Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 1582 in total

  1. Ravishankar Ram M, Goh KL, Leow AH, Poh BH, Loke MF, Harrison R, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(11):e0141865.
    PMID: 26559190 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0141865
    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) -induced gastric inflammation impacts the functions of leptin- and ghrelin-producing cells in the gastroduodenum. Inflammation resulting from H. pylori sensing via Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and the associated downstream signaling largely remain ambiguous. Here, we investigated the role of gut hormones, pro-inflammatory cytokines and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with TLR 4p14 in H. pylori disease in 30 subjects with non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD), 40 with peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and 15 with gastric cancer (GC) subjects positive and negative for H. pylori infection. The level of pro-inflammatory cytokines was directly proportional to the severity of gastritis, and disease status influenced the levels of gut hormones and pro-inflammatory cytokines. TLR-1 SNPs rs4833095 and TLR-10 SNPs rs10004195 and were directly associated with H. pylori disease, and were up-regulated in the presence of H. pylori in a genotype-independent manner. We concluded that TLR-1 rs4833095 and TLR10 rs10004195 confer susceptibility to development of gastroduodenal disease, especially GC in H.pylori disease.
  2. Tang JR, Mat Isa NA, Ch'ng ES
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(11):e0142830.
    PMID: 26560331 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0142830
    Despite the effectiveness of Pap-smear test in reducing the mortality rate due to cervical cancer, the criteria of the reporting standard of the Pap-smear test are mostly qualitative in nature. This study addresses the issue on how to define the criteria in a more quantitative and definite term. A negative Pap-smear test result, i.e. negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM), is qualitatively defined to have evenly distributed, finely granular chromatin in the nuclei of cervical squamous cells. To quantify this chromatin pattern, this study employed Fuzzy C-Means clustering as the segmentation technique, enabling different degrees of chromatin segmentation to be performed on sample images of non-neoplastic squamous cells. From the simulation results, a model representing the chromatin distribution of non-neoplastic cervical squamous cell is constructed with the following quantitative characteristics: at the best representative sensitivity level 4 based on statistical analysis and human experts' feedbacks, a nucleus of non-neoplastic squamous cell has an average of 67 chromatins with a total area of 10.827 μm2; the average distance between the nearest chromatin pair is 0.508 μm and the average eccentricity of the chromatin is 0.47.
  3. Saokaew S, Sugimoto T, Kamae I, Pratoomsoot C, Chaiyakunapruk N
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(11):e0141993.
    PMID: 26560127 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0141993
    Health technology assessment (HTA) has been continuously used for value-based healthcare decisions over the last decade. Healthcare databases represent an important source of information for HTA, which has seen a surge in use in Western countries. Although HTA agencies have been established in Asia-Pacific region, application and understanding of healthcare databases for HTA is rather limited. Thus, we reviewed existing databases to assess their potential for HTA in Thailand where HTA has been used officially and Japan where HTA is going to be officially introduced.
  4. Lee YK, Lee PY, Cheong AT, Ng CJ, Abdullah KL, Ong TA, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(11):e0142812.
    PMID: 26559947 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0142812
    AIM: To explore the views of Malaysian healthcare professionals (HCPs) on stakeholders' decision making roles in localized prostate cancer (PCa) treatment.
    METHODS: Qualitative interviews and focus groups were conducted with HCPs treating PCa. Data was analysed using a thematic approach. Four in-depth interviews and three focus group discussions were conducted between December 2012 and March 2013 using a topic guide. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed thematically.
    FINDINGS: The participants comprised private urologists (n = 4), government urologists (n = 6), urology trainees (n = 6), government policy maker (n = 1) and oncologists (n = 3). HCP perceptions of the roles of the three parties involved (HCPs, patients, family) included: HCP as the main decision maker, HCP as a guide to patients' decision making, HCP as a facilitator to family involvement, patients as main decision maker and patient prefers HCP to decide. HCPs preferred to share the decision with patients due to equipoise between prostate treatment options. Family culture was important as family members often decided on the patient's treatment due to Malaysia's close-knit family culture.
    CONCLUSIONS: A range of decision making roles were reported by HCPs. It is thus important that stakeholder roles are clarified during PCa treatment decisions. HCPs need to cultivate an awareness of sociocultural norms and family dynamics when supporting non-Western patients in making decisions about PCa.
