to normal cells. Since hyper-proliferation of cancer cells is fueled by higher cellular metabolism, phytometabolites targeting these metabolic pathways can create synergistic crosstalk with induced apoptotic pathways and sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents. In this review, we discuss phytometabolites that target the Warburg effect and the underlying molecular mechanism that leads to tumor growth suppression.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasms/metabolism*; Oxygen/metabolism*; Plants/metabolism*
  8. van der Ent A, Mulligan D
    J. Chem. Ecol., 2015 Apr;41(4):396-408.
    PMID: 25921447 DOI: 10.1007/s10886-015-0573-y
    Information about multi-elemental concentrations in different plant parts of tropical Ni hyperaccumulator species has the potential to provide insight into their unusual metabolism relative to a range of essential and non-essential elements, but this information is scant in the literature. As Ni hyperaccumulation, and possibly co-accumulation of other toxic elements, has been hypothesized to provide herbivore (insect) protection, there is a need to quantify a range of these elements in plant tissues and transport fluids to at least verify the possibility of this explanation. In this study, multiple elements were analyzed in a range of different plant parts and transport fluids from Ni hyperaccumulator species collected from Sabah (Malaysia). The results show preferential accumulation of Ni in leaves over woody parts, but the highest concentrations were found in the phloem tissue (up to 7.9 % in Rinorea bengalensis) and phloem sap (up to 16.9 % in Phyllanthus balgooyi), visible by a bright green coloration in the field fresh material. The amount of Ni contained in one mature R. bengalensis tree was calculated at 4.77 kg. The high Ni concentration in the flowers of Phyllanthus securinegoides could affect insect floral visitors and pollination. High concentrations of Ni in the seeds of this species also could supply the seedling with Ni and aid in herbivory protection during the first stages of development. Foliar Ca and Ni in P. cf. securinegoides and R. bengalensis are positively correlated. Low accumulation of Ca is desirable for phytomining but concentrations of Ca are high in most Ni hyperaccumulators examined, and this could have consequences for the economic viability of Ni extraction from bio ore if these species were to be used as 'metal crops'.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nickel/metabolism*; Soil Pollutants/metabolism*; Viridiplantae/metabolism*
  9. Adnan LA, Sathishkumar P, Yusoff AR, Hadibarata T, Ameen F
    Bioprocess Biosyst Eng, 2017 Jan;40(1):85-97.
    PMID: 27663440 DOI: 10.1007/s00449-016-1677-7
    In this study, a newly isolated ascomycete fungus Trichoderma lixii F21 was explored to bioremediate the polar [Alizarin Red S (ARS)] and non-polar [Quinizarine Green SS (QGSS)] anthraquinone dyes. The bioremediation of ARS and QGSS by T. lixii F21 was found to be 77.78 and 98.31 %, respectively, via biosorption and enzymatic processes within 7 days of incubation. The maximum biosorption (ARS = 33.7 % and QGSS = 74.7 %) and enzymatic biodegradation (ARS = 44.1 % and QGSS = 23.6 %) were observed at pH 4 and 27 °C in the presence of glucose and yeast extract. The laccase and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase produced by T. lixii F21 were involved in the molecular conversions of ARS and QGSS to phenolic and carboxylic acid compounds, without the formation of toxic aromatic amines. This study suggests that T. lixii F21 may be a good candidate for the bioremediation of industrial effluents contaminated with anthraquinone dyes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthraquinones/metabolism*; Coloring Agents/metabolism*; Trichoderma/metabolism*
  10. Khaidizar FD, Bessho Y, Nakahata Y
    Int J Mol Sci, 2021 Apr 02;22(7).
    PMID: 33918226 DOI: 10.3390/ijms22073709
    Aging is a phenomenon underlined by complex molecular and biochemical changes that occur over time. One of the metabolites that is gaining strong research interest is nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, NAD+, whose cellular level has been shown to decrease with age in various tissues of model animals and humans. Administration of NAD+ precursors, nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) and nicotinamide riboside (NR), to supplement NAD+ production through the NAD+ salvage pathway has been demonstrated to slow down aging processes in mice. Therefore, NAD+ is a critical metabolite now understood to mitigate age-related tissue function decline and prevent age-related diseases in aging animals. In human clinical trials, administration of NAD+ precursors to the elderly is being used to address systemic age-associated physiological decline. Among NAD+ biosynthesis pathways in mammals, the NAD+ salvage pathway is the dominant pathway in most of tissues, and NAMPT is the rate limiting enzyme of this pathway. However, only a few activators of NAMPT, which are supposed to increase NAD+, have been developed so far. In this review, we will focus on the importance of NAD+ and the possible application of an activator of NAMPT to promote successive aging.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aging/metabolism*; NAD/metabolism*; Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase/metabolism*
  11. Ibrahim MH, Jaafar HZ
    Molecules, 2012;17(5):5195-211.
