A systematic study to assess the concentration of radionuclides in primary coolant and associated water samples from the operation of a TRIGA Mark II reactor has been carried out. The samples were transferred into appropriate counting container and were counted by efficiency-calibrated gamma spectrometer systems for several hours to obtain statistically adequate data for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the radioactive materials presence. The primary coolant was found to contain various gamma emitting radionuclides including 24Na, 41Ar, 42K, 51Cr, , 54Mn, 56Mn, 60Co, 99mTc, 122Sb, 124Sb and 187W. Most of the detected radionuclides were inferred to be originated from activation products of (n,) nuclear reactions of elements of reactor components such as stainless steel and aluminium alloy used in the reactor system. The study confirms the integrity of the reactor system with no apparent release of any fission products radionuclide into the coolant water system.
The study on the possibility of using DMU Kinematics module in CAE tools for dose exposure work planning was carried out. A case scenario was created using 3D CAD software and transferred to DMU Kinematics module in a CAE software. The work plan created using DMU Kinematics module was animated to simulate a real time scenario. Data on the phantom position against the radioactive source was collected by activating positioning sensors in the module. The data collected was used to calculate the estimated dose rate exposure for the phantom. The results can be used to plan the safest and optimum procedures in carrying out the radiation related task.
The total mass attenuation coefficients (μ/ρ) of stainless steel (SS316L) and carbon steel (A516) that are widely used as petrochemical plant components, such as distillation column, heat exchanger, boiler and storage tank were measured at 662, 1073 and 1332 keV of photon energies. Measurements of radiation intensity for various thicknesses of steel were made by using transmission method. The γ-ray intensity were counted by using a Gamma spectrometer that contains a Hyper-pure Germanium (HPGe) detector connected with Multi Channel Analyzer (MCA). The effective numbers of atomic (Zeff) and electron (Neff) obtained experimentally were compared by those obtained through theoretical calculation. Both experimental and calculated values of Zeff and Neff were in good agreement.
Semiconductor thin films Copper Tin Selenide, Cu2SnSe3, a potential compound for solar cell applications or semiconductor radiation detector were prepared by thermal evaporation method onto well-cleaned glass substrates. The as-deposited films were annealed in flowing purified nitrogen N2, for 2 hours in a temperature range from 100˚C to 500˚C. The structure of as-deposited and annealed films has been studied by X-ray diffraction technique. The semi-quantitative analysis indicated from Reitveld refinement show that the samples composed of Cu2SnSe3 and SnSe. These studies revealed that the films were structured in mixed phase between cubic space group F-43m (no. 216) and orthorhombic space group P n m a (no. 62). The crystallite size and lattice strain were determined from Scherrer calculation method. The results show that increasing in annealing temperature resulted in direct increase in crystallite size and decrease in lattice strain.
This review briefly describes some of the techniques available for analysing surfaces and illustrates their usefulness with a few examples such as a metal and alloy. In particular, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and laser Raman spectroscopy are all described as advanced surface analytical techniques. In analysing a surface, AES and XPS would normally be considered first, with AES being applied where high spatial resolution is required and XPS where chemical state information is needed. Laser Raman spectroscopy is useful for determining molecular bonding. A combination of XPS, AES and Laser Raman spectroscopy can give quantitative analysis from the top few atomic layers with a lateral spatial resolution of
On March 11, 2011, a serious accident occurred in Daiichi nuclear reactor plant, Fukushima,
Japan which caused radioactive materials been released into the atmosphere in the form of
aerosols and dust particles. Sea water around the plant was also found contaminated with high
radioactivity readings. These radioactive materials could be transported by the winds and ocean
current across international borders and cannot be controlled by human. Thus, a continuous
monitoring activity of radionuclide content in the air and sea water needs to be conducted by the
authorities. In addition to radioactivity monitoring, Malaysia should also control the entry of
contaminated food in order to prevent radionuclide ingestion by human. The radionuclide 131I,
134Cs and 137Cs were used as a measure of pollution levels and counted with gamma spectrometry
using standard analysis method suggested by AOAC International. In this paper, details description
of the role of Radiochemical and Environment Group, Nuclear Malaysia who’s responsible in
analyzing the radioactivity in the food samples due to Fukushima Daiichi, Japan accident was
included. The radioactivity limit adopted and analysis results from this monitoring were discussed
The assessment of surface dose is essential in radiotherapy to avoid deterministic effect or to
reduce the severity of side effects from radiation treatment. In this study, the surface dose for breast
cancer radiotherapy was measured using two types of dosimeter; Thermoluminescent Dosimeter
(TLD) and Optically Stimulated Luminescent Dosimeter (OSLD). The study was performed on the
left breast of female Alderson Radiation Therapy (ART) phantom. The treatment planning was
carried out on the ART phantom to determine the homogeneity of dose distribution within the target
organ is complied with the tolerance limits of 95% to 107% as recommended by the International
Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU)’s Report No. 50. From the treatment
planning result, the phantom then was irradiated with 267 cGy dose per fraction for two beam
fields; medial tangential and lateral tangential fields using a 6 MV photon beam produced from
three-dimensional (3D) conformal radiotherapy. Result shows that the OSLD provides 25.7% and
23.5% higher surface dose compared to TLD for medial tangential and lateral tangential fields,
respectively. This condition may be due to higher effective point of measurement and angular
dependence of the OSLD compared to TLD. As a conclusion, suitable dosimeter should be selected
to ensure accurate estimation of surface dose could be made thus reduction of skin reaction to
patient could be achieved.
