In this paper, an implicit 2-point Block Backward Differentiation formula (BBDF) method was considered for solving Delay Differential Equations (DDEs). The method was implemented by using a constant stepsize via Newton Iteration. This implicit block method was expected to produce two points simultaneously. The efficiency of the method was compared with the existing classical 1-point Backward Differentiation Formula (BDF) in terms of execution time and accuracy.
This paper presents the solution to a calculation of the pH of a very dilute solution of a weak acid, taking into account the effect of the hydroxonium ions generated from the ionization of the acid on the ionization of water, also a very weak acid. To be solved successfully, this calculation involves the concepts of conservation of charge, pH, equilibria and the application of the general solution to a cubic equation. Such an exercise requires the application of skills in algebra, and can provide a core of understanding that can prepare advanced students for many different sorts of calculations that represent real-life problems in the chemical sciences. A programme is presented in C++ which enables the work of students to be individualized so that each student in a class can work through a slightly different pH calculation, in such a way that a class supervisor can quickly check each student’s result for accuracy.This exercise is presented as a potential means of enabling students to undertake and master similar types of calculations involving the application of complex algebra to problems related to equilibria and solution dynamics.
CaCu3Ti4O12 was synthesized starting from a solution of TiO2 to which Ca and Cu nitrates were added. Due to the differences in the solubilities of the Ca, Cu and Ti, initial variations from ideal stoichiometry and a high solution pH was necessary to obtain stoichiometric CaCu3Ti4O12 precipitates. As precipitated samples were amorphous with CuO phases observed after drying of the precipitates at 300 oC. CaCu3Ti4O12 phases were observed after heat treatment at 1000 oC. XRD studies show the presence of CuO and TiO2 in addition to the CaCu3Ti4O12 for non stoichiometric samples. Observations under the SEM show the presence of Cu rich and Ti rich phases in addition to the CaCu3Ti4O12.
Nuclear grade (high-purity) graphite for fuel element and moderator material in Advanced Gas
Cooling Reactors (AGR) displays large scatter in strength and a non-linear stress-strain response from the damage accumulation. These responses can be characterized as quasi-brittle behaviour. Current assessments of fracture in core graphite components are based on the linear elastic approximation and thus represent a major assumption. The quasi-brittle behaviour gives challenge to assess the real nuclear graphite component. The selected test method would help to bridge the gap between microscale to macro-scale in real reactor component. The small scale tests presented here can contribute some statistical data to manifests the failure in real component. The evaluation and choice of different solution design of biaxial test will be discussed in this paper. The ball on-three ball test method was used for assessment test follows by numerous of analytical method. The results shown that biaxial strength of the EY9 grade graphite depends on the method used for evaluation. Some of the analytical methods use to calculate biaxial strength were found not to be valid and therefore should not be used to assess the mechanical properties of nuclear graphite.
Normally, topographic map is produced using aerial photogrammetry. The recent development in aerial photogrammetry is the use of large format digital aerial camera for producing topographic map, however, the cost of the camera is too expensive and many mapping organization around the world could not afford to purchase it. In certain application, there is a need to map small area with limited budget. This issue has been solved by using small format camera (i.e. conventional or digital) to produce digital map. This study concentrates on the use of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for producing digital map. UAV has been widely used in military for reconnaissance, planning, combat, and etc. Today, UAV can be used by civilian for reconnaissance, monitoring, mapping, and others. The objectives of this study are to investigate the capability of UAV in producing digital map and assess the accuracy of mapping using UAV. In this study, a light weight fixed wing UAV was used as a platform and a high resolution digital camera was used to acquire aerial digital images of the study area. The aerial digital images were acquired at low altitude. After capturing the aerial digital images, ground control points and check points were established using GPS. Then the aerial digital images were processed using photogrammetric software. The output of the study is a digital map and digital orthophoto. For accuracy assessment, the root mean square error (RMSE) is used. Based on the assessment, the results showed that accuracy of sub-meter can be obtained using the procedure and method used in the study. In conclusion, this study shows that UAV can be used for producing digital map at sub-meter accuracy and it can also be used for diversified applications.