  5. Khan MU, Ahmad A, Aqeel T, Akbar N, Salman S, Idress J
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(11):e0142485.
    PMID: 26559184 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0142485
    Pakistan accounts for 85.2% of the total polio cases reported worldwide. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are an integral part of immunization campaigns and source of education for the general public. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes towards polio vaccination among HCWs providing immunisation and education to general public in Quetta and Peshawar divisions of Pakistan.
  6. Moy FM, Hoe VC, Hairi NN, Chu AH, Bulgiba A, Koh D
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(11):e0141963.
    PMID: 26540291 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0141963
    To establish the prevalence of voice disorder using the Malay-Voice Handicap Index 10 (Malay-VHI-10) and to study the determinants, quality of life, depression, anxiety and stress associated with voice disorder among secondary school teachers in Peninsular Malaysia.
  7. Chai SJ, Yap YY, Foo YC, Yap LF, Ponniah S, Teo SH, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(11):e0130464.
    PMID: 26536470 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0130464
    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is highly prevalent in South East Asia and China. The poor outcome is due to late presentation, recurrence, distant metastasis and limited therapeutic options. For improved treatment outcome, immunotherapeutic approaches focusing on dendritic and autologous cytotoxic T-cell based therapies have been developed, but cost and infrastructure remain barriers for implementing these in low-resource settings. As our prior observations had found that four-jointed box 1 (FJX1), a tumor antigen, is overexpressed in NPCs, we investigated if short 9-20 amino acid sequence specific peptides matching to FJX1 requiring only intramuscular immunization to train host immune systems would be a better treatment option for this disease. Thus, we designed 8 FJX1-specific peptides and implemented an assay system to first, assess the binding of these peptides to HLA-A2 molecules on T2 cells. After, ELISPOT assays were used to determine the peptides immunogenicity and ability to induce potential cytotoxicity activity towards cancer cells. Also, T-cell proliferation assay was used to evaluate the potential of MHC class II peptides to stimulate the expansion of isolated T-cells. Our results demonstrate that these peptides are immunogenic and peptide stimulated T-cells were able to induce peptide-specific cytolytic activity specifically against FJX1-expressing cancer cells. In addition, we demonstrated that the MHC class II peptides were capable of inducing T-cell proliferation. Our results suggest that these peptides are capable of inducing specific cytotoxic cytokines secretion against FJX1-expressing cancer cells and serve as a potential vaccine-based therapy for NPC patients.
  8. Tan SL, Ahmad TS, Ng WM, Azlina AA, Azhar MM, Selvaratnam L, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(11):e0140869.
    PMID: 26528540 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0140869
    To date, the molecular signalling mechanisms which regulate growth factors-induced MSCs tenogenic differentiation remain largely unknown. Therefore, a study to determine the global gene expression profile of tenogenic differentiation in human bone marrow stromal cells (hMSCs) using growth differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) was conducted. Microarray analyses were conducted on hMSCs cultures supplemented with 100 ng/ml of GDF5 and compared to undifferentiated hMSCs and adult tenocytes. Results of QuantiGene® Plex assay support the use and interpretation of the inferred gene expression profiles and pathways information. From the 27,216 genes assessed, 873 genes (3.21% of the overall human transcriptome) were significantly altered during the tenogenic differentiation process (corrected p<0.05). The genes identified as potentially associated with tenogenic differentiation were ARHGAP29, CCL2, integrin alpha 8 and neurofilament medium polypeptides. These genes, were mainly associated with cytoskeleton reorganization (stress fibers formation) signaling. Pathway analysis demonstrated the potential molecular pathways involved in tenogenic differentiation were: cytoskeleton reorganization related i.e. keratin filament signaling and activin A signaling; cell adhesion related i.e. chemokine and adhesion signaling; and extracellular matrix related i.e. arachidonic acid production signaling. Further investigation using atomic force microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated apparent cytoskeleton reorganization in GDF5-induced hMSCs suggesting that cytoskeleton reorganization signaling is an important event involved in tenogenic differentiation. Besides, a reduced nucleostemin expression observed suggested a lower cell proliferation rate in hMSCs undergoing tenogenic differentiation. Understanding and elucidating the tenogenic differentiation signalling pathways are important for future optimization of tenogenic hMSCs for functional tendon cell-based therapy and tissue engineering.
  9. Mohamed R, Degac J, Helms V
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(10):e0140965.
