A series of batch laboratory studies were conducted to investigate the suitability of activated carbon SA2 for the removal of cadmium ions and zinc ions from their aqueous solutions. The single component equilibrium data were analyzed using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Overall, the Langmuir isotherm showed a better fitting for all adsorptions under investigation in terms of correlation coefficient and error analysis (SSE only 18.2 for Cd2+ and 47.95 for Zn2+). As the binary adsorption is competitive, extended Langmuir models could not predict the binary component isotherm well. The modified extended Langmuir models were used to fit the binary system equilibrium data. The binary isotherm data could be described reasonably well by the modified
extended Langmuir model, as indicated in the error analysis.
Experiments were conducted to determine the field and economic performances of machines and techniques for crop establishment in lowland paddy in Bangladesh. In machine seeded field, the crops were grown in rows to allow the operation of rotary type weeder for weed control. In hand broadcasted field, crops were not arranged in rows and weed control operation was therefore done through traditional means. Results obtained showed that the effect of rice seeding techniques, using pre-germinated rice seed of BR-1 variety on the effective field capacity, was highly significant. The work rate of hand broadcasting was found to be one to one and a half times faster than that of seeding by manually driven drum type row seeder. Field efficiency of hand broadcasting was about 90 percent, and this was found to be significantly higher than those of machine seeding which ranged from 70-80 percent at both seed rates, since no time was lost in turning. BRRI modified drum type row seeder, with a seeding rate of 60 kg/ha, was shown to be better for an optimum crop yield. Based on partial budget analysis, a farmer can save about US$53.34 per hectare in a year using the BRRI modified drum type row seeder, followed by a rotary weeder as compared to hand seeding, followed by hand weeding.
Aquaculture is a growing industry with a great potential towards the contribution of the country’s total
fish requirement. Serious efforts have been done to develop and improve the production of fish by rearing high value fish in tanks or ponds. Under the Third National Agricultural Policy (1998-2010), the target is to annually produce 1.93 million tonnes of fish worth approximately RM8.3 billion by the year 2010. Consequently, the development of an automatic fish feeding machine can be very beneficial to the growth of the aquaculture industry. This device was developed to overcome labour problems in the industry and introduce a semi-automatic process in the aquaculture industry. It has the ability to dispense dried fish food in various forms such as pellets, sticks, tablets or granules into fish tanks or ponds in a controlled manner for a stipulated time. The automatic fish feeder is controlled by a digital timer and it is capable of feeding the fish in accordance with a pre-determined time schedule without the presence of an operator, and at a feeding rate of 250g/min. The feeder can be adjusted to the desired height and conveniently moved around to be positioned adjacent to the pond or tank. Meanwhile, its hopper can be covered and easily dissembled to change the size of the hopper to accommodate different capacities of feed. This automatic fish feeder can be implemented in aquaculture system to convenience to fish culturists.
This paper analyses electromagnetic signal scattered from the target crossing the Forward Scattering
Radar (FSR) system baseline. The aim of the analysis was to extract the Doppler signal of a target under the influence of high ground clutter and noise interference. The extraction was used for the
automatic target detection (ATD) in the FSR system. Two extraction methods, namely Hilbert Transform and Wavelet Technique, were analyzed. The detection using the Hilbert Transform is only applicable for some conditions; however, the detection using the Wavelet Technique is more robust to any clutter and noise level. From 55 sets of signal, only 4% of false alarm was detected or occurred when the Wavelet Technique was applied as a detection scheme. Two sets of field experimentation were carried out and the target’s signal under the influence of high clutter had successfully been detected using the proposed method.
