Over the last few years, particle swarm optimization (PSO) has been extensively applied in various geotechnical engineering including slope stability analysis. However, this contribution was limited to two-dimensional (2D) slope stability analysis. This paper applied PSO in three-dimensional (3D) slope stability problem to determine the critical slip surface (CSS) of soil slopes. A detailed description of adopted PSO was presented to provide a good basis for more contribution of this technique to the field of 3D slope stability problems. A general rotating ellipsoid shape was introduced as the specific particle for 3D slope stability analysis. A detailed sensitivity analysis was designed and performed to find the optimum values of parameters of PSO. Example problems were used to evaluate the applicability of PSO in determining the CSS of 3D slopes. The first example presented a comparison between the results of PSO and PLAXI-3D finite element software and the second example compared the ability of PSO to determine the CSS of 3D slopes with other optimization methods from the literature. The results demonstrated the efficiency and effectiveness of PSO in determining the CSS of 3D soil slopes.
An experience oriented-convergence improved gravitational search algorithm (ECGSA) based on two new modifications, searching through the best experiments and using of a dynamic gravitational damping coefficient (α), is introduced in this paper. ECGSA saves its best fitness function evaluations and uses those as the agents' positions in searching process. In this way, the optimal found trajectories are retained and the search starts from these trajectories, which allow the algorithm to avoid the local optimums. Also, the agents can move faster in search space to obtain better exploration during the first stage of the searching process and they can converge rapidly to the optimal solution at the final stage of the search process by means of the proposed dynamic gravitational damping coefficient. The performance of ECGSA has been evaluated by applying it to eight standard benchmark functions along with six complicated composite test functions. It is also applied to adaptive beamforming problem as a practical issue to improve the weight vectors computed by minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) beamforming technique. The results of implementation of the proposed algorithm are compared with some well-known heuristic methods and verified the proposed method in both reaching to optimal solutions and robustness.
This paper presents a real time implementation of the single-phase power factor correction (PFC) AC-DC boost converter. A combination of higher order sliding mode controller based on super twisting algorithm and predictive control techniques are implemented to improve the performance of the boost converter. Due to the chattering effects, the higher order sliding mode control (HOSMC) is designed. Also, the predictive technique is modified taking into account the large computational delays. The robustness of the controller is verified conducting simulation in MATLAB, the results show good performances in both steady and transient states. An experiment is conducted through a test bench based on dSPACE 1104. The experimental results proved that the proposed controller enhanced the performance of the converter under different parameters variations.
In this study, a new class of exponential-rational methods (ERMs) for the numerical solution of first order initial value problems has been developed. Developments of third order and fourth order ERMs, as well as their corresponding local truncation error have been presented. Each ERM was found to be consistent with the differential equation and L-stable. Numerical experiments showed that the third order and fourth order ERMs generates more accurate numerical results compared with the existing rational methods in solving first order initial value problems.
In this paper, we study the effects of symmetrization by the implicit midpoint rule (IMR) and the implicit trapezoidal rule
(ITR) on the numerical solution of ordinary differential equations. We extend the study of the well-known formula of Gragg
to a two-step symmetrizer and compare the efficiency of their use with the IMR and ITR. We present the experimental results
on nonlinear problem using variable stepsize setting and the results show greater efficiency of the two-step symmetrizers
over the one-step symmetrizers of IMR and ITR.
We have considered a fractional integral operator in this study. By using this integral operator we obtained a Briot-Bouquet superordination and sandwich theorem.
Predictor-corrector two point block methods are developed for solving first order ordinary differential equations (ODEs) using variable step size. The method will estimate the solutions of initial value problems (IVPs) at two points simultaneously. The existence multistep method involves the computations of the divided differences and integration coefficients when using the variable step size or variable step size and order. The block method developed will be presented as in the form of Adams Bashforth - Moulton type and the coefficients will be stored in the code. The efficiency of the predictor-corrector block method is compared to the standard variable step and order non block multistep method in terms of total number of steps, maximum error, total function calls and execution times.
A new method called parallel R-point explicit block method for solving a single equation of higher order ordinary differential equation directly using a constant step size is developed. This method calculates the numerical solution at R point simultaneously is parallel in nature. Computational advantages are presented by comparing the results obtained with the new method with that of the conventional 1-point method. The numerical results show that the new method reduces the total number of steps and execution time. The accuracy of the parallel block and the conventional 1-point methods is comparable particularly when finer step sizes are used.