    PMID: 26517868 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0140965
    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) play a major role in many biological processes and they represent an important class of targets for therapeutic intervention. However, targeting PPIs is challenging because often no convenient natural substrates are available as starting point for small-molecule design. Here, we explored the characteristics of protein interfaces in five non-redundant datasets of 174 protein-protein (PP) complexes, and 161 protein-ligand (PL) complexes from the ABC database, 436 PP complexes, and 196 PL complexes from the PIBASE database and a dataset of 89 PL complexes from the Timbal database. In all cases, the small molecule ligands must bind at the respective PP interface. We observed similar amino acid frequencies in all three datasets. Remarkably, also the characteristics of PP contacts and overlapping PL contacts are highly similar.
  10. Ahmad M, Asghar A, Abdul Raman AA, Wan Daud WM
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(10):e0141348.
    PMID: 26517827 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0141348
    Fenton oxidation, an advanced oxidation process, is an efficient method for the treatment of recalcitrant wastewaters. Unfortunately, it utilizes H2O2 and iron-based homogeneous catalysts, which lead to the formation of high volumes of sludge and secondary pollutants. To overcome these problems, an alternate option is the usage of heterogeneous catalyst. In this study, a heterogeneous catalyst was developed to provide an alternative solution for homogeneous Fenton oxidation. Iron Zeolite Socony Mobile-5 (Fe-ZSM-5) was synthesized using a new two-step process. Next, the catalyst was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis and tested against a model wastewater containing the azo dye Acid Blue 113. Results showed that the loading of iron particles reduced the surface area of the catalyst from 293.59 to 243.93 m2/g; meanwhile, the average particle size of the loaded material was 12.29 nm. Furthermore, efficiency of the developed catalyst was evaluated by performing heterogeneous Fenton oxidation. Taguchi method was coupled with principal component analysis in order to assess and optimize mineralization efficiency. Experimental results showed that under optimized conditions, over 99.7% degradation and 77% mineralization was obtained, with a 90% reduction in the consumption of the developed catalyst. Furthermore, the developed catalyst was stable and reusable, with less than 2% leaching observed under optimized conditions. Thus, the present study proved that newly developed catalyst has enhanced the oxidation process and reduced the chemicals consumption.
  11. Saw KG, Aznan NM, Yam FK, Ng SS, Pung SY
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(10):e0141180.
    PMID: 26517364 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0141180
    The Burstein-Moss shift and band gap narrowing of sputtered indium-doped zinc oxide (IZO) thin films are investigated as a function of carrier concentrations. The optical band gap shifts below the carrier concentration of 5.61 × 1019 cm-3 are well-described by the Burstein-Moss model. For carrier concentrations higher than 8.71 × 1019 cm-3 the shift decreases, indicating that band gap narrowing mechanisms are increasingly significant and are competing with the Burstein-Moss effect. The incorporation of In causes the resistivity to decrease three orders of magnitude. As the mean-free path of carriers is less than the crystallite size, the resistivity is probably affected by ionized impurities as well as defect scattering mechanisms, but not grain boundary scattering. The c lattice constant as well as film stress is observed to increase in stages with increasing carrier concentration. The asymmetric XPS Zn 2p3/2 peak in the film with the highest carrier concentration of 7.02 × 1020 cm-3 suggests the presence of stacking defects in the ZnO lattice. The Raman peak at 274 cm-1 is attributed to lattice defects introduced by In dopants.
  12. Nikolaidou T, Cai XJ, Stephenson RS, Yanni J, Lowe T, Atkinson AJ, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(10):e0141452.
    PMID: 26509807 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0141452
    Heart failure is a major killer worldwide. Atrioventricular conduction block is common in heart failure; it is associated with worse outcomes and can lead to syncope and bradycardic death. We examine the effect of heart failure on anatomical and ion channel remodelling in the rabbit atrioventricular junction (AVJ). Heart failure was induced in New Zealand rabbits by disruption of the aortic valve and banding of the abdominal aorta resulting in volume and pressure overload. Laser micro-dissection and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were employed to investigate the effects of heart failure on ion channel remodelling in four regions of the rabbit AVJ and in septal tissues. Investigation of the AVJ anatomy was performed using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Heart failure animals developed first degree heart block. Heart failure caused ventricular myocardial volume increase with a 35% elongation of the AVJ. There was downregulation of HCN1 and Cx43 mRNA transcripts across all regions and downregulation of Cav1.3 in the transitional tissue. Cx40 mRNA was significantly downregulated in the atrial septum and AVJ tissues but not in the ventricular septum. mRNA abundance for ANP, CLCN2 and Navβ1 was increased with heart failure; Nav1.1 was increased in the inferior nodal extension/compact node area. Heart failure in the rabbit leads to prolongation of the PR interval and this is accompanied by downregulation of HCN1, Cav1.3, Cx40 and Cx43 mRNAs and anatomical enlargement of the entire heart and AVJ.
