Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 74 in total

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  1. Tan KX, Danquah MK, Sidhu A, Yon LS, Ongkudon CM
    Curr Drug Targets, 2018 02 08;19(3):248-258.
    PMID: 27321771 DOI: 10.2174/1389450117666160617120926
    BACKGROUND: The search for smart delivery systems for enhanced pre-clinical and clinical pharmaceutical delivery and cell targeting continues to be a major biomedical research endeavor owing to differences in the physicochemical characteristics and physiological effects of drug molecules, and this affects the delivery mechanisms to elicit maximum therapeutic effects. Targeted drug delivery is a smart evolution essential to address major challenges associated with conventional drug delivery systems. These challenges mostly result in poor pharmacokinetics due to the inability of the active pharmaceutical ingredients to specifically act on malignant cells thus, causing poor therapeutic index and toxicity to surrounding normal cells. Aptamers are oligonucleotides with engineered affinities to bind specifically to their cognate targets. Aptamers have gained significant interests as effective targeting elements for enhanced therapeutic delivery as they can be generated to specifically bind to wide range of targets including proteins, peptides, ions, cells and tissues. Notwithstanding, effective delivery of aptamers as therapeutic vehicles is challenged by cell membrane electrostatic repulsion, endonuclease degradation, low pH cleavage, and binding conformation stability.

    OBJECTIVE: The application of molecularly engineered biodegradable and biocompatible polymeric particles with tunable features such as surface area and chemistry, particulate size distribution and toxicity creates opportunities to develop smart aptamer-mediated delivery systems for controlled drug release.

    RESULTS: This article discusses opportunities for particulate aptamer-drug formulations to advance current drug delivery modalities by navigating active ingredients through cellular and biomolecular traffic to target sites for sustained and controlled release at effective therapeutic dosages while minimizing systemic cytotoxic effects.

    CONCLUSION: A proposal for a novel drug-polymer-aptamer-polymer (DPAP) design of aptamer-drug formulation with stage-wise delivery mechanism is presented to illustrate the potential efficacy of aptamer- polymer cargos for enhanced cell targeting and drug delivery.

  2. Thent ZC, Chakraborty C, Mahakkanukrauh P, Nik Ritza Kosai Nik Mahmood N, Rajan R, Das S
    Curr Drug Targets, 2017;18(11):1250-1258.
    PMID: 27138760 DOI: 10.2174/1389450117666160502151600
    BACKGROUND: Recently, there are scientific attempts to discover new drugs in the biotechnology industry in order to treat various diseases including atherosclerosis.

    OBJECTIVE: The main objective of the present review was to highlight the cellular, molecular biology and inflammatory process related to the atheromatous plaques.

    METHODS: A thorough literature search of Pubmed, Google and Scopus databases was done.

    RESULTS: Atherosclerosis is considered to be a leading cause of death throughout the world. Atherosclerosis involves oxidative damage to the cells with production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Development of atheromatous plaques in the arterial wall is a common feature. Specific inflammatory markers pertaining to the arterial wall in atherosclerosis may be useful for both diagnosis and treatment. These include Nitric oxide (NO), cytokines, macrophage inhibiting factor (MIF), leucocytes and Pselectin. Modern therapeutic paradigms involving endothelial progenitor cells therapy, angiotensin II type-2 (AT<sub>2</sub>R) and ATP-activated purinergic receptor therapy are notable to mention.

    CONCLUSION: Future drugs may be designed aiming three signalling mechanisms of AT<sub>2</sub>R which are (a) activation of protein phosphatases resulting in protein dephosphorylation (b) activation of bradykinin/nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine 3&#039;,5&#039;-monophosphate pathway by vasodilation and (c) stimulation of phospholipase A(2) and release of arachidonic acid. Drugs may also be designed to act on ATP-activated purinergic receptor channel type P2X7 molecules which acts on cardiovascular system.