This paper studies about water obtained from fish pond of fisheries research centre. Usual water
quality parameters such as pH, COD, Turbidity and Ammonia content were analyzed before and
after irradiation. Electron beam irradiation was used to irradiate the water with the dose 100 kGy,
200 kGy and 300 kGy. Only high dose was applied on this water as only a limited amount of
samples was supplied. All the parameters indicated a slight increase after irradiation except for the
ammonia content, which showed a gradual decrease as irradiation dose increases. Sample
condition was changed before irradiation in order to obtain more effective results in the following
batch. The water sample from fisheries was diluted with distilled water to the ratio of 1:1.This was
followed with irradiation at 100 kGy, 200 kGy and 300 kGy. The results still showed an increase in
all parameters after irradiation except for ammonia content. For the following irradiation batch,
the pH of the sample was adjusted to pH 4 and pH 8 before irradiation. For this sample the
irradiation dose selected was only 100 kGy. A higher value of ammonia was observed for the
sample with pH 4 after irradiation. Other parameters were almost the same as the first two batches
The ultimate check of the actual dose delivered to a patient in radiotherapy can be achieved by using dosimetric measurements. The aims of this study were to develop and evaluate a custom handmade head and neck phantom for evaluation of Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy (3D-CRT) dose planning and delivery. A phantom of head and neck region of a medium built male patient with nasopharyngeal cancer was constructed from Perspex material. Primary and secondary Planning Target Volume (PTV) and twelve Organs at Risk (OAR) were delineated using Treatment Planning System (TPS) guided by computed tomography printout transverse images. One hundred and seven (107) holes distributed among the organs were loaded with Rod-shaped Thermoluminescent dosimeters (LiF:Mg,Ti TLDs) after common and individual calibration. Head and neck phantom was imaged, planned and irradiated conformally (3D-CRT) by linear accelerator (LINAC Siemens Artiste). The planned predicted doses by TPS at PTV and OAR regions were obtained and compared with the TLD measured doses using the phantom. Repeated TLD measurements were reproducible with a percent standard deviation of < 3.5%. Moreover, the average of dose discrepancies between TLDs reading and TPS predicted doses were found to be < 5.3%. The phantom’s preliminary results have proved to be a valuable tool for 3D-CRT treatment dose verification.
Colour is one of the most important traits in orchids and has created great interest in breeding programmes. Gamma irradiation is an alternative way for generation of somaclonal variation for new flower colours. Phenotypic changes are usually observed during screening and selection of mutants. Understanding of targeted gene expression level and evaluation of the changes facilitate in the development of functional markers for selection of desired flower colour mutants. Four Dendrobium orchid sequences (NCBI accessions: AM490639, AY41319, FM209429 and DQ462460) were selected to design gene specific primers based on information for chalcone synthase (CHS) from NCBI database. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to understand flower colour expression quantitatively derived from the CHS gene activities in different flower tissues (petal and sepal) from control Dendrobium Sonia (red purple), mutant DS 35-1/M (purple pink) and mutant DS 35-WhiteA. It was found that expression of CHS gene was highest in sepals of white flowers and lowest in both sepals and petals of purple pink flowers. Genomic DNA was amplified and PCR products were sequenced, aligned and compared. Sequence variations of CHS partial gene in Dendrobium Sonia mutants with different flower colour showed that two protein positions have been changed as compared to the control. These non-synonymous mutations may have contributed to the colour alterations in the white and purple pink mutants. This paper describes important procedures to quantify gene expression such as RNA isolation (quantity and quality), cDNA synthesis and primer design steps for CHS genes.