  13. Mat S, Tan PJ, Ng CT, Fadzli F, Rozalli FI, Khoo EM, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(10):e0141368.
    PMID: 26491868 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0141368
    Osteoarthritis (OA) exacerbates skeletal muscle functioning, leading to postural instability and increased falls risk. However, the link between impaired physical function, OA and falls have not been elucidated. We investigated the role of impaired physical function as a potential mediator in the association between OA and falls. This study included 389 participants [229 fallers (≥2 falls or one injurious fall in the past 12 months), 160 non-fallers (no history of falls)], age (≥65 years) from a randomized controlled trial, the Malaysian Falls Assessment and Intervention Trial (MyFAIT). Physical function was assessed using Timed Up and Go (TUG) and Functional Reach (FR) tests. Knee and hip OA were diagnosed using three methods: Clinical, Radiological and Self-report. OA symptom severity was assessed using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC). The total WOMAC score was categorized to asymptomatic, mild, moderate and severe symptoms. Individuals with radiological OA and 'mild' overall symptoms on the WOMAC score had reduced risk of falls compared to asymptomatic OA [OR: 0.402(0.172-0.940), p = 0.042]. Individuals with clinical OA and 'severe' overall symptoms had increased risk of falls compared to those with 'mild' OA [OR: 4.487(1.883-10.693), p = 0.005]. In individuals with radiological OA, mild symptoms appear protective of falls while those with clinical OA and severe symptoms have increased falls risk compared to those with mild symptoms. Both relationships between OA and falls were not mediated by physical limitations. Larger prospective studies are needed for further evaluation.

    Study site: teaching hospital’s geriatrics, primary care and specialty clinics, and the emergency department in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  14. Chia YC, Lim HM, Ching SM
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(10):e0141344.
    PMID: 26496190 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0141344
    Based on global cardiovascular (CV) risk assessment for example using the Framingham risk score, it is recommended that those with high risk should be treated and those with low risk should not be treated. The recommendation for those of medium risk is less clear and uncertain. We aimed to determine whether factoring in chronic kidney disease (CKD) will improve CV risk prediction in those with medium risk. This is a 10-year retrospective cohort study of 905 subjects in a primary care clinic setting. Baseline CV risk profile and serum creatinine in 1998 were captured from patients record. Framingham general cardiovascular disease risk score (FRS) for each patient was computed. All cardiovascular disease (CVD) events from 1998-2007 were captured. Overall, patients with CKD had higher FRS risk score (25.9% vs 20%, p = 0.001) and more CVD events (22.3% vs 11.9%, p = 0.002) over a 10-year period compared to patients without CKD. In patients with medium CV risk, there was no significant difference in the FRS score among those with and without CKD (14.4% vs 14.6%, p = 0.84) However, in this same medium risk group, patients with CKD had more CV events compared to those without CKD (26.7% vs 6.6%, p = 0.005). This is in contrast to patients in the low and high risk group where there was no difference in CVD events whether these patients had or did not have CKD. There were more CV events in the Framingham medium risk group when they also had CKD compared those in the same risk group without CKD. Hence factoring in CKD for those with medium risk helps to further stratify and identify those who are actually at greater risk, when treatment may be more likely to be indicated.
  15. Wong KT, Yoon Y, Jang M
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(10):e0141013.