    PMID: 22628041 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17055195
    A split plot 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate the relationships among production of primary metabolites (soluble sugar and starch), secondary metabolites (total flavonoids, TF; total phenolics, TP), phenylalanine lyase (PAL) activity (EC 4.3.1.5), protein and antioxidant activity (FRAP) of three progenies of oil palm seedlings, namely Deli AVROS, Deli Yangambi and Deli URT, under three levels of CO₂ enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 μmol·mol⁻¹) for 15 weeks of exposure. During the study, the treatment effects were solely contributed by CO₂ enrichment levels; no progenies and interaction effects were observed. As CO₂ levels increased from 400 to 1,200 μmol·mol⁻¹, the production of carbohydrate increased steadily, especially for starch more than soluble sugar. The production of total flavonoids and phenolics contents, were the highest under 1,200 and lowest at 400 μmol·mol⁻¹. It was found that PAL activity was peaked under 1,200 μmol·mol⁻¹ followed by 800 μmol·mol⁻¹ and 400 μmol·mol⁻¹. However, soluble protein was highest under 400 μmol·mol⁻¹ and lowest under 1,200 μmol·mol⁻¹. The sucrose/starch ratio, i.e., the indication of sucrose phosphate synthase actvity (EC 2.4.1.14) was found to be lowest as CO₂ concentration increased from 400 > 800 > 1,200 μmol·mol⁻¹. The antioxidant activity, as determined by the ferric reducing/antioxidant potential (FRAP) activity, increased with increasing CO₂ levels, and was significantly lower than vitamin C and α-tocopherol but higher than butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Correlation analysis revealed that nitrogen has a significant negative correlation with carbohydrate, secondary metabolites and FRAP activity indicating up-regulation of production of carbohydrate, secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of oil palm seedling under elevated CO₂ was due to reduction in nitrogen content in oil palm seedling expose to high CO₂ levels.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/metabolism*; Carbon Dioxide/metabolism*; Flavonoids/metabolism; Nitrogen/metabolism; Phenols/metabolism; Plant Proteins/metabolism; Starch/metabolism; Plant Leaves/metabolism; Arecaceae/metabolism*; Seedlings/metabolism*; Carbohydrate Metabolism
  12. Azizan EA, Brown MJ
    Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes, 2016 06;23(3):209-17.
    PMID: 26992195 DOI: 10.1097/MED.0000000000000255
    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Aldosterone regulation in the adrenal plays an important role in blood pressure. The commonest curable cause of hypertension is primary aldosteronism. Recently, mutations in novel genes have been identified to cause primary aldosteronism. Elucidating the mechanism of action of these genetic abnormalities may help understand the cause of primary aldosteronism and the physiological regulation of aldosterone in the zona glomerulosa.

    RECENT FINDINGS: KCNJ5, ATP1A1, ATP2B3, CACNA1D, CTNNB1, and CACNA1H mutations are causal of primary aldosteronism. ARMC5 may cause bilateral lesions resulting in primary aldosteronism.LGR5, DACH1, and neuron-specific proteins are highly expressed in the zona glomerulosa and regulate aldosterone production.

    SUMMARY: Most mutations causing primary aldosteronism are in genes encoding cation channels or pumps, leading to increased calcium influx. Genotype-phenotype analyses identified two broad subtypes of aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs), zona fasciculata-like and zona glomerulosa-like, and the likelihood of under-diagnosed zona glomerulosa-like APAs because of small size. Zona fasciculata-like APAs are only associated with KCNJ5 mutations, whereas zona glomerulosa-like APAs are associated with mutations in ATPase pumps, CACNA1D, and CTNNB1. The frequency of APAs, and the multiplicity of causal mutations, suggests a pre-existing drive for these mutations. We speculate that these mutations are selected for protecting against tonic inhibition of aldosterone in human zona glomerulosa, which express genes inhibiting aldosterone production.

    Matched MeSH terms: Aldosterone/metabolism*; Hyperaldosteronism/metabolism*
  13. Lee WK, Lim YY, Leow AT, Namasivayam P, Ong Abdullah J, Ho CL
    Carbohydr Polym, 2017 May 15;164:23-30.
