OBJECTIVE: The main objective of the present review was to highlight the cellular, molecular biology and inflammatory process related to the atheromatous plaques.
METHODS: A thorough literature search of Pubmed, Google and Scopus databases was done.
RESULTS: Atherosclerosis is considered to be a leading cause of death throughout the world. Atherosclerosis involves oxidative damage to the cells with production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Development of atheromatous plaques in the arterial wall is a common feature. Specific inflammatory markers pertaining to the arterial wall in atherosclerosis may be useful for both diagnosis and treatment. These include Nitric oxide (NO), cytokines, macrophage inhibiting factor (MIF), leucocytes and Pselectin. Modern therapeutic paradigms involving endothelial progenitor cells therapy, angiotensin II type-2 (AT<sub>2</sub>R) and ATP-activated purinergic receptor therapy are notable to mention.
CONCLUSION: Future drugs may be designed aiming three signalling mechanisms of AT<sub>2</sub>R which are (a) activation of protein phosphatases resulting in protein dephosphorylation (b) activation of bradykinin/nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate pathway by vasodilation and (c) stimulation of phospholipase A(2) and release of arachidonic acid. Drugs may also be designed to act on ATP-activated purinergic receptor channel type P2X7 molecules which acts on cardiovascular system.
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review has been to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of available combined treatments modalities in the treatment of neovascular AMD.
DATA SOURCES: Central and Medline were searched for original research studies (Phase I, II, III), abstracts, and review articles concerning combination therapies for the control of neovascular AMD. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs).
RESULTS: The results of therapeutic trials focused on the actual options in the management of neovascular AMD are discussed. Intravitreal treatment with substances targeting all isotypes of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) results in a significant increase in visual acuity in patients with neovascular AMD. The combination with occlusive therapies like verteporfin photodynamic therapy (V-PDT) potentially offers a reduction of re-treatment frequency rate and long-term maintenance of the benefit reached. Despite the promise from combining anti-VEGF therapies with V-PDT, other combinations to improve outcomes with V-PDT deserve attention. Corticosteroids demonstrated an antiangiogenic effect and targeted the extravascular components of CNV, such as inflammatory cells and fibrocytes. Nevertheless, the study on the clinical application of corticosteroids will require a better understanding of the potential complications. Further developments interacting with various steps in the angiogenic cascade are under clinical or preclinical evaluation and may soon become available. In AMD the goal of a combination regimen is to address the therapy toward neovascular, inflammatory, and proliferative components of the disease.
CONCLUSIONS: Combined treatments strategies are an obvious step providing disease control when it is not achieved with a single therapeutic approach. One risk of using a single therapy to control AMD is a rebound induced by compensatory stimulation of other pathogenetic pathways. Combination therapy is a logical approach to address mechanisms of disease progression that appear to be self-sustaining once initiated.
OBJECTIVE: This review aims to assess the current evidence of the bone-sparing effects of vitamin C derived from cell, animal and human studies.
RESULTS: Cell studies showed that vitamin C was able to induce osteoblast and osteoclast formation. However, high-dose vitamin C might increase oxidative stress and subsequently lead to cell death. Vitamin C-deficient animals showed impaired bone health due to increased osteoclast formation and decreased bone formation. Vitamin C supplementation was able to prevent bone loss in several animal models of bone loss. Human studies generally showed a positive relationship between vitamin C and bone health, indicated by bone mineral density, fracture probability and bone turnover markers. Some studies suggested that the relationship between vitamin C and bone health could be U-shaped, more prominent in certain subgroups and different between dietary and supplemental form. However, most of the studies were observational, thus could not confirm causality. One clinical trial was performed, but it was not a randomized controlled trial, thus confounding factors could not be excluded.
CONCLUSION: vitamin C may exert beneficial effects on bone, but more rigorous studies and clinical trials should be performed to validate this claim.