The central coast of Tamil Nadu, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, along with other regions, was severely hit by the tsunami on 26 December 2004. A strange spawning behaviour of the Indian horseshoe crabs (Tachypleus gigas, Müller) was observed after the tsunami disturbance. Along the northeast coast of India, the horseshoe crabs normally migrate towards the shore in large numbers coinciding with the tidal height and grain size of the sediment and spawn in nests made in sand. The spawning behaviour was normal until November 2004 and throughout that period about 35 to 45 nests in 200 m2 of area of the breeding beach were examined. However, no nesting was observed from December 2004 to March 2005, i.e. after the occurrence of tsunami. The number of nests per 200 m2 of area (~82) and the number of eggs per nest (750-1000 eggs) were increased considerably when the normal conditions were restored in April 2005. The absence of spawning migration, from December 2004 to March 2005, is totally an unusual behaviour and this happened for the first time during the past several years of the study period.
An in-house quasi-dimensional code has been developed which simulate the overlap, intake, compression, combustion, as well as expansion and exhaust processes of a homogeneous charged internal combustion engine (ICE). A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism, constituting of 39 species and 148 elementary reactions, has been used in conjunction with above code to study the combustion of CNG under IC engine conditions. Two different criteria, based on pressure rise and mass of fuel burned, are used to detect the onset of ignition. Parametric studies are conducted to show the effect of compression ratio, initial pressure, intake temperature and equivalence ratio, on the time of ignition and fuel burning rate. The results obtained from the modelling show a good agreement with the experimental data.
In this paper, a new method known as Grid Base Classifier was proposed. This method carries the advantages of the two previous methods in order to improve the classification tasks. The problem with the current lazy algorithms is that they learn quickly, but classify very slowly. On the other hand, the eager algorithms classify quickly, but they learn very slowly. The two algorithms were compared, and the proposed algorithm was found to be able to both learn and classify quickly. The method was developed based on the grid structure which was done to create a powerful method for classification. In the current research, the new algorithm was tested and applied to the multiclass classification of two or more categories, which are important for handling problems related to practical classification. The new method was also compared with the Levenberg-Marquardt back-propagation neural network in the learning stage and the Condensed nearest neighbour in the generalization stage to examine the performance of the model. The results from the artificial and real-world data sets (from UCI Repository) showed that the new method could improve both the efficiency and accuracy of pattern classification.
Part of the Seremban flood mitigation project in the state of Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia is to mitigate
the flood at Jalan Rasah. The mitigation is planned to be implemented in packages. Package I and Package II of River Anak Air Rasah are parts of the project work. In these packages, wider and deeper concrete sections for the river are constructed. The existing undersized culverts were replaced by bigger reinforced concrete box culverts. The size of the box culverts was based on 100-years average reoccurrence interval (ARI). One of these culverts intersected with a rail line connecting Singapore and Malaysia. Trenchless jacking technique was used to lay the box culvert. The total length of the box culvert jacked under the railway line is 33 m, whereas the total width of the twin box culvert is 7.8 m with a total height of 3 m. This was the first time that the trenchless jacking techniques were used for the urban flood mitigation purpose in Malaysia, and it is mainly used to minimise traffic disruption. This study reports the success of using jacking technique in the development of the flood mitigation program of DID in Negeri Sembilan. Among other things, it explains significant performance of the technique under local conditions and experiences gained towards the advancement of tunnelling and trenchless technology.
Natural ventilation is defined as the number of air exchanges per hour per unit floor area necessary
to reduce high indoor air temperature and humidity. In addition, it maintains the concentration of carbon dioxide. Natural ventilation is preferred in mechanical system as the ventilation opening is built into the greenhouse, with lower construction cost and no energy and maintenance inputs are required. A mathematical model to quantify natural ventilation rates was developed and verified in large-scale greenhouse structures. For this purpose, four Naturally Ventilated Tropical Greenhouse Structures were designed and constructed at the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI). These were single, double, triple, and quadruple span structures with floor areas of 500 m2, 1000 m2, 1500 m2 and 2000 m2, respectively. This paper presents the validation of a mathematical model which was developed to quantify natural ventilation rates which are very crucial to reduce high in-house temperature built up in the tropics. Regression equations of natural ventilation against wind speed were found to be Φw = 0.0632V, Φw= 0.0395V, Φw= 0.0316Vand Φw=0.0276V for the single, double, triple and quadruple spans, respectively. Meanwhile, coefficients of determination showed strong relationships between ventilation rate and wind speed, with R2 = 0.9999 for all structures. Larger floor area was found to have higher in-house temperature than smaller ones. Ventilation rate inside the single-span structure was found to be higher compared to the multi-span structures, which increased linearly with the increasing wind speed at the eaves of structure.