  3. Chakraborty C, Teoh SL, Das S
    Curr Drug Targets, 2017;18(14):1653-1663.
    PMID: 27231109 DOI: 10.2174/1389450117666160527142321
    BACKGROUND: The present era is fast experiencing rapid innovation in the genome-editing technology. CRISPR Cas9-mediated targeted genetic manipulation is an easy, cost-effective and scalable method. As a result, it can be used for a broad range of targeted genome engineering.

    OBJECTIVE: The main objective of the present review is to highlight the structural signature, classification, its mechanism and application from basic science to medicine and future challenges for this genome editing tool kit.

    RESULTS: The present review provides a brief description of the recent development of CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing technology. We discuss the paradigms shift for this next generation genome editing technology, CRISPR. The CRISPR structural significance, classification and its different applications are also being discussed. We portray the future challenges for this extraordinary genome in vivo editing tool. We also highlight the role of CRISPR genome editing in curing many diseases.

    CONCLUSION: Scientists and researchers are constantly looking one genome editing tool that is competent, simple and low-cost assembly of nucleases. It can target any particular site without any off-target mutations in the genome. The CRISPR-Cas9 has all of the above characteristics. The genome engineering technology may be a strong and inspiring technology meant for the next generation of drug development.

  4. Hasanpourghadi M, Looi CY, Pandurangan AK, Sethi G, Wong WF, Mustafa MR
    Curr Drug Targets, 2017;18(9):1086-1094.
    PMID: 27033190 DOI: 10.2174/1389450117666160401124842
    Phytometabolites are functional elements derived from plants and most of them exhibit therapeutic characteristics such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. Phytometabolites exert their anti-cancer effect by targeting multiple signaling pathways. One of the remarkable phenomena targeted by phytometabolites is the Warburg effect. The Warburg effect describes the observation that cancer cells exhibit an increased rate of glycolysis and aberrant redox activity compared to normal cells. This phenomenon promotes further cancer development and progression. Recent observations revealed that some phytometabolites could target metabolic-related enzymes (e.g. Hexokinase, Pyruvate kinase M2, HIF-1) in cancer cells, with little or no harm to normal cells. Since hyper-proliferation of cancer cells is fueled by higher cellular metabolism, phytometabolites targeting these metabolic pathways can create synergistic crosstalk with induced apoptotic pathways and sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents. In this review, we discuss phytometabolites that target the Warburg effect and the underlying molecular mechanism that leads to tumor growth suppression.
  5. Chin KY, Ima-Nirwana S
    Curr Drug Targets, 2018;19(5):439-450.
    PMID: 26343111 DOI: 10.2174/1389450116666150907100838
    BACKGROUND: Vitamin C, traditionally associated with scurvy, is an important nutrient for maintaining bone health. It is essential in the production of collagen in bone matrix. It also scavenges free radicals detrimental to bone health.

    OBJECTIVE: This review aims to assess the current evidence of the bone-sparing effects of vitamin C derived from cell, animal and human studies.

    RESULTS: Cell studies showed that vitamin C was able to induce osteoblast and osteoclast formation. However, high-dose vitamin C might increase oxidative stress and subsequently lead to cell death. Vitamin C-deficient animals showed impaired bone health due to increased osteoclast formation and decreased bone formation. Vitamin C supplementation was able to prevent bone loss in several animal models of bone loss. Human studies generally showed a positive relationship between vitamin C and bone health, indicated by bone mineral density, fracture probability and bone turnover markers. Some studies suggested that the relationship between vitamin C and bone health could be U-shaped, more prominent in certain subgroups and different between dietary and supplemental form. However, most of the studies were observational, thus could not confirm causality. One clinical trial was performed, but it was not a randomized controlled trial, thus confounding factors could not be excluded.

    CONCLUSION: vitamin C may exert beneficial effects on bone, but more rigorous studies and clinical trials should be performed to validate this claim.