    PMID: 28325321 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2017.01.078
    Agar is a jelly-like biopolymer synthesized by many red seaweeds as their major cell wall component. Due to its excellent rheological properties, it has been exploited commercially for applications in food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, biomedical and biotechnology industries. Despite its multiple uses, the biosynthesis of this phycocolloid is not fully understood. The current knowledge on agar biosynthesis is inferred from plant biochemistry and putative pathways for ulvan and alginate biosynthesis in green and brown seaweeds, respectively. In this review, the gaps in our current knowledge on agar biosynthetic pathway are discussed, focusing on the biosynthesis of agar precursors, elongation of agar polysaccharide chain and side chain modification. The development of molecular markers for the screening of desired seaweeds for industrial exploitation is also discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Agar/metabolism*; Seaweed/metabolism*
  14. Khamaiseh EI, Abdul Hamid A, Abdeshahian P, Wan Yusoff WM, Kalil MS
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:395754.
    PMID: 24672315 DOI: 10.1155/2014/395754
    The production of biobutanol was studied by the cultivation of Clostridium acetobutylicum NCIMB 13557 in P2 medium including date fruit as the sole substrate. The effect of P2 medium and the effect of different concentrations of date fruit ranging from 10 to 100 g/L on biobutanol production were investigated. Anaerobic batch culture was carried out at 35 °C incubation temperature and pH 7.0 ± 0.2 for 72 h. Experimental results showed that the lowest yield of biobutanol and acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) was 0.32 and 0.35 gram per gram of carbohydrate consumed (g/g), respectively, when an initial date fruit concentration of 10 g/L was utilized. At this fruit date concentration a biobutanol production value of 1.56 g/L was obtained. On the other hand, the maximum yield of biobutanol (0.48 g/g) and ABE (0.63 g/g) was produced at 50 g/L date fruit concentration with a biobutanol production value as high as 11 g/L. However, when a higher initial date fruit concentration was used, biobutanol and ABE production decreased to reach the yield of 0.22 g/g and 0.35 g/g, respectively, where 100 g/L date fruit was used. Similar results also revealed that 10.03 g/L biobutanol was produced using 100 g/L date fruit.
    Matched MeSH terms: Butanols/metabolism*; Carbon/metabolism*; Clostridium acetobutylicum/metabolism*; Phoeniceae/metabolism*
  15. Zhang Y, Sun W, Wang H, Geng A
    Bioresour Technol, 2013 Nov;147:307-314.
    PMID: 24001560 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.08.029
    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB), contains abundant cellulose and hemicelluloses and can be used as a renewable resource for fuel and chemical production. This study, as the first attempt, aims to convert OPEFB derived sugars to polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). OPEFB collected from a Malaysia palm oil refinery plant was chemically pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed by an in-house prepared cellulase cocktail. The PHB producer, Bacillus megaterium R11, was isolated in Singapore and could accumulate PHB up to 51.3% of its cell dry weight (CDW) from both glucose and xylose. Tryptone was identified as its best nitrogen source. PHB content and production reached 58.5% and 9.32 g/L, respectively, for an overall OPEFB sugar concentration of 45 g/L. These respectively reached 51.6% and 12.48 g/L for OPEFB hydrolysate containing 60 g/L sugar with a productivity of 0.260 g/L/h.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacillus megaterium/metabolism*; Butyrates/metabolism*; Arecaceae/metabolism*; Polyhydroxyalkanoates/metabolism*
  16. Salleh SF, Kamaruddin A, Uzir MH, Mohamed AR, Shamsuddin AH
    Prep Biochem Biotechnol, 2017 Feb 07;47(2):111-115.
    PMID: 27143318 DOI: 10.1080/10826068.2016.1181085
    Hydrogen production by cyanobacteria could be one of the promising energy resources in the future. However, there is very limited information regarding the kinetic modeling of hydrogen production by cyanobacteria available in the literature. To provide an in-depth understanding of the biological system involved during the process, the Haldane's noncompetitive inhibition equation has been modified to determine the specific hydrogen production rate (HPR) as a function of both dissolved CO2 concentration (CTOT) and oxygen production rate (OPR). The highest HPR of 15 [Formula: see text] was found at xCO2 of 5% vol/vol and the rate consequently decreased when the CTOT and OPR were 0.015 k mol m(-3) and 0.55 mL h(-1), respectively. The model provided a fairly good estimation of the HPR with respect to the experimental data collected.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carbon Dioxide/metabolism*; Hydrogen/metabolism*; Oxygen/metabolism*; Anabaena/metabolism*
  17. Paramaesvaran N
    Med J Malaya, 1965 Mar;19(3):224-8.