In this paper, the singular LR fuzzy linear system is introduced. Such systems are divided into two parts: singular consistent LR fuzzy linear systems and singular inconsistent LR fuzzy linear systems. The capability of the generalized inverses such as Drazin inverse, pseudoinverse, and {1}-inverse in finding minimal solution of singular consistent LR fuzzy linear systems is investigated.
This paper studies the three dimensional (3D) simulation of fluid flows through the ball grid array (BGA) to replicate the real underfill encapsulation process. The effect of different solder bump arrangements of BGA on the flow front, pressure and velocity of the fluid is investigated. The flow front, pressure and velocity for different time intervals are determined and analyzed for potential problems relating to solder bump damage. The simulation results from Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) code will be validated with experimental findings as well as the conventional Finite Volume Method (FVM) code to ensure highly accurate simulation setup. Based on the findings, good agreement can be seen between LBM and FVM simulations as well as the experimental observations. It was shown that only LBM is capable of capturing the micro-voids formation. This study also shows an increasing trend in fluid filling time for BGA with perimeter, middle empty and full orientations. The perimeter orientation has a higher pressure fluid at the middle region of BGA surface compared to middle empty and full orientation. This research would shed new light for a highly accurate simulation of encapsulation process using LBM and help to further increase the reliability of the package produced.
The sine-cosine algorithm (SCA) is a new population-based meta-heuristic algorithm. In addition to exploiting sine and cosine functions to perform local and global searches (hence the name sine-cosine), the SCA introduces several random and adaptive parameters to facilitate the search process. Although it shows promising results, the search process of the SCA is vulnerable to local minima/maxima due to the adoption of a fixed switch probability and the bounded magnitude of the sine and cosine functions (from -1 to 1). In this paper, we propose a new hybrid Q-learning sine-cosine- based strategy, called the Q-learning sine-cosine algorithm (QLSCA). Within the QLSCA, we eliminate the switching probability. Instead, we rely on the Q-learning algorithm (based on the penalty and reward mechanism) to dynamically identify the best operation during runtime. Additionally, we integrate two new operations (Lévy flight motion and crossover) into the QLSCA to facilitate jumping out of local minima/maxima and enhance the solution diversity. To assess its performance, we adopt the QLSCA for the combinatorial test suite minimization problem. Experimental results reveal that the QLSCA is statistically superior with regard to test suite size reduction compared to recent state-of-the-art strategies, including the original SCA, the particle swarm test generator (PSTG), adaptive particle swarm optimization (APSO) and the cuckoo search strategy (CS) at the 95% confidence level. However, concerning the comparison with discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO), there is no significant difference in performance at the 95% confidence level. On a positive note, the QLSCA statistically outperforms the DPSO in certain configurations at the 90% confidence level.
A digit 8-shaped resonator inspired metamaterial is proposed herein for sensor applications. The resonator is surrounded by a ground frame and excited by a microstrip feedline. The measurement of the sensor can be performed using common laboratory facilities in lieu of using the waveguide, as the resonator, ground frame, and feedline are all on the same microstrip. To achieve metamaterial properties, more than one unit cell is usually utilized, whereas, in this work, a single cell was used to achieve the metamaterial characteristics. The properties of the metamaterial were investigated to find the relationship between the simulation and measurements. The proposed metamaterial sensor shows considerable sensitivity in sensor application. For the sensor application, FR4 and Rogers RO4350 materials were used as the over-layer. The sensor can measure dielectric thickness with a sensitivity of 625 MHz/mm, 468 MHz/mm, and 354 MHz/mm for the single over-layer, double over-layers, and multiple over-layers, respectively. The proposed prototype can be utilized in several applications where metamaterial characteristics are required.
The convergence property for doing logic programming in Hopfield network can be accelerated by using new relaxation method. This paper shows that the performance of the Hopfield network can be improved by using a relaxation rate to control the energy relaxation process. The capacity and performance of these networks is tested by using computer simulations. It was proven by computer simulations that the new approach provides good solutions.
Two-point four step direct implicit block method is presented by applying the simple form of Adams- Moulton method for solving directly the general third order ordinary differential equations (ODEs) using variable step size. This method is implemented to get the solutions of initial value problems (IVPs) at two points simultaneously in a block using four backward steps. The numerical results showed that the performance of the developed method is better in terms of maximum error at all tested tolerances and lesser total number of steps as the tolerances getting smaller compared to the existence direct method.