  6. Chin KY, Ima-Nirwana S
    Curr Drug Targets, 2013 Dec;14(14):1632-41.
    PMID: 24354587
    The Asian population whose soy intake is higher compared to Western populations shows a significantly lower incidence of osteoporotic fracture. Several meta-analyses have revealed that supplementation of soy isoflavones improve bone health status in women. This review examined the current evidence as to whether soy could exhibit similar bone protective effects on the male population. In vivo studies revealed that supplementation of soy protein or soy isoflavones improved bone health in both normal and osteoporotic male rodents. Cell culture studies showed that soy isoflavones influenced osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis through mechanisms such as estrogen receptor binding activity, antiinflammatory activity and anti-parathyroid hormone activity. Soy isoflavones also affected calcium channel signaling and might exhibit direct effects on the osteoblastogenesis modulator, core binding factor 1. However, limited clinical trials involving soy intervention in males generally showed insignificant results. This could be attributed to the short duration of intervention, characteristics of the subjects or method of bone health assessment. More well-planned clinical trials are required to establish possible bone protective effects of soy in men.
  7. Abdul Jalil MA, Shuid AN, Muhammad N
    Curr Drug Targets, 2013 Dec;14(14):1651-8.
    PMID: 24354586
    With improvements in living standards and healthcare, life expectancy has been increasing dramatically in most parts of the world. These situations lead to the increase in the reported cases of geriatrics-related diseases such as hypogonadal osteoporosis with skeletal fracture being the ultimate outcome, which eventually causes significant morbidity and mortality. The deficient gonadal hormones, which are the main cause of hypogonadal osteoporosis, could be substituted with hormone replacement therapy to hinder bone loss. However, the artificial hormonal therapy has been linked to grievous conditions such as breast and prostate cancers. In view of the various adverse effects associated with conventional treatment, many researchers are now focusing on finding alternative remedies from nature. This article explores the possibilities of certain medicinal plants native to Malaysia that possess androgenic and antioxidant properties to potentially be used in the treatment of fracture due to osteoporosis in ageing people.
  8. Shuid AN, Ibrahim N', Mohd Amin MC, Mohamed IN
    Curr Drug Targets, 2013 Dec;14(13):1558-64.
    PMID: 24200294
    Anti-osteoporotic drugs are available for treatment of osteoporosis and for preventing osteoporosis complications especially fractures. Most of the current anti-osteoporotic drugs are administered orally or parenterally to target the osteoporosis-affected bones. However, bone is a peripheral organ with limited blood supply. Therefore, the drugs delivered are exposed to various physicochemical and biological factors which affect the bioavailability of the drugs. In preclinical research, the dose of a potential anti-osteoporotic agent used in animal model may be too high for human application when administered via the conventional route of administration. The current anti-osteoporotic drugs need to be administered at higher doses to account for pharmacological interactions. However, this will expose the patients to adverse effects such as the cancer risks of postmenopausal women who took estrogen replacement therapy. There is also problem with patient compliance as anti-osteoporotic drugs may have to be taken for prolonged duration. The current deliveries of drugs need to be improved to overcome these problems. This review discussed several potential drug delivery systems which are able to contain the anti-osteoporosis drugs and release them slowly to the targeted bone. Among them are various carriers, polymers and microsponges, which may not only increase drug efficacy but also reduce adverse effects. The delivery systems allow the drugs to be administered locally at the targeted bone for longer duration, therefore reducing drug frequency and improving patient's compliance. It is hoped that these delivery systems may be applicable for the treatment of osteoporosis in the future to keep tab of the rising osteoporotic fracture incidence.
  9. Shuid AN, Mohamed IN
    Curr Drug Targets, 2013 Dec;14(13):1565-78.
    PMID: 24200293