Assessment of source and sediment quality was carried out on marine sediments collected from the Tuanku Abdul Rahman National Park. Enrichment factors (EF), pollution load index (PLI) and geo-accumulation index (Igeo) were used to identify the sources of pollution, degree of contamination and sediment quality, respectively. Elemental analyses of marine sediment samples were performed by using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Results from the Tunku Abdul Rahman National Park of Sabah indicated that most of the elements are considered to be from lithological or natural origin with EF values of less than 2 except for As (10 stations), Cr (3 stations), Lu (5 stations), Mg (2 stations), Sb (6 stations) and U (3 stations). For the sediment quality, most of the study area can be categorised as unpolluted for most of the elements (Igeo value < 2) except for As, Cr, Lu, Mg, Sb and U. A few study areas were slightly low contaminated with As, Cr, Lu, Mg, Sb and U. The contamination of As, Cr, Lu, Mg, Sb and U in the study area can be categorised as moderate with Igeo values ranged from 1 to 2. Meanwhile, the results of PLI value for sediment were ranged from 0.93 to 1.47 (PLI < 50) indicating there are not required to perform drastic rectification measures for the screening of the elements in the Tunku Abdul Rahman Park. Overall, assessment of the sediment quality at the Tunku Abdul Rahman National Park showed a few elements such as As, Cr, Lu, Mg, Sb and U were slightly enriched while most of the elements were similar to background values.
IAEA Soil-6 is a reference material with a certified value for 226Ra fall between 69.6 – 93.4 Bq/kg at 95% confidence level. This material has been used as a sample and performed repeat measurement weekly between years 2006 – 2009 using a same gamma spectrometry system. The activity concentration of this material is calculated automatically using the operational commercial software and compared with activity obtained from the manual calculation. Study found that only 76.9%, 64.1%, 56.3%, and 79.3% of the results from the software calculation lie within the confidence level for year 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009, respectively. However, u-score calculation revealed that 94.9 %, 89.7%, 79.2% and 84.9% data set have no significant bias (u < 2.58) for year 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009, respectively. On the other hand, all manual calculation data were found to be within the 95 % confidence level. Factors suspected to cause differences between these two approaches were discussed here. Manually peak search, marking and calculation still remains as the preferred option for calculating the gamma radionuclides activity unless limitations of the spectrum analysis software, as described in this paper can be resolved/improved upon.
Mechanical properties of blended polyethylene (PE) containing the antioxidant Irganox 1010 and the UV-absorber Tinuvin 326 were studied for future use as radiation capsule material for the TRIGA Mark II research reactor. High density and low density polyethylene were blended with the additives and tested for elongation at break, impact strength and gel content, before and after irradiation inside the nuclear reactor. Characterization via FTIR as well as determination of crystallization and melt transition temperatures through DSC were also conducted. It was found that the addition of the antioxidant at different amounts (from 0 to 4 phr) had various effects on the properties of the blended PE, with 0 phr being the amount at which there was the biggest increase in elongation at break and impact strength, post-irradiation.
Al/B4C composites with 0 wt.%, 5 wt.% and 10 wt.% of B4C were prepared by powder metallurgy and their properties were characterised successfully. Investigation of the effect of milling times (4, 8, 12, 16 hours) on microstructure, phase identification, hardness and neutron attenuation coefficient of composites has been studied. The results showed that hardness increased with increased of milling time, with maximum hardness obtained at 16 hours milling time. The increment is slower as the composition of B4C increased. The hardness of Al/10%B4C, Al/5%B4C and Al/0%B4C were 81.7, 78.7 and 61.2 HRB respectively. Morphology of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that microstructures play important role in controlling the hardness. Meanwhile, x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed the phases and crystalline present in composites with an indication that crystalline of the grain increased as the milling time increased. Neutron absorption of Al/10%B4C composites showed that this composite has the highest attenuation coefficient, thus indicating that it is the best composites for neutron shielding.
Data transmission in field works especially that is related to industry, gas and chemical is paramount importance to ensure data accuracy and delivery time. A development of wireless detector system for remote data acquisition to be applied in conducting fieldwork in industry is described in this paper. A wireless communication which is applied in the project development is a viable and cost-effective method of transmitting data from the detector to the laptop on the site to facilitate data storage and analysis automatically, which can be used in various applications such as column scanning. The project involves hardware design for the detector and electronics parts besides programming for control board and user interface. A prototype of a wireless gamma scintillation detector is developed with capabilities of transmitting data to computer via radio frequency (RF) and recording the data within the 433MHz band at baud rate of 19200.