The problem of constructing such a continuous function is called data fitting. Many times, data given only at discrete points. With interpolation, we seek a function that allows us to approximate f(x) such that functional values between the original data set values may be determined. The process of finding such a polynomial is called interpolation and one of the most important approaches used are Lagrange interpolating formula. In this study, researcher determining the polynomial interpolation by using Lagrange interpolating formula. Then, a mathematical modelling was built by using MATLAB programming to determine the polynomial interpolation for a given points using the Lagrange method. The result of the study showed that the manual calculating and the MATLAB mathematical modelling will give the same answer for evaluated x and graph.
This paper presents the preliminary steps required for conducting experiments to obtain the optimal operating conditions of a hybrid impeller mixer and to determine the residence time distribution (RTD) using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In this paper, impeller speed and clearance parameters are examined. The hybrid impeller mixer consists of a single Rushton turbine mounted above a single pitched blade turbine (PBT). Four impeller speeds, 50, 100, 150, and 200 rpm, and four impeller clearances, 25, 50, 75, and 100 mm, were the operation variables used in this study. CFD was utilized to initially screen the parameter ranges to reduce the number of actual experiments needed. Afterward, the residence time distribution (RTD) was determined using the respective parameters. Finally, the Fluent-predicted RTD and the experimentally measured RTD were compared. The CFD investigations revealed that an impeller speed of 50 rpm and an impeller clearance of 25 mm were not viable for experimental investigations and were thus eliminated from further analyses. The determination of RTD using a k-ε turbulence model was performed using CFD techniques. The multiple reference frame (MRF) was implemented and a steady state was initially achieved followed by a transient condition for RTD determination.
Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is employed to investigate the overall performance of a pin fin.The following study will examine the effect of governing parameters on overall thermal/fluid performance associated with different fin geometries, including, rectangular plate fins as well as square, circular, and elliptical pin fins. The idea of entropy generation minimization, EGM is employed to combine the effects of thermal resistance and pressure drop within the heat sink. A general dimensionless expression for the entropy generation rate is obtained by considering a control volume around the pin fin including base plate and applying the conservations equations for mass and energy with the entropy balance. Selected fin geometries are examined for the heat transfer, fluid friction, and the minimum entropy generation rate corresponding to different parameters including axis ratio, aspect ratio, and Reynolds number. The results clearly indicate that the preferred fin profile is very dependent on these parameters.
Undular hydraulic jumps are characterized by a smooth rise of the free surface, followed by a train of stationary waves. These jumps sometimes occur in natural waterways and rivers. Numerical difficulties are especially distinct when the flow condition is close to the critical value because of the high sensitivity of the near-critical flow field to flow and channel conditions. Furthermore, the free surface has a wavy shape, which may indicate the occurrence of several transitions from supercritical to subcritical states and vice versa (i.e., undular hydraulic jumps). In this study, a flow model is used to predict an undular hydraulic jump in a rectangular open channel. The model is based on the general two-dimensional, Reynolds-averaged, Navier-Stokes flow equations. The resulting set of partial differential equations is solved using the FLOW-3D solver. The results are compared with the experimental data to validate the model. The comparative analysis shows that the proposed model yields good results. Several types of undular hydraulic jumps occurring in different situations are then simulated to prove the potential application of the model.
Decreasing the route rediscovery time process in reactive routing protocols is challenging in mobile ad hoc networks. Links between nodes are continuously established and broken because of the characteristics of the network. Finding multiple routes to increase the reliability is also important but requires a fast update, especially in high traffic load and high mobility where paths can be broken as well. The sender node keeps re-establishing path discovery to find new paths, which makes for long time delay. In this paper we propose an improved multipath routing protocol, called Receiver-based ad hoc on demand multipath routing protocol (RB-AOMDV), which takes advantage of the reliability of the state of the art ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV) protocol with less re-established discovery time. The receiver node assumes the role of discovering paths when finding data packets that have not been received after a period of time. Simulation results show the delay and delivery ratio performances are improved compared with AOMDV.
The quadratic assignment problem (QAP) is an NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem with a wide variety of applications. Biogeography-based optimization (BBO), a relatively new optimization technique based on the biogeography concept, uses the idea of migration strategy of species to derive algorithm for solving optimization problems. It has been shown that BBO provides performance on a par with other optimization methods. A classical BBO algorithm employs the mutation operator as its diversification strategy. However, this process will often ruin the quality of solutions in QAP. In this paper, we propose a hybrid technique to overcome the weakness of classical BBO algorithm to solve QAP, by replacing the mutation operator with a tabu search procedure. Our experiments using the benchmark instances from QAPLIB show that the proposed hybrid method is able to find good solutions for them within reasonable computational times. Out of 61 benchmark instances tested, the proposed method is able to obtain the best known solutions for 57 of them.