Dielectric properties of natural rubber Hevea brasiliensis latex were measured at frequencies 0.2 to 20 GHz, at temperatures of 2, 15, 25, 35, and 50oC and around 30-98% moisture content. Measurements were done using open-ended coaxial line sensor and automated network analyzer. As expected, results showed that dielectric constant increased with increasing moisture. From 0.2 to 2.6 GHz, the losses were governed by conductive losses but for frequencies greater than 2.6 GHz, these were mainly due to dipolar losses. The former is due to conducting phases in hevea latex, while the latter is mainly governed by the orientation of water molecules. The results were analyzed at 2.6, 10, and 18 GHz, respectively. These were then compared with the values predicted by the dielectric mixture equations recommended by Weiner, Bruggeman and Kraszewski. All the measured values were found to be within the Weiner’s boundaries and close to the upper limit of Weiner’s model. It is also close to the predicted values of Bruggeman’s model with a/b = 0.1. All the models including Kraszewski are suitable for predicting the dielectric properties of hevea latex for frequencies 2.6 to 18 GHz, moisture content 30 to 98% and temperatures 2 to 50oC.
Proper integrated management of a dam reservoir requires that all components of the water resource system be known. One of these components is the daily reservoir inflow which is the subject matter of this study, i.e. to establish predictions of what is coming in the next rainfall-runoff process over a catchment. The transformation of rainfall into runoff is an extremely complex, dynamic, and more of a non-linear process. The available six-year average daily rainfall data across the Sembrong dam catchment were computed using the well-known Theissen’s polygon method. Daily reservoir inflow data were extracted by applying the water balance model to the Sembrong dam reservoir. Modelling of relationship between rainfall and reservoir inflow data was done using feed-forward back-propagation neural networks. The final selected model has one hidden layer with 11 neurons in the hidden layer. The selected model was applied for an independent data series testing. Results in relation to specific climatic and hydrologic properties of a small tropical catchment suggested that the model is suitable to be used in forecasting the next day’s reservoir inflow. The efficiencies of the model Abtained indicated the validity of using the neural network for modelling reservoir inflow series.
An attempt was made in this investigation to trace the dynamic response of roller compacted concrete dam, which is subjected to horizontal ground motion by considering the interactions between flexible foundations, reservoir water, and bottom reservoir sediments. Two-dimensional finiteinfinite element was used for the non-linear elasto-plastic dynamic analysis. In this analysis, special emphasis was given to the non-linear behaviour of discontinuities along RCC dam-bedding rock foundation which was modelled by thin layer interface. Analysis was first carried out under static loading (self-weight and hydrostatic pressure), and this this was followed by seismic analysis, with hydrodynamic pressure effect in a dam-reservoir system. Based on the numerical dynamic results, it is concluded that the bottom reservoir sediment has significant effect on the seismic response of the RCC gravity dam. Moreover, there is a redistribution of the stresses at thin layer interface with significant stresses reduction, which is resulted from the release of energy through different modes of deformation in this region.