    PMID: 4220475
    Matched MeSH terms: Glucose/metabolism*; Phosphorus Metabolism Disorders*; Renal Osteodystrophy/metabolism*
  18. Chai TT, Law YC, Wong FC, Kim SK
    Mar Drugs, 2017 Feb 16;15(2).
    PMID: 28212329 DOI: 10.3390/md15020042
    Marine invertebrates, such as oysters, mussels, clams, scallop, jellyfishes, squids, prawns, sea cucumbers and sea squirts, are consumed as foods. These edible marine invertebrates are sources of potent bioactive peptides. The last two decades have seen a surge of interest in the discovery of antioxidant peptides from edible marine invertebrates. Enzymatic hydrolysis is an efficient strategy commonly used for releasing antioxidant peptides from food proteins. A growing number of antioxidant peptide sequences have been identified from the enzymatic hydrolysates of edible marine invertebrates. Antioxidant peptides have potential applications in food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. In this review, we first give a brief overview of the current state of progress of antioxidant peptide research, with special attention to marine antioxidant peptides. We then focus on 22 investigations which identified 32 antioxidant peptides from enzymatic hydrolysates of edible marine invertebrates. Strategies adopted by various research groups in the purification and identification of the antioxidant peptides will be summarized. Structural characteristic of the peptide sequences in relation to their antioxidant activities will be reviewed. Potential applications of the peptide sequences and future research prospects will also be discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/metabolism*; Invertebrates/metabolism*; Peptides/metabolism*; Aquatic Organisms/metabolism*
  19. Khor ES, Noor SM, Wong PF
    In Vivo, 2019 10 31;33(6):1713-1720.
    PMID: 31662495 DOI: 10.21873/invivo.11661
    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a 289 kDa serine/threonine protein kinase of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-related family is known for its role in regulating lifespan and the aging process in humans and rodents. Aging in zebrafish very much resembles aging in humans. Aged zebrafish often manifest with spinal curvature, cataracts and cognitive frailty, akin to human age-related phenotypical effects such as osteoarthritis, dwindling vision and cognitive dysfunction. However, the role of the zebrafish orthologue of mTOR, ztor, is less defined in these areas. This review paper discusses the tale of growing old in the zebrafish, the physiological roles of ztor in normal developmental processes and its involvement in the pathogenesis of aging-related diseases such as metabolic disorders and cancers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aging/metabolism*; Neoplasms/metabolism; Zebrafish/metabolism*; TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism*
  20. Madihah MS, Ariff AB, Khalil MS, Suraini AA, Karim MI
    Folia Microbiol (Praha), 2001;46(3):197-204.
    PMID: 11702403
    A study of the kinetics and performance of solvent-yielding batch fermentation of individual sugars and their mixture derived from enzymic hydrolysis of sago starch by Clostridium acetobutylicum showed that the use of 30 g/L gelatinized sago starch as the sole carbon source produced 11.2 g/L total solvent, i.e. 1.5-2 times more than with pure maltose or glucose used as carbon sources. Enzymic pretreatment of gelatinized sago starch yielding maltose and glucose hydrolyzates prior to the fermentation did not improve solvent production as compared to direct fermentation of gelatinized sago starch. The solvent yield of direct gelatinized sago starch fermentation depended on the activity and stability of amylolytic enzymes produced during the fermentation. The pH optima for alpha-amylase and glucoamylase were found to be at 5.3 and 4.0-4.4, respectively. alpha-Amylase showed a broad pH stability profile, retaining more than 80% of its maximum activity at pH 3.0-8.0 after a 1-d incubation at 37 degrees C. Since C. acetobutylicum alpha-amylase has a high activity and stability at low pH, this strain can potentially be employed in a one-step direct solvent-yielding fermentation of sago starch. However, the C. acetobutylicum glucoamylase was only stable at pH 4-5, maintaining more than 90% of its maximum activity after a 1-d incubation at 37 degrees C.
    Matched MeSH terms: Acetone/metabolism*; Ethanol/metabolism*; Amylases/metabolism; Carbon/metabolism; Clostridium/metabolism*; Glucan 1,4-alpha-Glucosidase/metabolism; Solvents/metabolism; Starch/metabolism*; 1-Butanol/metabolism*; Carbohydrate Metabolism
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