Many studies have been carried out using different metaheuristic algorithms on optimisation problems in various fields like engineering design, economics and routes planning. In the real world, resources and time are scarce. Thus the goals of optimisation algorithms are to optimise these available resources. Different metaheuristic algorithms are available. The firefly algorithm is one of the recent metaheuristic algorithms that is used in many applications; it is also modified and hybridised to improve its performance. In this paper, we compare the Standard Firefly Algorithm, the Elitist Firefly Algorithm, also called the Modified Firefly Algorithm with the Chaotic Firefly Algorithm, which embeds chaos maps in the Standard Firefly Algorithm. The Modified Firefly Algorithm differs from the Standard Firefly Algorithm in such a way that the global optimum solution at a particular iteration will not move randomly but in a direction that is chosen from randomly generated directions that can improve its performance. If none of these directions improves its performance, then the algorithm will not be updated. On the other hand, the Chaotic Firefly Algorithm tunes the parameters of the algorithms for the purpose of increasing the global search mobility i.e. to improve the attractiveness of fireflies. In our study, we found that the Chaotic Firefly Algorithms using three different chaotic maps do not perform as well as the Modified Firefly Algorithms; however, at least one or two of the Chaotic Firefly Algorithms outperform the Standard Firefly Algorithm under the given accuracy and efficiency tests.
This paper presents the solution to a calculation of the pH of a very dilute solution of a strong acid or base, taking into account the effect of the hydronium or hydroxyl ions generated from the ionisation of the strong acid or base on the ionisation of water, as a second very weak acid. To be solved successfully, this calculation involves the concepts of conservation of charge, pH and the application of the general solution to a quadratic equation. Such an exercise involves the application of skills in basic numeracy, and can provide a core of understanding that can prepare students for
many different sorts of calculations that represent reallife problems in the medical and biological sciences.A programme is presented in C++ which enables the work of students to be individualised so that each student in a class can work through a slightly different pH calculation, in such a way that a class supervisor can quickly check each student’s result for accuracy. This exercise is presented as a potential means of enabling students to undertake and master similar types of calculations involving simple or more complex equilibria.
Lattice Boltzmann Model for Shallow Water Equation with Turbulence Modeling (LABSWETM) is used to study the flow patterns of sidewall friction effects. The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) approach in recovery the macroscopic governing equation which is shallow water equation from the microscopic flow behavior of particle movement as described by kinetic theory is explored. With the solution of force term to be used in lattice Boltzmann equation, the boundary condition of LBM is explored. With the use of bed and wall friction coefficients, the importance of Manning’s coefficient in determining the outcome of flow patterns simulation is explained. For model verification, the model represents a straight channel with a circular cavity attached to it. The result of this simulation includes the water circulation patterns, cross-section of average velocity distribution, and water depth. For validation, the cross-sections of the model in term of velocity vectors are compared against alternative numerical and experimental data.
In this paper, the problem of steady laminar boundary layer flow of an incompressible viscous fluid over a moving thin needle is considered. The governing boundary layer equations were first transformed into non-dimensional forms. These non-dimensional equations were then transformed into similarity equations using the similarity variables, which were solved numerically using an implicit finite-difference scheme known as the Keller-box method. The solutions were obtained for a blunt-nosed needle. Numerical computations were carried out for various values of the dimensionless parameters of the problem which included the Prandtl number Pr and the parameter a representing the needle size. It was found that the heat transfer characteristics were significantly
influenced by these parameters. However, the Prandtl number had no effect on the flow characteristics due to the decoupled boundary layer equations.
This paper presents the use of factorial experiments and response surface methodology to determine the best workstation design configuration of an existing electronic industry. The aim is to find the value of physical dimensions that gives the best performance for the workstation. Four performance measures are selected; the cycle time, the metabolic energy expenditure, worker’s posture during the task and lifting limitations. The methodology used in this study consists of two parts. The first part is based on factorial experiments and handles discrete search over combinations of factor-levels for improving the initial solution. In the second part, the solution that was obtained earlier is further refined by changing the continuous factors by using response surface methodology. The result of this optimization study shows that the optimum value of physical dimensions gives a significant improvement for the performance measures of the workstation.