    PMID: 26496196 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0141013
    A novel preparation method of magnetized palm shell waste-based powdered activated carbon (MPPAC, avg. size 112 μm) was developed. The prepared MPPAC was assessed by several physicochemical analyses, and batch tests were performed for ibuprofen (IBP) removal. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and N2 gas isotherms revealed that magnetite and maghemite were homogeneous and deposited mostly on the surface of PPAC without a significant clogging effect on the micropores. Isotherm results showed that 3.8% Fe (w/w) impregnated PPAC [MPPAC-Fe(3.8%)] had about 2.2-fold higher maximum sorption capacity (157.3 mg g-1) and a 2.5-fold higher sorption density (0.23 mg m-2) than pristine PPAC. Both Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and isotherm data indicated that the high sorption capacity and density of IBP by MPPAC was primarily attributable to donor-acceptor complexes with the C = O group and dispersive π-π interactions with the carbon surface. Based on kinetic and repeated adsorption tests, pore diffusion was the rate-limiting step, and MPPAC-Fe(3.8%) had about 1.9~2.8- and 9.1~15.8-fold higher rate constants than MPPAC-Fe(8.6%) and palm shell-waste granular activated carbon (PGAC, avg. size 621 μm), respectively. MPPAC showed almost eight fold greater re-adsorption capacity than PPAC due to a thermal catalytic effect of magnetite/maghemite.
  16. Dewanjee S, Dua TK, Khanra R, Das S, Barma S, Joardar S, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(10):e0139831.
    PMID: 26473485 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0139831
    BACKGROUND: Ipomoea aquatica (Convolvulaceae), an aquatic edible plant, is traditionally used against heavy metal toxicity in India. The current study intended to explore the protective role of edible (aqueous) extract of I. aquatica (AEIA) against experimentally induced Pb-intoxication.

    METHODS: The cytoprotective role of AEIA was measured on mouse hepatocytes by cell viability assay followed by Hoechst staining and flow cytometric assay. The effect on ROS production, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, intracellular redox status were measured after incubating the hepatocytes with Pb-acetate (6.8 μM) along with AEIA (400 μg/ml). The effects on the expressions of apoptotic signal proteins were estimated by western blotting. The protective role of AEIA was measured by in vivo assay in mice. Haematological, serum biochemical, tissue redox status, Pb bioaccumulation and histological parameters were evaluated to estimate the protective role of AEIA (100 mg/kg) against Pb-acetate (5 mg/kg) intoxication.

    RESULTS: Pb-acetate treated hepatocytes showed a gradual reduction of cell viability dose-dependently with an IC50 value of 6.8 μM. Pb-acetate treated hepatocytes exhibited significantly enhanced levels (p < 0.01) of ROS production, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation with concomitant depletion (p < 0.01) of antioxidant enzymes and GSH. However, AEIA treatment could significantly restore the aforementioned parameters in murine hepatocytes near to normalcy. Besides, AEIA significantly reversed (p < 0.05-0.01) the alterations of transcription levels of apoptotic proteins viz. Bcl 2, Bad, Cyt C, Apaf-1, cleaved caspases [caspase 3, caspase 8 and caspase 9], Fas and Bid. In in vivo bioassay, Pb-acetate treatment caused significantly high intracellular Pb burden and oxidative pressure in the kidney, liver, heart, brain and testes in mice. In addition, the haematological and serum biochemical factors were changed significantly in Pb-acetate-treated animals. AEIA treatment restored significantly the evaluated-parameters to the near-normal position.

    CONCLUSION: The extract may offer the protective effect via counteracting with Pb mediated oxidative stress and/or promoting the elimination of Pb by chelating. The presence of substantial quantities of flavonoids, phenolics and saponins would be responsible for the overall protective effect.

  17. Ak N, Koo HC, Hamid Jan JM, Mohd Nasir MT, Tan SY, Appukutty M, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(10):e0138247.
    PMID: 26473369 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0138247
    Diets rich in whole grain are associated with several health benefits. Little is known however, about whole grain consumption patterns in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to assess whole grain intakes and dietary source in Malaysian children and adolescents.
  18. Asaduzzaman K, Mannan F, Khandaker MU, Farook MS, Elkezza A, Amin YB, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(10):e0140667.