    This review explores the effects of pomegranate on the pathogenesis of bone loss in osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify the relevant studies on pomegranate and osteoporosis/osteoarthritis/rheumatoid arthritis. A comprehensive search was conducted in Medline and CINAHL for relevant studies published between the years 1946 to 2012. The main inclusion criteria were research articles published in English, studies had to report the association or effect of pomegranate and these bone and joint diseases: osteoporosis, osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis. The literature search identified 35 potentially relevant articles, whereby 8 met the inclusion criteria. Two animal studies, two combinations of animal and in vitro studies, three in vitro studies and one human study were included in this review. All the studies reported positive effects of pomegranate extract or juice on osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. This evidence-based review highlighted the potential of pomegranate extract being used for treating bone loss in osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Further studies are required to identify the active ingredients and molecular mechanisms before controlled human observational studies are conducted to provide stronger evidence.
  10. Abukhadir SS, Mohamed N, Mohamed N
    Curr Drug Targets, 2013 Dec;14(13):1601-10.
    PMID: 24138635
    Osteoporosis is the most common bone disease in humans; it represents a major public health problem. This chronic disease is characterized by increase in bone fracture due to: reduced bone mass, deterioration of micro architectural and decreased bone strength, bone fragility; and bone mineral density 2.5 or more standard deviations below the normal mean. Secondary osteoporosis is a common cause of osteoporosis, and there are many underlying risk factors for osteoporosis. Chronic alcohol abuse is one of the modifiable risk factors in osteoporosis. There is evidence of correlation between chronic alcohol abuse and low bone mass. Alcohol is directly toxic to the bone; with increased incidence of fractures and complications. Although there is a paucity of studies regarding alcohol induced osteoporosis therapy, it can be classified into antiresorptive therapy and anabolic therapy. Bisphosphonates have been demonstrated to be clinically relevant to prevent bone damage associated with alcohol use while parathyroid hormone increased bone mineralization as well as bone formation in alcohol treated rats. Vitamin D supplementation could prevent bone toxicity in chronic drinkers. This review discussed the pathogenesis of alcohol-induced osteoporosis and the agents available for its treatment. Other potential therapies are also discussed.
  11. Mohd Ramli ES, Suhaimi F, Ahmad F, Shuid AN, Mohamad N, Ima-Nirwana S
    Curr Drug Targets, 2013 Dec;14(14):1675-82.
    PMID: 24107234
    Osteoporosis is a major global health problem. Osteoporosis is characterized by the loss of bone mass and strength which leads to an increased risk of fracture. Glucocorticoid treatment is the leading cause of secondary osteoporosis. Glucocorticoid action in bone depends upon the expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 enzyme (11β-HSD1). The oestrogen deficient state causes osteoporosis due to enhancement of osteoclastogenesis by oxidative stress which leads to increased bone resorption. Piper sarmentosum (Daun Kaduk) is commonly used in the local cuisine of South East Asia. It is also traditionally used to treat many diseases such as inflammation, dermatitis and joint pain. Studies have revealed antioxidant properties through its flavonoids compound naringenin which acts as a superoxide scavenger that may help in the endogenous antioxidant defence system to protect bone against osteoporosis. Recent studies found that Ps extract has the ability to inhibit the expression and activity of 11β-HSD1 in adipose tissue and bone which restored bone structure and strength. It also accelerates fracture healing in the oestrogen deficient state through its antioxidant properties. The cost of conventional treatment is high and together with the adverse effects it leads to noncompliance. Treatment modalities with herbal medicine, less side effects and is cheaper need to be explored.This review focused on the therapeutic effect of Ps extract on fracture healing in ovariectomized rats and its protective effects against glucocorticoid induced osteoporotic rats.
  12. Rufus P, Mohamed N, Shuid AN
    Curr Drug Targets, 2013 Dec;14(14):1689-93.
    PMID: 24354584
    Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disorder that affects both men and women worldwide. It causes low bone mass and therefore increases bone susceptibility to fracture when bone undergoes a minor trauma. Lack of estrogen is the principal cause of osteoporosis. Estrogen, calcium, calcitonin, vitamin D and several antioxidants help in the prevention of osteoporosis. In order to effectively treat osteoporosis, there has been an extended research on the biological activities of traditional medicines since synthetic medicines possess several side effects that reduce their efficacy. Therefore, there is a need to develop new treatment alternatives for osteoporosis. This review centres on the scientific researches carried out on the evaluation of Chinese traditional medicines in the treatment of osteoporosis. Various plants like Achyranthes bidentata, Davallia formosana, polygonatum sibiricum, Cibotium barometz, Er-Zhi-Wan, Curculigo orchioides and a combined treatment of Hachimi-jio-gan (Ba-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan) with alendronate proved active in preventing post-menopausal osteoporosis.
  13. Das S, Sakthiswary R
    Curr Drug Targets, 2013 Dec;14(14):1667-74.
    PMID: 24354585
    Preventing osteoporotic fractures in millions of individuals may significantly reduce the associated morbidity and health-care expenditures incurred. As such, the search for newer anti-osteoporotic agents has been ongoing for years. Genetic studies have proven that the secreted protein sclerostin is one of the main culprits, which negatively regulates the bone formation. Recently, sclerostin-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (Scl-Ab) in rodent studies have shown positive effects on bone homeostasis. An extensive search of the literature was performed in the BIOSIS, Cinahl, EMBASE, Pub- Med, Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases to evaluate the published murine studies on the effects of Scl-Ab on the bone metabolism and histomorphometric parameters. Our systematic review depicts a significant association between Scl-Ab administration and improvement in bone formation, bone density, bone volume and trabecular thickness.
  14. Ibrahim N', Mohamad S, Mohamed N, Shuid AN
    Curr Drug Targets, 2013 Dec;14(14):1642-50.
    PMID: 24350807
    Osteoporosis may cause bone fracture even under slight trauma. Osteoporotic fracture has become a major public health problem but until today, the treatments available are not satisfactory. Many pre-clinical testings on animals were done to find new agents that can be sourced from natural products and synthetic drugs for osteoporotic fracture healing. Animal models are more appropriate for fracture healing study than human subject due to several reasons including the ethical issues involved. The bones of rodents are similar to human in term of their morphological change and response to therapy. Small rodents such as rats and mice are suitable animal models for fracture healing studies as they have a similar bone remodeling system to human. To date, there is no specific guideline to carry out fracture healing studies in animal models for the evaluation of new agents. This paper highlights the protocols of various fracture and fixation methods for experimental osteoporotic fracture healing using rodent models.
  15. Mohd Fozi NF, Mazlan M, Shuid AN, Isa Naina M
    Curr Drug Targets, 2013 Dec;14(14):1659-66.
    PMID: 24093748
    Osteoporosis is a progressive disease of the skeleton characterised by bone fragility due to a reduction in bone mass and possibly to alteration in bone architecture that lead to a propensity to fracture with minimum trauma. Most osteoporotic fractures occur at locations rich in trabecular or cancellous bone and usually related to post menopausal women. Recently, silymarin received attention due to its alternative beneficial effect on bone formation. It is a mixture of flavonoids with powerful antioxidant properties. This review focuses on the use of milk thistle or silymarin for the treatment of osteoporosis that may be related to fracture bone. Silymarin shows potent antioxidant herb that may modulate multiple genes in favour of helping to build bone and prevent bone loss. In the mouse fracture healing model, silymarin supplementation improved tibial healing with elevated BMD and serum levels of ALP and osteocalcin. Silymarin also demonstrated clear estrogenic antiosteoporotic effects in bone structure. Silymarin appears to play a crucial role to prevent bone loss and might regulate osteogenesis and may be beneficial for fracture healing. If silymarin is considered for the use of post menopausal women, it may be used for the treatment of osteoporosis. It would be of great benefit to postmenopausal women to develop an oestrogen antagonist that is as potent and efficacious as oestrogen in preventing bone loss without the major side effect associated with HRT.