The takraw ball is a very unique interwoven ball used in the action game of sepak takraw. The traditional takraw ball is manufactured by conventionally weaving split rattan strips into a spherical basket. Modern takraw balls are manufactured by forming strips of plastics materials into interwoven hoop. These interwoven hoops form 12 pentagon holes and 30 intersections. The purpose of this study is to construct a finite-element (FE) model of a takraw ball in particular for normal impact simulation on flat surfaces under low speed conditions. Two FE models were developed to observe the dynamic behavior including impact forces, contact time, coefficient of restitution and deformation of the ball. The first model consists of a single solid hollow ball with 12 pentagon holes and the second model consists of six center strips and 12 side edge strips of
extrusion hoops to form 12 pentagon holes and 270 cross-sections. The models were also compared with results of experimental impact tests whereby the ball was impacted normal to a rigid plate at three different heights. The ball is described in the FE model as a linear elastic material.
It was found that the FE analysis solution of the ball model was found to be reasonably close with the experimental results. However further improvement need to be done by taking into consideration the nonlinearity of the takraw ball under large deformation as well as at high impact velocity.
This study was conducted using crab shells as a biosorbent to remove Cu and Cd with different initial concentrations of 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 mg/L in a biosorption treatment process. Crab shells were selected as biosorbents due to their abundance in the environment and ready availability as waste products from the market place. This study aimed to determine the ability of Scylla Serrata shells to remove Cu and Cd in an aqueous solution, as well as to provide a comparison of the removal rate between the two metals. The data were incorporated into hydrochemical software, PHREEQC, to investigate the chemical speciation distribution of each heavy metal. The shells of S. serrata were found to have a significant (p< 0.05) ability to remove Cu and Cd following the treatment. After six hours of treatment, the crab shells had removed 60 to 80% of both metals. However, the highest removal percentage was achieved for Cu with up to 94.7% removal rate in 5 mg/L initial Cu concentration, while 85.1% of Cd was removed in 1 mg/L initial solution, respectively. It can be concluded that the shells of S. serrata could remove Cu and Cd better with significant results (p
Severe gingival recession caused by dehiscence usually present a challenging task to the clinician as any mucogingival surgery without bony regeneration will not 'prevent the condition from recurring. The procedures of guided tissue regeneration ( GTR ) which allow regeneration of the lost periodontium may offer some solution to the condition. This paper reports on the use of a non-resorbable GTR membrane to treat an isolated lower incisor gingival recession associated with dehiscence.
This paper presents on ionic conductivity of MG30-PEMA blend solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) prepared by solution cast technique. The analysis has shown that conductivity increases with the increasing salt composition. It is observed via x-ray diffraction analysis that the crystallinity of the sample decreased with the amount of salt composition as expected. It is also observed that the dielectric value increases with increasing amount of LiCF3SO3 in the sample. Surface morphology revealed that ion aggregation occurred after optimum conductivity which has lowered the conductivity.
In the moving layer of particles with variable concentration, the shear estimation is not directly predictable and there is no existing clear mathematical or empirical formula to achieve this objective. This paper presents a developed approach to estimate the shear forces in a flow having suspended and moving layers of solid particles in liquid flow. The two-layer approach was taken whereby the flow consisting of one upper suspended layer of particles in the liquid, and the bottom layer was the moving bed of particles. In the present work, the method of finding the force acting on the pipe wall by the particles in the layer, termed as the ‘dry force’, was presented using a “pseudo hydrostatic pressure” method. To attain the equation for the dry force, a mathematical approach is taken with the assumptions that the flow is horizontal, two-phase pipe flow (solid in Newtonian liquid), incompressible and it is at steady-state. The analysis was conducted considering various particles densities, various concentrations in the suspended layer and different thicknesses of the moving bed. Changing the concentration in the suspended layer from 0.00001 up to 0.001 didn’t showed significant changes in the dry force evaluation. The dry friction force is increasing with increasing moving bed thickness. The developed mathematical model can be
applicable in solving for the shear force in horizontal solid liquid two-phase flows.