    PMID: 26473957 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0140667
    The concentrations of primordial radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) in commonly used building materials (brick, cement and sand), the raw materials of cement and the by-products of coal-fired power plants (fly ash) collected from various manufacturers and suppliers in Bangladesh were determined via gamma-ray spectrometry using an HPGe detector. The results showed that the mean concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in all studied samples slightly exceeded the typical world average values of 50 Bq kg(-1), 50 Bq kg(-1) and 500 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The activity concentrations (especially 226Ra) of fly-ash-containing cement in this study were found to be higher than those of fly-ash-free cement. To evaluate the potential radiological risk to individuals associated with these building materials, various radiological hazard indicators were calculated. The radium equivalent activity values for all samples were found to be lower than the recommended limit for building materials of 370 Bq kg(-1), with the exception of the fly ash. For most samples, the values of the alpha index and the radiological hazard (external and internal) indices were found to be within the safe limit of 1. The mean indoor absorbed dose rate was observed to be higher than the population-weighted world average of 84 nGy h(-1), and the corresponding annual effective dose for most samples fell below the recommended upper dose limit of 1 mSv y(-1). For all investigated materials, the values of the gamma index were found to be greater than 0.5 but less than 1, indicating that the gamma dose contribution from the studied building materials exceeds the exemption dose criterion of 0.3 mSv y(-1) but complies with the upper dose principle of 1 mSv y(-1).
  19. Ahmed RH, Huri HZ, Al-Hamodi Z, Salem SD, Muniandy S
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(10):e0140618.
    PMID: 26474470 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0140618
    BACKGROUND: A soluble form of CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (sCD26/DPP-IV) induces DPP-IV enzymatic activity that degrades incretin. We investigated fasting serum levels of sCD26/DPP-IV and active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in Malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS), as well as the associations between sCD26/DPP-IV levels, MetS, and antidiabetic therapy.

    METHODS: We assessed sCD26/DPP-IV levels, active GLP-1 levels, body mass index (BMI), glucose, insulin, A1c, glucose homeostasis indices, and lipid profiles in 549 Malaysian subjects (including 257 T2DM patients with MetS, 57 T2DM patients without MetS, 71 non-diabetics with MetS, and 164 control subjects without diabetes or metabolic syndrome).

    RESULTS: Fasting serum levels of sCD26/DPP-IV were significantly higher in T2DM patients with and without MetS than in normal subjects. Likewise, sCD26/DPP-IV levels were significantly higher in patients with T2DM and MetS than in non-diabetic patients with MetS. However, active GLP-1 levels were significantly lower in T2DM patients both with and without MetS than in normal subjects. In T2DM subjects, sCD26/DPP-IV levels were associated with significantly higher A1c levels, but were significantly lower in patients using monotherapy with metformin. In addition, no significant differences in sCD26/DPP-IV levels were found between diabetic subjects with and without MetS. Furthermore, sCD26/DPP-IV levels were negatively correlated with active GLP-1 levels in T2DM patients both with and without MetS. In normal subjects, sCD26/DPP-IV levels were associated with increased BMI, cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c) levels.

    CONCLUSION: Serum sCD26/DPP-IV levels increased in T2DM subjects with and without MetS. Active GLP-1 levels decreased in T2DM patients both with and without MetS. In addition, sCD26/DPP-IV levels were associated with Alc levels and negatively correlated with active GLP-1 levels. Moreover, metformin monotherapy was associated with reduced sCD26/DPP-IV levels. In normal subjects, sCD26/DPP-IV levels were associated with increased BMI, cholesterol, and LDL-c.

  20. Ahmad AF, Abbas Z, Obaiys SJ, Ibrahim N, Hashim M, Khaleel H
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(10):e0140505.
    PMID: 26474301 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0140505
    Bio-composites of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fibres and polycaprolactones (PCL) with a thickness of 1 mm were prepared and characterized. The composites produced from these materials are low in density, inexpensive, environmentally friendly, and possess good dielectric characteristics. The magnitudes of the reflection and transmission coefficients of OPEFB fibre-reinforced PCL composites with different percentages of filler were measured using a rectangular waveguide in conjunction with a microwave vector network analyzer (VNA) in the X-band frequency range. In contrast to the effective medium theory, which states that polymer-based composites with a high dielectric constant can be obtained by doping a filler with a high dielectric constant into a host material with a low dielectric constant, this paper demonstrates that the use of a low filler percentage (12.2%OPEFB) and a high matrix percentage (87.8%PCL) provides excellent results for the dielectric constant and loss factor, whereas 63.8% filler material with 36.2% host material results in lower values for both the dielectric constant and loss factor. The open-ended probe technique (OEC), connected with the Agilent vector network analyzer (VNA), is used to determine the dielectric properties of the materials under investigation. The comparative approach indicates that the mean relative error of FEM is smaller than that of NRW in terms of the corresponding S21 magnitude. The present calculation of the matrix/filler percentages endorses the exact amounts of substrate utilized in various physics applications.
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