Surface sediment samples were collected from five locations at the downstream of Klang River in January 2007 to examine the spatial distribution, composition, and sources of 19 parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aliphatic hydrocarbon (n-alkanes) using gas chromatographymass spectrometry. The total concentrations of the 19 PAHs in the sediments were found to range from 1304 to 2187 ng g-1 sediment. Meanwhile, total concentrations of n-alkanes ranged from 17008 to 27116 μg g-1 sediment. The concentration of n-alkanes in the sediment was significantly correlated (r = 0.991, p = 0.001) with the content of sediment organic carbon. In this study, all the sediments exhibited phenanthrene/anthracene (PHE/ANT >15) fluoranthene/(fluorantene+pyrene) (FLT/FLT+PYR < 0.4), ethylphenanthrenes/phenanthrene (MP/P >1), combustion PAHs/total PAHs (CombPAH/Σ19PAH
This paper investigates the confidence intervals of R2 MAD, the coefficient of determination based on
median absolute deviation in the presence of outliers. Bootstrap bias-corrected accelerated (BCa)
confidence intervals, known to have higher degree of correctness, are constructed for the mean and standard deviation of R2 MAD for samples generated from contaminated standard logistic distribution. The results indicate that by increasing the sample size and percentage of contaminants in the samples, and perturbing the location and scale of the distribution affect the lengths of the confidence intervals. The results obtained can also be used to verify the bound of R2 MAD.
This paper presents investigations into the development of control schemes for end-point vibration
suppression and input tracking of a flexible manipulator. A constrained planar single-link flexible manipulator is considered and the dynamic model of the system is derived using the assumed mode method. To study the effectiveness of the controllers, a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) was initially developed for control of rigid body motion. This is then extended to incorporate a noncollocated PID controller and a feedforward controller based on input shaping techniques to control vibration (flexible motion) of the system. For feedforward controller, positive and modified specified negative amplitude (SNA) input shapers are proposed and designed based on the properties of the system. Results from the simulation of the manipulator responses with the controllers are presented in time and frequency domains. The performances of the control schemes are assessed in terms of level of vibration reduction, input tracking capability and time response specifications. Finally, a comparative assessment of the control techniques is presented and discussed.
Our continuing interest in anthraquinones from the Guttiferae family has led us to look at the genus Cratoxylum. A detailed chemical study on Cratoxylum aborescens resulted in the isolation of three anthraquinones, namely 1,8-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-6-methylanthraquinone (1), vismiaquinone (2) and vismione (3). These compounds were identified using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. This is the first report on the chemistry of Cratoxylum aborescens.
This study presents an efficient finite element analysis technique which shows great versatility in
modelling of precast composite flooring system subjected to static loadings. The method incorporates sliding and opening in the analysis of composite structures using the interface element which was specifically designed to simulate the actual behaviour at the interfaces between contacting materials. A three-dimensional finite element model of the precast composite slab which exhibits discontinuous behaviour was performed to demonstrate the potential and applicability of the proposed method of analysis. The results of the analysis demonstrate that the overall response of a discontinuous system to external loading is significantly affected by the bonding condition at the interfaces between the contacting materials.
Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm has experienced a significant increase in terms of usage in many fields of study. In this paper, the performance of the said algorithm in finding the Maximum Likelihood for the Gaussian Mixed Models (GMM), a probabilistic model normally used in fraud detection and recognizing a person’s voice in speech recognition field, is shown and discussed. At the end of the paper, some suggestions for future research works will also be given.
Welding process is most widely used in joining components or structures in industry. Although welding is part of a larger category called metals joining, the weld itself still gives significant problems to engineers, researchers and manufacturers until today. Several widely used welding processes, such as the Metal Inert Gas (MIG), Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG), and Manual Metal Arc (MMA), were studied. In the present paper, the characterization of the macrostructure, microstructure, hardness and residual stress distribution are highlighted and discussed to achieve a better understanding of the welded quality which is crucial in determining the welded products.
Compressive residual stress, induced by mechanical surface treatment, may relax during component
operation life, due to thermal or mechanical mechanism. Fatigue life prediction for the components which have residual stress will be misled and inaccurately predicted the phenomenon of residual stress relaxation is not considered. Despite putting an effort on incorporating the residual stress relaxation, the issues remain concerned with the technical challenge of measuring and quantifying
the magnitude of residual stress relaxation as well as redistribution during the loading cycling itself.
In this paper, the residual stress relaxation and its models were reviewed and discussed to picture
the best knowledge related to this topic, i.e. whether relaxation is a cause or an effect.