Thermal characterization of sugar palm fibre (SPF), reinforced high impact polystyrene (HIPS)
composites, was studied by means of thermogravimetric analysis. The effects of alkaline treatment and compatibilizing agent on the thermal stability of the composites were evaluated. Alkaline treatment was carried out by soaking the fibres in 4 and 6% of NaOH solution, while treatment with compatibilizing agent was employed by adding 2 and 3% maleic anhydride-graft-polystyrene (MA-g-PS) to the composites. Both the treatments were aimed to improve the mechanical performance of the composites. From the study, the thermal stability of the treated composites was found to be higher than that of untreated composites. It is shown that the incorporation of sugar palm fibre influences the degree of thermal stability of the composites. The treatments on composites also contributed to shifting the peak temperature of degradation of the composites. In other words, there are strong chemical reactions between the components of the treated composites. The thermal stability of the composites, with alkaline treatment and compatibilizing agent, was found to be better as compared to those of the untreated composites.
This study is carried out to determine the physical properties of green pepper berries and to
improve the existing retting technique in white pepper production using the Viscozyme and
Celluclast as the enzymes. Effects of blanched and non-blanched pepper berries, acidic solution
and non-acidic solution, and different temperature of 28, 35, 42, and 49°C are determined to
obtain the optimum conditions for enzymatic retting. The physical properties of green pepper
berries such as dimension (5.21 mm), weight (0.11 g per berry), true density (1319.33 kg/m3),
bulk density (596.9 kg/m3), sphericity (0.976), angle of repose (6.87°) and flow ability with
funnel flow time of 5.27 seconds were determined. The enzymatic retting in 42oC can fully
soften the pericarp of pepper berries from 15 days to 7 days. The enzymatic decortication has
the efficiency in acidic solution (pH 4) and temperature of 42°C with non-blanched pepper
berries. The enzymatic retting reached constant fracture force (20.98N) at the ninth soaking
days while the non-enzymatic retting reached constant fracture force (21.89N) at the fifteenth
soaking days.
Electrodeposition of white copper-tin alloys (including white miralloys) has been done onto planar mild steel substrates from alkaline cyanide solutions at 65 0 C. The chemical composition of the coating is influenced by plating bath composition and current density. White miralloy can be produced from the test solution containing 10 g/l CuCN2 - , 45 g/l Na2SnO3, 25 g/l NaCN, and 12 g/l NaOH at current density about 5 mA/cm 2 . The local compositions of the coating cross section were analyzed using EDX installed in a FESEM operated at an accelerating voltage of 20 kV. The phases formed during co-deposition process were identified using XRD at 25 mA current and 35 kV voltage.
The adsorption equilibrium time and effects of pH and concentration of ¹⁴C-labeled chlorpyrifos
O,O-diethyl O-(3, 5, 6 trichloro-2-pyridyl)-phosphorothiote in soil were investigated. Two types of Malaysian soil under oil palm were used in this study; namely clay loam and clay soil obtained from the Sungai Sedu and Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) Estates, respectively. Equilibrium studies of chlorpyrifos between the agricultural soil and the pesticide solution were conducted. Adsorption equilibrium time was achieved within 6 and 24 hours for clay loam and clay soil, respectively. It was found that chlorpyrifos adsorbed by the soil samples was characterized by an initial rapid adsorption after which adsorption remained approximately constant. The percentage of ¹⁴C-labeled chlorpyrifos adsorption on soil was found to be higher in clay loam than in clay soils. Results of the study demonstrated that pH affected the adsorption of chlorpyrifos on both clay loam and clay soils. The adsorption of chlorpyrifos on both types of soil was higher at low pH with the adsorption reduced as the pH increased. Results also suggest that chlorpyrifos sorption by soil is concentration dependent.
This study is an attempt to investigate the adsorption of petroleum hydrocarbon (toluene) from aqueous solutions using granular activated carbon (GAC) synthesized from oil palm shell (OPS) (referred as OPSbased GAC). This study involved a series of batch experiments to determine the adsorption equilibrium and kinetics. The batch experiments were conducted by shaking 200 mL toluene solution containing 0.4 g GAC (initial concentrations of 5, 15, 25 and 30 mg/L) at 180 rpm at 30°C. The OPS-based GAC achieved more than 80% toluene removal in all the experiments. The adsorption capacity of the OPSbased GAC estimated using Freundlich isotherm was 6.039 mg/g (L/mg)1/n. The adsorption kinetic study showed that the adsorption of toluene was of chemisorption as the experimental data fitted better to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model than the pseudo-first-order kinetic model.