Nuclear grade (high-purity) graphite for fuel element and moderator material in Advanced Gas
Cooling Reactors (AGR) displays large scatter in strength and a non-linear stress-strain response from the damage accumulation. These responses can be characterized as quasi-brittle behaviour. Current assessments of fracture in core graphite components are based on the linear elastic approximation and thus represent a major assumption. The quasi-brittle behaviour gives challenge to assess the real nuclear graphite component. The selected test method would help to bridge the gap between microscale to macro-scale in real reactor component. The small scale tests presented here can contribute some statistical data to manifests the failure in real component. The evaluation and choice of different solution design of biaxial test will be discussed in this paper. The ball on-three ball test method was used for assessment test follows by numerous of analytical method. The results shown that biaxial strength of the EY9 grade graphite depends on the method used for evaluation. Some of the analytical methods use to calculate biaxial strength were found not to be valid and therefore should not be used to assess the mechanical properties of nuclear graphite.
A study to assess the concentration of radionuclides in spent resins of the PUSPATI TRIGA Mark II reactor coolant purification system has been carried out. Fresh spent resins collected and analysed in May 2010, after the changing of leaked heat exchanger in Sept. 2009 was found to contain 24Na, 122Sb, 51Cr, 124Sb, 58Co, 65Zn, 54Mn and 60Co. Old spent resins removed in 2001 and 2002 but analysed in 2010 indicated the presence of 60Co and 152Eu as radionuclides with half-lives of < 1 year might have already been decayed out. These results can be used to establish radionuclide inventory of the spent resins as part of radiation protection programme.
A glasshouse experiment was performed to evaluate the uptake of grasses viz. Napier and Vetiver
in radiophytoremediation of caesium-contaminated soil. The radiophytoremediation experiment
was designed according to the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The grasses were
grown in troughs filled with soil mixed with a known specific activity of 134Cs. Initial Cs activity and
activity after different cultivation time intervals of 1, 3, 6 and 9 months were analyzed using gamma
spectrometer direct measurement. The results showed the uptake of caesium by Napier and Vetiver
after 9 months with the transfer factors (TF) were 4.70 and 6.25, respectively. The remediation of
caesium from the contaminated soil during the study period was 98.08% for Napier and 98.21% for
Vetiver. Both grasses have been found to accumulate caesium, with Vetiver accumulating higher
than Napier. Thus, the present study suggests that Vetiver could be used as a potential plant for
radiophytoremediation of caesium.
The exposure of food to ionizing radiation is being progressively used in many countries to
inactivate food pathogens, to eradicate pests and to extend shelf-life of food. To ensure free
consumer choice, irradiated food will be labeled. The availability of a reliable method to detect
irradiated food is important to enforce legal controls on labeling requirements, ensure proper
distribution and increase consumer confidence. This paper reports on the preliminary application
of photostimulated luminescence technique (PSL) as a potential method to detect irradiated food
and perhaps be used for monitoring irradiated food on sale locally in the near future. Thus this
study will be beneficial and relevant for application of food irradiation towards improving food
safety and security in Malaysia.
Anthropogenic airborne depositions of 210Po,
210Pb and 210Po/210Pb in the mosses and surface soils
collected at the vicinity of a coal-fired power plant were studied. The purpose of the study was to
determine activity concentrations of 210Po,
210Pb and 210Po/210Pb for assessing their variation
accumulation in the mosses and surface soils collected at the vicinity of a coal-fired power plant.
Other purposes were to determine their concentration factor (CF) in relation to track the potential
source of those radionuclides and to identify most suitable moss species as a biological indicator
for atmospheric deposition contaminants. In this study, different species of moss Leucobryum
aduncum, Campylopus serratus, Syrrhopodon ciliates and Vesicularia montagnei were collected in
May 2011 at the area around 15 km radius from Tanjung Bin coal-fired power plant located in
Pontian, Johor. The activity concentrations of 210Po,
210Pb and 210Po/210Pb in mosses were in the
range of 76.81 ± 4.94 – 251.33 ± 16.33 Bq/kg dry wt., 54.37 ± 3.38 – 164.63 ± 11.64 Bq/kg dry wt.
and 1.10 – 2.00, respectively. Meanwhile the ranges for those radionuclides in the surface soil
were 33.53 ± 2.10 – 179.67 ± 12.15 Bq/kg dry wt., 20.55 ± 1.33 – 106.62 ± 6.64 Bq/kg dry wt. and
1.61 – 2.44, respectively. Corresponding high ability of Leucobryum aduncum to accumulate more
210Po and 210Pb, wide geographical distribution, most abundant and high CF, therefore, the
findings can be concluded this species was the most suitable as a biological indicator for
atmospheric deposition contaminants such as 210Po and 210Pb. Furthermore, it is clear the
accumulation of 210Po and 210Pb in mosses might be supplied from various sources of atmospheric
deposition such as coal-fired power plant operation, industrial, agriculture and fertilizer activities,
burned fuel fossil and forest; and other potential sources. Meanwhile, the