  16. Effendy NM, Khamis MF, Shuid AN
    Curr Drug Targets, 2013 Dec;14(13):1542-51.
    PMID: 24010967
    Bone quality assessment is important in assessments of potential agents for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Bone density, microarchitecture and strength are important determinants in osteoporotic study which are widely studied using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA), histomorphometry and radiological imaging techniques. In recent years, high resolution micro-CT has become feasible for in vitro or in vivo evaluation of bone architecture. Three-dimensional images of micro-CT reflected high correlations with the conventional histomorphometry and DXA. In comparison to other imaging techniques, micro-CT is the most effective tool in detecting early bone changes for fracture prediction and assessments of potential anti-osteoporotic agents. It is crucial to define an ideal setting with safe radiation doses and appropriate methods for image reconstruction and segmentation to obtain high resolution images. Micro-CT evaluation provides a better insight of bone structure as well as non-metric parameters such as connectivity density, structural model index (SMI) and degree of anisotropy (DA). This non- invasive imaging technique is also equipped with finite element analysis for evaluation of bone biomechanical strength. Micro-CT allows a compressive understanding of the relationships between bone density, microarchitecture and strength which is fundamental to development of pharmacological interventions.
  17. Shuid AN, Ima Nirwana S, Das S
    Curr Drug Targets, 2013 Dec;14(14):1631.
    PMID: 24383964
  18. Helali AM, Iti FM, Mohamed IN
    Curr Drug Targets, 2013 Dec;14(13):1591-600.
    PMID: 23957815
    Osteoporosis is a pathologic process characterized by low bone mass with skeletal fragility and an increased risk of fracture. It occurs due to an imbalance between bone resorption and formation. Although current antiresorptive therapy halts bone loss, it does not cure the condition as it also inhibits bone formation. Recent preclinical and clinical trials suggest that the inhibition of resorption by cathepsin K inhibitors increases bone formation. Cathepsin K is a papainlike cysteine protease with high potent collagenase activity and predominantly expressed in osteoclasts. While allowing demineralization, cathepsin K inhibitors suppress the degradation of type I collagen (the major organic matrix of bone) and thus enhancing bone formation. Many of these inhibitors have passed preclinical studies and are presently in clinical trials at different stages of advancement. This review explores the promising role of cathepsin K as a novel antiresorptive for the treatment of osteoporosis.
  19. Abdul-Majeed S, Mohamed N, Soelaiman IN
    Curr Drug Targets, 2013 Dec;14(13):1579-90.
    PMID: 23848479
    Skeletal tissue undergoes continuous remodeling which makes it unique among other body tissues. Osteoporosis is a common bone metabolic disorder affecting both men and women. Osteoporosis and its complications mainly osteoporotic fractures, have a high impact on health and economy. Current approved medications are associated with numerous side effects, which limit their use. Identification of a new and safe therapy is mandatory. Statins, also known as HMGCoA reductase inhibitors, are frequently used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and for the prevention of morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease. Statins improved bone health status in intact and ovariectomised rodents following high clinically intolerable oral doses. However, this beneficial effect of statins could not be significantly demonstrated in humans. The reason behind this discrepancy might be due to the safety and bioavailability of the currently used oral statins. Vitamin E, especially the tocotrienols at the dose 60 mg/kg/day provided significant antiosteoporotic effects in different animal models of osteoporosis. The use of the aforementioned dose of tocotrienols was shown to be safe in both humans and animals. Enhancement of bone formation and reduction of bone resorption were achieved more effectively by a combination of tocotrienols and statins than by either treatment when supplemented separately at clinically tolerable doses. Therefore, the adverse effects associated with high statin doses might be avoided with the coadministration of tocotrienols. Moreover, the combination therapy strategy might be useful for patients who are at high risk of osteoporosis, cardiovascular events and hypercholesterolaemia.
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